Disaster Management in Asia: Models, Policies and Programmes for Social Recovery
Ngoh Tiong TAN, Lirong WANG, Yukio Yamaguchi, Yunong Huang 1 SIM University, Singapore; 2 National Taiwan University, Taiwan; 3 Japan College of Social Work, Japan; 4 Southwestern University of Finance & Economics, China Disaster Management in Asia: Models, Policies and Programs for Social Recovery
Disasters, whether natural or man-made, can strike anytime, anywhere. Disasters are not new to Asia. Floods, earthquakes and typhoons - evoked strong community responses - extra-ordinary mutual help and generous freewill donations.
East Asian countries recently awoken to the need for strategic planning, policy and programme development for disaster management and social recovery.
<ul><li>Models and Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Government has three basic strategies for disaster management and recovery and create policy action and effective programmes: </li></ul><ul><li>assist individuals and organizations to improve their capacity to achieve disaster management and recovery </li></ul><ul><li>allocate resources, tasks, and time to establish continuity in organizational structures and procedures for disaster management and recovery operations </li></ul><ul><li>establish link individuals and organizations, both local, state wide, federal as well as international engaged in emergency activities. </li></ul>
Response to Disaster <ul><li>Response is necessarily inter-organizational and interdisciplinary in nature and scope. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires skillful manoeuvrings of the complex network of levels of government city, state, federal and private sectors as well as other international collaborators. </li></ul>
Research Methods <ul><li>Research process involve primary and secondary data collection and meta-research of reports and documents existing in the various countries and is being carried out. </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews with key government, NGO and community leaders and meetings with collaborators to finalize reports are expected for this research projects. </li></ul>
The Research Framework <ul><li>Cross-national framework used in analysis : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Different types of disasters encountered. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Different legislations and policies for disaster management. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Various agencies involved and lead agency in coordination – federal organizations, regional and local structures for emergency response. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Role of NGOs and other community organizations as well as INGOs </li></ul><ul><li>5. Training needs, limitations and problems </li></ul><ul><li>6. Evaluation of effectiveness of the response structure and operations </li></ul><ul><li>7. Need for integration and effective response structure </li></ul>
Dimensions China Taiwan Japan Different types of disasters encountered. China has suffered types of natural disasters including meteorological, geological, and biological disasters as well as forest and grassland fires. More than 70 percent of Chinese cities and more than 50 percent of population are located in areas vulnerable to serious earthquakes, or meteorological, geological or marine disasters. Natural disasters affected about 300 million people, destroyed three million buildings. Taiwan is located between the Eurasian Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate - area is responsible for 16,000 to 18,000 detectable earthquakes in Taiwan each year. Taiwan experienced its deadliest earthquake in five decades on Sept. 21, 1999, when a 7.3 magnitude killing some 2,400 people , leaving 10,000 injured Mountain regions are sedimentary and metamorphic rocks: 350 typhoons and one thousand storms in past 101 years. Main disasters in Japan: (1) earthquake (2) typhoon (2) heavy rain (3) snow storm (4) typhoon (5) volcano eruption l arge scale disaster (Cabinet Office, 2000-2010): 2010 tsunami (1) 2009 earthquake (2), typhoon (2), hard rainfall (1) 2008 hard rainfall (1), heavy rainfall (1), earthquake (1), snow storm (1) 2007 earthquake (3), typhoon (3), heavy rainfall (2) 2006 tornado (1), typhoon (1), heavy rainfall (1), hard rainfall (1)
Dimen-sions China Taiwan Japan Legislations and policies for disaster management. Laws and regulations enacted to provide legal basis for this emergency management system and ensure its operations. Laws (by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of PRC ) on Protection Against and Mitigation of Earthquake Disasters (adopted in 1997). * Flood Control Law of PRC (adopted in 1997) * Meteorology Law of PRC (adopted in 1999) * Law on the Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases (2004) Special Act on the role of the government in disaster eg. “ 921 Earthquake Rescue Special Act”. Recovery and reconstruction Morakot Typhoon Post-Disaster Reconstruction .” Special Act approved by Congress on August 28, 2009. Act was an amendment to the " Disaster Prevention and Protection Law". Budget for the reconstruction plan Nov. 20, 2009 . Legislations and policies for disaster management : Basic legislation: Matching natural and human disasters which occur, to protect national land, the lives, health and property of citizens from disasters, with basic legislation establishing the fundamentals of response to disasters such as prevention. Measures are regulated by law according to disaster types. Disaster prevention: law common to all main disasters. Emergency response: law associated with emergency measures in case of disaster occurrence. Disaster Relief Act in the center.
Dimen-sions China Taiwan Japan Different legislations and policies for disaster management . Regulations (by the State Council) Flood Control Regulations of PRC (adopted in 1991 and amended in 2005) Regulations on the Prevention and Control of Geological Disasters (adopted in 2003) Regulations on Handling Major Animal Epidemic Emergencies (adopted in 2005) The State Emergency Relief Plan for Natural Disasters (issued in 2006) The State Emergency Plan for Earthquakes (issued in 2006) National 11th Five-year Plan on Comprehensive Disaster Reduction (issued in 2007). Typhoon Morakot disaster, policy has 4 main domains conducted by main sub-ministries: (1) Regional/community reconstruction plan, mainly conducted and implemented by the Council for Economic Planning and Development, Executive Yuan. (2) Facility reconstruction plan mainly by the Ministry of Transportation and Communication, Executive Yuan. (3) Industrial reconstruction plan mainly by the Council for Economic Planning and Development. (4) Homeland reconstruction plan mainly conducted and implemented by the Ministry of Interior and the Council for Cultural Affairs Committee. Organization: law associated with the organizations engaging in emergency response . Disaster associated legislation are. 1 ． Basic Act on Disaster Control Measures 2 ． Act on Special Measures Concerning Countermeasures for Large-Scale Earthquakes 3 ． Act on Special Measures Concerning Nuclear Emergency Preparedness 4 ． Act on the Prevention of Disaster in Petroleum Industrial Complexes and Other Petroleum Facilities 6 ． Building Standards Act Laws regarding disaster prevention, Emergency response Disaster recovery, 10 other acts (total 24).
Dimen-sions China Taiwan Japan Various Agencies involved and lead agency in coordination Central leadership, department responsibility, and disaster admin at different levels with major responsibility resting with local authorities. State Council provides leadership for disaster reduction and relief work. -departments responsible for disaster reduction and relief work eg National Disaster Reduction Committee, State Earthquake Control and Rescue Headquarters, and National Disaster Control and Relief Coordination Office. Local governments corresponding coordination offices to handle disaster reduction and relief work. People's Liberation Army, the armed police, policemen as task forces in NGOs, and volunteers Central government and local government collaborate together to deal with the difficulty and sufferings of the people. The Central government takes the lead to initiate all special need and promulgate special law and plans because it is high crisis of the society. Reconstruction core agency under the governmental disaster management plan, there is labor division in the reconstruction work. The “division of labor “of the reconstruction plan vis a vis the central government: 1. Drafting the home reconstruction plan: 2. Planning policy and implemental strategy 3. Preparing Budget 4. Coordinating the central department. Various agencies involved and Lead agency in coordination - federal organizations, regional and local structures for emergency response Government of Japan (prevention, recovery) Cabinet Office Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Fire Defence Agency Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology each regional government International Cooperation Agency (international cooperation in disaster prevention and recovery) Organizations involved with Disaster Management
Dimen-sions China Taiwan Japan Role of NGOs and other community organizations Services that the NGOs provided in disaster recovery, 20 activities were listed in the questionnaire. More than half of the NGOs in the study were involved in services to children, services to the youth. The role of NGO and INGO is supportive. Functions of NGOs are building the prefabricated houses, allocating and settling into the houses , and operating and managing of the community empowerment facility. 500 of prefabricated houses were built by the Taiwan Red Cross Society , more 600 transitional housing built by Zu Chi Charity Foundation, World Vision. The public facility and playground or hall area in the village of prefabricated houses were designed and built by NGOs. Role of international NGOs and community organizations are: UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Hyogo Office UN Centre for Regional Development Management Planning Hyogo Office UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Kobe International Recovery Platform International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Asian Disaster Reduction Center
Dimen-sions China Taiwan Japan Role of NGOs and other community organizations More than one third of NGOs organized donation activities, provided services to the elderly, and investigated disaster information, provided training services, and provided service to women. Challenges that NGOs encountered, most frequently was “shortages of funds” “shortages of human resources” “lack of integration of resources among NGOs” “lack of office space” and “shortages of professional knowledge” (28.9%). Coordinating the donation to the NGOs. NGOs provide training to empower the various workers capability in helping the old people. NGOs developed a platform for connecting with each other and sharing information and resource. 82 NGO group has developed programs and collaborated with the government. Contribution of the NGOs -very active and influential , very collaborative whenever there is disaster in Taiwan. Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research Association of Medical Doctors of Asia The Nordic Volcanological Institute Japan Rescue Organization Hyogo Earthquake Memorial 21st Century Research Institute CBOs: Tochigi Volunteer Network Nippon volunteer Network Active in Disaster and others. Research agencies National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention; Meteorological Research Institute, Meteorological Agency Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo Disaster Prevention Research Institute, University of Kyoto.
Dimen-sions China Taiwan Japan Training needs, Limitations and problems Lack of training in disaster recovery in China. In the field of social work whose professionals frequently involved in post-disaster recovery , few studies and experiences about social work in disasters in mainland China are accumulated. Few colleges or universities provide training for social workers to work with the victims of earthquake (eported by Bian et al., 2009). NGOs also provide training to empower the workers enhancing their capability in helping the old people . The government needs to attach great importance to disaster simulation drills, and cities and prefectures form alliances to conduct such drills regularly. Residents should be taught that when disaster strikes, they should first seek self-relief or take shelter to mitigate casualties and then wait for government rescue and relief. The following trainings are being held at NGOs or research agencies and regional governments . Problems concerning people with needs resulting from the weakening of communities. * International training * Regional training At the prefectural level: local mayors, government officials, community leaders in disaster prevention * Professional training
Dimen-sions China Taiwan Japan Evaluation of effectiveness of the response structure and operations Although China’s emergency management system seems comprehensive, its effectiveness of the response need to be strengthened. More than 30 hours after the 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake , only a small group of army eventually reached Wenchuan county and reported the disaster information in the county. Professional rescue teams were not able to reach the severely earthquake-affected areas to conduct their work immediately after the earthquake. It has been also suggested that ministries, commissions and bureaus should send officials to work regularly at the. Central Disaster Prevention and Response Council to enhance inter-agency coordination. Central government, special commission should be set up to conduct investigations and evaluation after each major disaster. Establishes a mechanism to pass on management and experience in disaster response. Helps the future collaboration between NGOs and the government as well. Evaluation of effectiveness of the response structure and operations: Program Evaluation Scheme for Japanese Long-term Recovery Plan. Evaluation of recovery plans carried out by local municipalities and NGOs.
Dimen-sions China Taiwan Japan Need for integration and effective response structure Frequently argued that effective disaster response and recovery should be based on partnership, cooperation, and coordination between government agencies at all levels and between public and non-profit sector agencies (Kapucu, 2006; Tan, 2009; Perrow, 2007; Drabek, 2007 & 2006; Dynes, 1994). China’s emergency management model should be changed from the model of central government domination to the models that emphasize local governments and NGOs’ participation. Many disasters have occurred in aboriginal area since 921 (1999) earthquake in Taiwan. Disaster areas are mostly located in mountain area where the ordinal place of aboriginal people. Previous observation, disaster recovery and reconstruction assistance programs remain lack of cultural sensitivity, continuity and compatibility which is certainly a key issue resulting in increasing disaster vulnerability after post disaster reconstruction at the stage of recovery. Need for integration and effective response structure International Recovery Platform: International support network was under formation concerning emergency response in disasters areas, no standardized support by multiple international agencies in recovery stages and the cause for overlapping of restorative activities or unsatisfying risk reduction in the recovery process. Hyogo Framework for Action was outlined at the UN World Conference on Disaster Prevention in January, 2005.
China: <ul><li>NGOs can play various roles in post-disaster recovery. </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute to supporting the vulnerable groups such as children; helping prepare organizations for response to the victims; providing therapeutic interventions; improving the community; and addressing unmet needs of the victims of earthquake. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Four major themes. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasized the coordination and cooperation among government, NGOs, and local people. </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on community work. </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of coordination among different professionals. </li></ul><ul><li>Government contracting for purchase of social services. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Regarding local people’s perceptions of NGOs’ involvement in recovery, the analysis that local people generally regarded NGO staff members had good attitudes and NGOs’ services were helpful to local people. </li></ul><ul><li>Few problems about NGOs’ services were identified in the group meetings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of training among some NGO staff members. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high mobility of the some NGO staff members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low service coverage of NGOs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(NGOs could only provide limited services, while many people needed their services.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some NGOs lacked sound communication with governments and did not understand complex local situations. </li></ul></ul>
Taiwan <ul><li>4 main reconstruction plan, in disaster-hit county/city government draft city/county reconstruction plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>plans should be implement by the city/county reconstruction committee. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>city/county reconstruction plan should follow the central government’s four main plain and policy guide. </li></ul></ul><ul><li> At the rescue stage, temporary accommodation or transitional shelter is crucial for the security of the victim. </li></ul><ul><li>Uniqueness in Taiwan is that although the central government supervises the local government to achieve the goal of arranging accommodation for victims until the disaster is alleviated or vanished. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Mostly the local government imitate the accommodation programs with NGOs because of several reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Full of administrative and financial flexibility. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Possible more active and interactive into the need of the disaster vulnerable groups locally. </li></ul><ul><li>3) More efficient and more reflective in the helping process. </li></ul><ul><li>4) More politically feasible because Taiwan is a place with to much democracy and it is not easy to get consensus due to party status of any current government. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Council for Economic Planning and Development and the Council of Indigenous Peoples handle the whole process of access about the safety of the original settlement of the indigenous peoples. </li></ul><ul><li>Each assessment of settlement invites participation of local inhabitant. </li></ul><ul><li>New permanent housing is full of ‘images of development’ are seldom comprehended. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The weakness includes four main reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Ignorance of the local people on what ‘modernity’ and “appropriateness” imply in reality. </li></ul><ul><li>2. While the images are created, culturally deep-rooted thinking processes may remain unchanged, thereby creating a mutually contradictory dichotomy. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Lack of education, because of which local people may not be conscious and confident to be aware of their assets (resources), rights and duties. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Inability of the local people to afford and sustain whatever is perceived as ‘modern’. </li></ul>
Japan <ul><li>National vulnerability and risk assessment involves the participation of public and private sector, scientific organizations, research institutes and universities. </li></ul><ul><li>Different government bodies including Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, the Japan Meteorological </li></ul><ul><li>Agency, the universities, and other private organizations (Kobe,2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge is coordination and co-operation in disaster risk reduction, to create a “ disaster-resistant society ” , requiring actions at both the governmental and regional, local and community levels (Government of Japan, 2005). </li></ul>
Japan Japanese activities in disaster-management vary in different communities but largely community networks and actions are strong indicating strong social capital. Large-scale disaster, the “ activities of local residents will play a large role in mitigating damage, so it is vital that appropriate activities are carried out with enthusiasm in more local communities ” (GOJ,2005:41).
Asian Perspective <ul><li>Reinforce family and community orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop strengths of social network. </li></ul><ul><li>Actively utilize social capital – bonding and bridging capital. </li></ul>
Asian culture – similarity in network <ul><li>Not just individual, community cope with disasters. </li></ul><ul><li>China’s history meant government’s involvement sets framework for disaster management and recovery. </li></ul><ul><li>Those with resources share in social responsibility towards vulnerable. Mutual help between neighbors. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan’s reconstruction uses both bonding and bridging capital. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Asian Perspective as Integration of Strengths’ and Community Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>community’s strength is the key concept of membership and inclusion (Sense of family and community). </li></ul><ul><li>make connections with people and resources and empowerment of the community and collaboration with others - a sense of wholeness. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Community assets include physical, individual, organizational, and societal assets. Use resources at various levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical assets include land, building, communication, transportation structures, and business complexes. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual assets are local residents, their, experiences, capabilities, and willingness to contribute (Kretzmann & McKnight, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Community assets are the different organizations such as voluntary association, social cultural groups and faith-based organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Societal institutions are public institutions, schools, courts, hospitals as well as political structures of the country (Kretzmann & McKnight, 2005). </li></ul>
Conclusions <ul><li> Efficiency of disaster management models is in the ability to harness the relevant resources, knowledge, and personnel to take appropriate and timely action especially under crisis and within drastic conditions and time pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Three models in Taiwan, Japan and China have strengths and weaknesses. </li></ul><ul><li> Taiwan’s and Japan’s civil society are relatively well developed. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The empowerment of NGOs though coalition have been very successful in facing the disaster management. </li></ul><ul><li>Big coalition at national level, many community-wide self-help groups play an influential role in the helping the community reconstruction with the consensus-building at local and resources-allocation at disaster community. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be the facilitator of the community reconstruction and community empowerment. </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs actively at national or local level can make much difference in the stage of the community recovery. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Disaster prevention and reconstruction are coordinated by the government – emphasis on collaboration and joint cooperation between local residents, local NGOs, and the administration to mitigate the impact of disasters. </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan, China and Japan has shifted its focus to social aspects of recovery and management from its concentration on hardware development in the past. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Thank You! </li></ul><ul><li>The End </li></ul>