Dark ages - mainly because written sources for the early years of Saxon invasion are scarce Roman britania had several invaders from the continual of the battles.
Britons – this is where we get the term Britain. They settled on the largest island and they called it Bretain.
From about 700 B.C., the Celts dominated most of western central Europe. They introduced the use of iron to the rest of Europe. Just like in the power point, the celts believed in spirits that’s because they also had a highly developed religion, mythology, and legal system specified individual rights.
Military – legions
Language- This is why English language is strongly based in Latin
Angles, Saxons and jutes are deep sea fishermen and farmers.
Angles and Saxons are from Germany. Jutes from Denmark
The kingdoms united themselves to resist invasions from Vikings or Norsemen (whom they called Danes).
Kent- settled by the Jutes Essex- east Saxons. Famous battle of Maldon against the Vikings. Sussex – south East Anglia – made up of angles. Mercia – best-known ruler, Offa. Wessex – west. Kingdom of king Alfred English king. By 850 the seven kingdoms had been consolidated into three large anglo-saxon kingdoms: Northumbria, Mercia, and Wessex.
vikings – invaders from Norway and Denmark Vikings destroyed monasteries and sacred objects. They slaughtered everyone in settlements that couldn’t pay enough to them. King Alfred of Wessex forced Vikings to northern England
Viking ship- known as the Oseberg Ship
Danelaw – dividing line between Viking Britain and Anglo-saxon Bretain
Last invaders The French language represents power to the high officials. England started to use French in their political system and this is still with them today.
This is a reconstructed on 1972.
West stow: reconstructed village
Found in East Anglia
He defeated the Vikings, recaptured London from the Vikings, strengthened his kingdom’s difences by creating a series of fortresses. Had book translated into English and promoted Learning. He also commissioned the writing of the Anglo-saxon Chronicle, a historical record of the Anglo-Saxons in Bretain. He was great because he did keep some peace and wee see greed as a basic human instinct at this pont
October 13 is the feast day of Edward the Confessor. He reigned from 1042-1066.
Poem was based on early Celtic folk legends. Told about the struggles of heroic warriors With coming of Christian Church, written literature began to evolve
Herioic tradition – recounts the achievements of warriors Elegiac tradition – laments the deaths of loved ones and the loss of the past
Beowulf – one of few pieces that survived. The most famous example of heroic poetry This is about the great hero. Priests and monks would write stories about survival depended upon them.
This may caused for the mixture of Christian and pagan elements in Beowulf.
Anglo saxon period
BY: TUMANA, WJ
Anglo-Saxons brief History
This period is traditionally known as the Dark Ages.
It is a time of war, of the breaking up of Roman Britannia into
several separate kingdoms, of religious conversion.
“Anglo-Saxon England was born of
warfare, remained forever a military
society, and came to its end in
battle.” - J. R. Lander
The island we know as England -
occupied by a race of people called
the Celts. Between 800 and 600
B.C., two groups of Celts from
southern Europe invaded the British
One of the tribes was called
Brythons or Britons. They actually
settled on the largerst island,
Gaels, settled on the second largest
island known to us as Ireland.
Celts were pagans - believed
in “animism,” from the Latin
farmers and hunters
organized themselves into
clans had fearsome loyalty to
Druids were their priests
Role: Go between the gods and
Results from Roman Occupation
Military - Strong armed forces
Pushed the Celts into Wales and Ireland
Prevented the Vikings from raiding for several hundred years
Infrastructure - Government fell apart when they left
Language and Writing - Latin official language
Religion - Mainly Christianity
Important Events in the First Anglo-
410-450 – Angles, Saxons, and Jutes
(Germanic tribes) invade from Baltic
shores of Germany
Anglo-Saxon kingdoms eventually
became the Anglo-Saxon heptarchy.
New land: “Angle-land”
- small tribal kingdoms
- no written language
- supported themselves through
farming and hunting
Viking Invasions (787-1066)
Were sea-faring (explorers,
Led to many cultural
dates 825 AD.
Results from Vikings
Politically/Culturally - still unstable - no central government or church
The English language is “born” and is known as Old English
Lots of dialects of the language due to the seven kingdoms
Norman Invasion (1066)
Battle of Hastings - the Normans
(powerful Norman Frenchmen)
defeated the English and started a
conquest of England
Two most important effects:
French becomes official
language of politics and power;
thus, enormous influence on
England begins unifying under a
French political system, much of
which is still with us today
Burial site discovered in 1939
Important links to Anglo-Saxon world
Remains of a boat were discovered
and large burial chamber containing
Artifacts suggest a distinctly Christian
element intermingled with pagan
Norway invaded Northumbria, Scotland, Wales,
The Danes of Denmark targeted eastern and
Alfred the Great
King of Wessex 871-899
866—resisted Danish intrusion and earned “the great”
Saxons acknowledged Danish rule in East and North
Danes respected Saxon rule in South
End of 10th Century—Danes want to widen Danelaw
Forced Saxons to select Danish Kings
1042—Kingship returned to Alfred the Great’s descendent
Edward the Confessor died in 1066. His death led to the
end of the Anglo-Saxon Period.
Oral Tradition – poems and songs
committed to memory and
performed by scops, bards,
gleemen, or minstrels.
Written literature began to evolve.
Two important traditions in
heroic tradition – celebrates
elegiac tradition – passing of
earlier better times
Priests and monks were the only ones
who could write; stories survival
depended upon them. The church
was not too eager to preserve
literature that was pagan in nature, so
historians believe they either ignored
it or changed it.