IMPROVING STUDENT’S SPEAKING MASTERY USINGINFORMATION GAP AT THE SECOND YEAR OF SMP N 3KEBAKRAMAT KARANGANYAR IN 2007/2008CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTIONA. Background of the StudyCommunication is an essential need for human being. Language as the tool of communicationhas an important role to reveal an intention to someone else. People will be able to expresstheir thought and feeling by using language. Language, communication and life can not beseparated.Language can be applied in many aspects, such as: education, society, politics, economics,and culture. One of the ways in communication is through speaking. It is very important tomaster speaking well. To master speaking ability, students must be trained to use English incommunication orally. The frequency in using the language will determine the success inspeaking ability. Without implementing the experience of learning the language in the reallife, it is difficult for the students to master speaking ability. Hence, speaking competence canbe accomplished by practicing it orally. In teaching English at the second grade of SMP N 3Kebakkramat, the teacher teaches the students traditionally. They let the students onlymemorize the vocabulary, instead of using it. Then, the teacher asks the students to writedown the words without asking the students to use it in the communication, yet some of the
students do not know the function of this language exercise. This teacher-centered techniquemakes the student passive in learning English. The traditional method influences the teachingof speaking in which there are many problems appear. First, it relates to the condition ofstudents who are lack of vocabulary which will make them unable to say words duringspeaking class. Second, the students get used to speak their Javanese language. Third, theyrarely practice to use English to communicate. Fourth, most of the students are not confidentto use English in speaking class. Forinstance, when the teacher asks them to come forward to have a conversation with theirfriends, they refuse it. They are shy to perform English conversation in front of their friends.Finally, the student is they are not interested in the material given to them. The teacher is alsohaving difficulties to teach in large class. The main problem is the way to manage it. Duringthe teaching hours the teacher should make the students pay attention to the materials givento them. It needs hard work for getting the students attention. Lack of control also occurswhen they teach in the large class. Therefore, it is difficult to implement the individualcontrol for each student. Thus, the teacher cannot evaluate each student‟s proficiency. Fromthe problems above the writer tries to give a solution for the teacher to implement one ofteaching methods. There is a method of teaching learning method which is interesting and itcan improve student‟s ability and liveliness, namely information gap method. This method isdesigned to create the students‟ interest to learn with pleasant method. The core ofinformation gap method is corporation between groups and shared. In an information gapactivity, one person has certain information that must be shared with others in order to solve aproblem, gather information or make decisions (Neu&Reeser). Information gap is a usefulactivity in which one person has information that the other lacks. Another advantage ofinformation gap activities is that students are forced to negotiate meaning because they mustmake what they are saying comprehensible to others in
order to accomplish the task (Neu&Reeser, 1997: 128) These types of activities are extremelyeffective in the L2 classroom. They give every student opportunity to speak in the targetlanguage for an extended period of time and students naturally produce more speech thanthey would otherwise. In addition, speaking with peers is less intimidating than presenting infront of the entire class and being evaluated.If our goal as second language educator is to have our learners speak with confidence in thetarget language, then we must make an effort to provide our students with a greater variety oopportunities to speak in the target language. Information gap activities are an effectivemeans for accomplishing this goal.B. Previous StudyThe first previous research was done by Muljayanah (2004) entitled “The Implementation ofcommunicative language teaching speaking AT LIA SURAKARTA: Ethnography. In herresearch, she describes the implementation of communicative language teaching and thestrength and the weakness of teaching speaking using communicative language teaching. Thesecond previous research was done by Dwi Henrie W. A (2002) entitled “ImprovingStudents‟ Pronunciation in Speaking Class through Repetition Technique: An ActionResearch at the Fifth Year Students of SDN PREMULUNG. In his research, she describes theimplementation ofRepetition Technique to improve the students‟ pronunciation speaking ability. The previousresearch describes the implementation of improving students‟ speaking mastery usinginformation gap. The present research also deals with the new technique applied in Englishspeaking at SMP N 3 KEBAKKRAMAT KARANGANYAR. So, it can be said that thisresearchis quite different from the previous studies above.
C. Limitation of the StudyTo make the problem easy to be discussed deeply, the writer focuses the problem as follows.1. The subject of researcher in this research is the second grade students of SMP N 3KEBAKKRAMAT KARANGANYAR.2. The implementation of information gap technique to improve the students‟ speakingmastery.D. Problem StatementThe problems that will be studied in this research are stated as follows.1. How is the implementation of Information Gap Technique to improvethe students‟ speaking mastery?2. Does information gap technique improve the students‟ speaking mastery?3. What are the students‟ response on the implementation of information gap technique?E. Objective of the StudyThis research is aimed at1. describing the implementation of information gap to improve the students‟ speakingmastery.2. describing the improvement of the students‟ speaking mastery.3. describing the students‟ response on the implementation of information gap technique.F. Benefit the Study1. Theoretical Benefita. The result of the research can be useful for students on pronunciation, memorize andvocabulary in implementation of information gap.b. The result of the research can be useful for English teacher in implementation ofinformation gap to improve the speaking mastery.
c. The result of the research is used as the reference for those who want to conduct a researchof students‟ speaking mastery using information gap.2. Practical Benefita. The result will help the teacher increasing the students‟ speaking mastery.b. The result will help the students in increasing their speaking mastery.c. The result will help the students to increasing their speaking ability in interaction witheach other.d. The result will give the information to the teacher in the way in carrying out theinformation gap on teaching speaking to increase the students‟ speaking mastery.G. Research Paper OrganizationThe research paper comprises five chapters; chapter 1 is introduction which coversbackground of the study, previous study, problem statement, objective of the study, benefit ofthe study, and research paper organization. Chapter II is underlying theories that consist ofthe notion of teaching speaking and the notion of information gap method. Chapter III isresearch method that consists of type of research, object of the study, subject of the study,research location, research procedure, and method of collecting data and technique foranalyzing data. Chapter IV is related to the process of the implementation of teachingspeaking using information gap method, the result of the implementation of teachingspeaking using information gap method in teaching learning process and the student‟sopinion on the implementation of information gap technique.Chapters V is conclusion and suggestion.CHAPTER IIUNDERLYING THEORY
In this chapter, the researcher would like elaborate the theory related to the research which isdone by the researcher. It is crucial for the researcher and the readers to recognize thedefinition or the meaning of title of this research in order to make easier for the researcher inanalyzing andunderstanding the problem deeply. Follows are the theories that will be discussed in thisresearch globally: teaching speaking and information gap.A. Teaching Speaking1. Notion of SpeakingSpeaking skill should be taught and practiced in the language classroom. Because thelanguage course truly enables the students to communicate in English, so speaking skill needsthe special treatment. In the reality, in our daily life most of us speak more than we write; yetmany English teachers still spend the majority of class time on reading and writing practicealmost ignoring speaking and listening skills. Based on the statement above, there should be agood balance to practice in classroom. According to Hornby (1995:826) speaking is makinguse of wordsm in an ordinary voice, offering words, knowing and being able to use alanguage expressing one-self in words, and making speech. Therefore the writer infers thatspeaking uses the word and produces the sound to express ourselves either ideas, feeling,thought and needs orally in an ordinary voice. Furthermore, success in communication isoften dependent as much on the listener as on the speaker.There are three components to make fluent in producing speech, namely vocabulary,pronunciation, and grammar. According to Walter (1973:11) speaking is one way of learningabout one self. In speaking, someone must face problems that have history and relatively toother people, groups, and the predictions we have formed for living together. While Tarigan(1990:3) states speaking that is gotten by the children preceded by listening skill. After
getting the language input the students are able to master speaking skill. So that, speaking isthe way toexpress our idea and feeling to one another.2. Notion of Teaching SpeakingTeaching speaking is sometimes considered as a simple process of commercial languageschool around the world, which hires people with no training to teach conversation. Althoughspeaking is totally natural, speaking in a language other than our own is anything but simple(Nunan, 2003:48). Based on the statement above that teaching conversation to the students inforeign language is simple. Because learning spoken language sometimes ignores thegrammar rule and the other hand the students need to form good habit in English speakingpractice.Furthermore, the writer will elaborate the notion of teaching according to oxford advancedlearner‟s dictionary teaching which means giving the instruction to someone else: givesomeone else ( knowledge, skill, etc )While Haskew and Mc Lendon in Sutopo, (2000:9) states as follows:a. Teaching is action to increase the odds that potential learners will learn.b. Teaching is action to point learning toward desired to accomplishment by learners.c. Teaching is action to make knowledge create sense.d. Teaching is to present learners a live opportunity to learn.e. Teaching is action to enhance the persons who are learning.Moreover, teaching speaking skill emphasizes on the activities to make the students activeand creative. West (1968) in Fauziati,(2002:145) states that to increase students‟ speakingmastery the teacher must concern with the student –to –student –interaction. The great part oftime in the process of learning speaking is dominated by students. Afterwards, it‟s dominatedby the instructor. This maximizes the students‟ competence in speaking. The students learn
what they are going to say with other in front of the class and try to develop their creativityorally. Therefore, the writer tries to give definition of teaching speaking is the instruction ofthe teacher/tutor to the students to encourage them in using the language orally to expresstheir ideas, feeling and opinion to someone else and also encourage the potential of thelearners to develop their speaking skill naturally.3. Element of SpeakingIn speaking, it is very important for student to acquire the ability to express their ideas andopinions. Consequently, this competency should be mastered by the learners of language.Following are the elements of speaking ability according to (Harmer, 2001:269-271), a.language features such as the connected speech, expressive devices, lexis and grammar, andnegotiation language. Connected speech is the modifying in sounds production or utterancessuch as assimilation, omission, addition, weakened (through contraction and stresspatterning). An expressive device is the alteration of the speed, volume, and stress ofutterances to show the feeling. The use of this device contributes the ability to conveymeaning. Then lexis and grammar is necessary for the teacher to give of supply of certainwords and language function, such as agreeing or disagreeing, surprise, and so forth. Thosemake students can produce at various stages of an interaction.Lastly, negotiation language is the benefits to clarify and to show the structure what we aresaying. Therefore, those elements are completely significant a speaking ability.Furthermore, Harmer (2001: 104) states that the other element of the speaking ismental/social processing except the language skill for the speaker, but the rapid processingskill is also necessary, such as language processing, interaction, and information processing.The language
processing is the effective speaker to convey their intention to someone else and they processthe words or retrieval of words or phrases from memory to communicate with people. It helpsthe students to develop habits of rapid language processing English. Then, interaction is thestudent interacting with the other and they understand each other. Lastly, informationprocessing is related to the perception of some else concerning the response to other feelingin using the language. Consequently, the mental has important role to succeed thecommunication particularly in speaking ability.4. Principles of Teaching SpeakingPrinciples of teaching speaking are as follows (Harmer, 2001: 102)a. Help students overcome their initial reluctance to speak. Be encouraging; provideopportunity; start from something simple;b. Ask students to talk about what they want to talk about.c. Ask students to talk about what they are able to talk about.d. Provide appropriate feedback.e. Combine speaking with listening and reading.f. Incorporate the teaching of speech acts in teaching speaking.5. Method of Teaching SpeakingThe method of teaching speaking as suggested by Harmer (1998:95) is Engage Activate-Study. Engage means that the teacher gives warming to the students. For instance: the topicof the discussion is about „daily activity,‟ so, the teacher tells or gives stimuli to the studentsconcerning with the topic. Then, activate the teacher give an opportunity to the students toexpress their ideas and opinions. Afterwards, study means that it concerns with the materialof the discussion. Therefore, the students can get the learning experience.
The other method of teaching speaking skill is through information gap activities that aresuggested by Raptou (2001: 211). Information gap is useful activity in which one person hasinformation that the other lacks. They must use the target language to share that information.For instance, one student has the directions to a party and must give them to a classmate. Onetype of speaking activity involves the so-called „information gap‟-where two speakers havedifferent parts of information making up a whole. Because they have different information,there is a „gap‟ between them.6. Classroom Speaking ActivitiesThe activities of speaking class are as follows (Harmer, 2001:271-274).a. Acting from a script.In this section the teacher asks the students to perform the play based on the dialogue in thescript. Thus, the teacher as the director and the students perform the dialogue.b. Communication GamesA game is one of activities that can help students relaxed in learning the language. Thistechnique is particularly suitable for the children in mastering the language. It is designed toprovoke communication between students, so that the students has to talk to a partner in orderto solve a puzzle, draw a picture, puts the things in right order, and differences betweenpicture.c.DiscussionThe problem in conducting the discussion is the students‟ reluctant to give opinion in front oftheir friends. Particularly when the students are not mastering the topic of discussion.Therefore to encourage the students is to provide activities which force the students inexpressing the ideas
through the topic which is familiar with student‟s world. For instance, are: their daily activity,the situation of their class, and describing.d. Problem solvingThe material is used in this technique giving the students to work in pairs or groups. Theyshare their problem, opinion and feeling. In this case the teacher as the bridge tocommunicate among the participants. Then, the students give a question and answer eachother. This communication will help the students practicing and expressing their ideas inspoken language.e. Role PlayA popular way of the aspect of speaking activities is to use simulations and role plays. Thisis where students pretend that they are in a different situation, either as themselves or playingthe role of someone is quite different. We could ask them to be guest at some parties and gothereas different characters. They could, as themselves, pretend to be at an airport trying to checkluggage, or either as themselves or another character take part in a television program. In allthese cases the students are using language in order to participate in the activity rather thanotherway round! Some students find it very comfortable to use language in a simulatedenvironment, playing the role of someone else –it allows them to experiment freely to beanother people.7. Problem in Speaking SkillThe learners have their own difficulties in learning the language. Particularly in improvingspeaking skill is not easy for the students. The Following are the problems of speaking skill(Munjayanah ,2004:17):a. Inhabitation
: unlike reading, writing or listening activities, speaking requires some degree of real-timeexposure to an audience. Learners are often inhibited about trying to say thing in foreignlanguage in the classroom: worried about mistakes or simply shy of the attention that theirspeech attract.b. Nothing to say. Even they are not inhibited, you often hear learners complain that they cannot think ofanything to say: they have no motive to express themselves beyond the guilty feeling thatthey should be speaking.c. Low or uneven participation. Only one participant can talk at a time if he or she is to be heard; and in large group thismeans the each one will have only very little talking time. This problem is compoundedof some learners to dominate, while other speaks very little or not at all.d. Mother tongue use. It is easier for the student to use their mother tongue in their class because it looks naturally.Therefore, most of the students are not disciplined in using the target language in the learningprocess.B. Information GapInformation gap is a useful activity in which one person has information that the other lacks.They must use the target language to share that information. For instance, one student has thedirections to a party and must give them to a classmate. I teach core French at the secondarylevel and students complain that when they go to a French-speaking part of the world, theycannot say what they wish to say in French, even thought they have had years of Frencheducation. We, therefore, need to actively engage students in speaking activities that areenjoyable and that are based on a more communicative approach. One solution is using aninformation gap activity that is suggested by Violet Raptou (2001: 213) One of the challenges
many second language-teachers face is motivating their students to speak in the targetlanguage, confident students always participate and students who are less confident arereluctant to speak.Even when students speak in the target language, they are usually answering a question andthis approach greatly limits students output. Oral presentations provide opportunities forstudents to speak in the target language for an extended period of time and these activities areuseful, butthey should not be the only opportunities students have to speak at length. Because studentsprepare for this presentation by writing a script and then rehearsing it, they have difficultyspeaking in the target language spontaneously because they are given little opportunity to doso. When students choose learn a language, they are interested in learning to speak thatlanguage as fluently as possible. One solution is using information gap activities. Ininformation gap activity, one person has certain information that must be shared with othersin order to solve a problem, gather information or make decisions (Neu & Reeser, 1997).These types of activities areextremely effective in the L2 classroom. They give every student to opportunity to speak inthe target language for an extended period of time and students naturally produce morespeech than they would otherwise. In addition, speaking with peers is less intimidating thanpresenting in front of the entire class and being evaluated. Another advantage of informationgapactivities is that students are forced to negotiate meaning because they must make what theyare saying comprehensible to others in order to accomplish the task (Neu & Reeeser, 1997:156).C. Conceptual Framework
Information gap is useful activity in which one person has information that the other lacks.They must use the target language to share that information. For instance, one student has thedirections to a party and must give them to a classmate. With information gap give eachstudent has an opportunity to speak in the target language for an extended period of time andstudents naturally produce more speech than they would otherwise and in this activity thestudents must make what they are saying comprehensible to others. As a result, such atechnique can improve students‟ speaking mastery.D. Action HypothesisDealing with the underlying theories, the action hypothesis of this research is: By givinginformation gap technique, the students‟ speaking mastery can be improved or better”.E. Performance IndicatorThe writer needs to establish some criteria in order to know whether the research is effectiveor event not. The writer considers the research to be effec tive if the subjects of the study areable to increase students‟ achievement after being taught through information gap technique.Here, thesubject is categorized as successful, if the students‟ scores belong adequate level. While anadequate level is titled to subject that is not only able to improve but also to convey, at leastthe standard of performance which is 2.9. It means that teaching speaking using informationgap issignificant. It is line with the score as explained below:CHAPTER IIIRESEARCH METHODA. Type of the Study
In this research, the writer uses classroom a ction research (CAR). Mc Niff (1992) inArikunto (2006:102) states that action research is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertakenby participants in a social (including educational) situation in order to improve the rationalityand justice of their own social or educational practices as well as their understanding of thesepractices and the situations in which these practices are carried out. It consists of planning,acting/implementing, observing, and reflecting. Furthermore, Kasbolah (2001:15-17) statesthat there are four characteristics of action research; firstly, the action research is carried outby practitioners rather than outside rese archer. In this research, the classroom action researchwas carried out by the researcher and English teacher as the collaborator. Secondly, actionresearch is the systematic study attempting to overcome real problems. In this research theclassroomaction research (CAR) was the attempts to overcome students‟ problem in speaking mastery.Thirdly, the action research is intended to change thing to be better than before. In thisresearch, the class action research (CAR) was intended to change the students‟ ability inspeaking mastery to be better than before. Fourthly, action research is a kind of collaborativeresearch, it means that the research take participants in the form of a team consisting ofinsider and outsiders. Then insiders were some teachers who want to do action research andoutsiders were the researchers in their field. In this research, the classroom action research(CAR) was done by the writer and the English teacher.B. Action ProceduresIn this Classroom Action Research (CAR), the writer used the CAR principle to collect thedata. The research consist of three cycles with each cycle consist of four elements. The writerdescribes the cycles through the scheme of action research steps and each of the phases canbe explained briefly as follows:The cycle of Classroom Action Research (Hopkins, 1993: 52)
a. PlanningIn this phase, the writer makes the lesson plan and then chooses teaching aids to imply theinformation gap method. In this phase, the writer use dialogue, short paragraph, describe anddraw material.b. ActingThe teacher puts the class into four groups, calling them A, B, C, D. To each group he givesone of the pictures. The students in the groups have to memorize everything they can aboutthepictures-which‟s in them, what‟s happening etc. They can talk about the details in theirgroups.The teacher now takes the pictures and asks for one student from each group (A, B, C, and D)to form a new four person group. He tells them that they have seen different picture but thatthepictures taken together. The task is for the students to work out what the story is. The onlyway they can do this is by describing their pictures to each other and speculating on how theyareconnected. The final stories may be different. The groups tell the whole class what theirversion is, and the teacher can finally re- show the pictures.c. ObservingIn this phase, the writer observs the students response, participation and everything which isfound during the teaching and learning process.In speaking learning process, most of the student are interested in information gap method.Sometimes, from one group to other group do a mistake, like: misunderstanding, unability tomemorize the story.
d. ReflectingAfter collecting the data, the writer will evaluate the teaching-learning process. Then, thewriter will reflect herself by seeing the result of the observation, whether the teachinglearning process of speaking using information gap method is good to imply in teachinglearning process at SMP N 3 KEBAKKRAMAT KARANGANYAR in 2007/2008 AcademicYear or not. If the firstplan is unsuccessful, the writer should make the next plan (re- planning) to get a good result.During the process of the action research in the first class of SMP N 3 KEBAKKRAMATKARANGANYAR, the writer uses the diary and document as the instrument for gatheringthe data. Diaries contain personal accounts of the observation on feeling, reaction,interpretations, reflections, explanations and documents are used to provide information,which is relevant to the problem under investigation. The documents used by the writer arelesson plan and the sample of children‟s work. Mc Cormick James (1983) in (Tilston,2002:52) state that the successful document used is still photography in the collection oninformation, particularly when evidence is being collected to evaluate lessons. So, the writerincludes the photography as the document too. Furthermore, Kasbolah (2001:15-17) statesthat there are four characteristics of action research; firstly, the action research is carried outby practitioners rather than outside researcher. In this research, the classroom action researchwas carried out by the researcher and Englishteacher as the collaborator. Secondly, action research is the systematic study attempting toovercome real problems. In this research the classroom action research (CAR) was theattempts to overcome students‟ problem in speaking mastery. Thirdly, the action research isintended to change thing to be better than before. In this research, the class action research(CAR) was intended to change the students‟ ability in speaking mastery to be better thanbefore. Fourthly, action research is a kind of collaborative research, it means that the research
take participants in the form of a team consisting of insider and outsiders. Then insiders weresome teachers whowant to do action research and outsiders were the researchers in their field. In this research,the classroom action research (CAR) was done by the mwriter and the English teacher.C. Research LocationThis research takes place at SMP N 3 KEBAKRAMAT KARANGANYAR. The writerchooses this place to do an action research because the writer sees it necessary to develop theway in teaching particularly to develop the students‟ speaking mastery in junior high school.In teaching English at the second grade of SMP N 3 Kebakkramat Karanganyar, teacherteaches the students traditionally. They let the students only memorize the vocabulary,instead of using it and they don‟t know about information gap. So, the researcher want to dothe research in this school.D. Object of the StudyThe object of the study is teaching speaking learning-process using information gap methodto the second grade of SMP N 3 KEBAKKRAMAT KARANGANYAR in 2007/2008Academic Year.E. Subject of the StudyThe subject of the study is to the second grade students of SMP N 3 KEBAKKRAMATKARANGANYAR in 2007/2008 Academic Year. There are 40 students in class VIII a.F. Method of Collecting DataThe method is a means that is used to solve problems. There are some methods of collectingdata. They are observation, interview and test. In this case the data are taken from the sourceby employing observation and test.1. Observation
The writer does the observation directly toward teaching speaking learning-process in SMP N3 KEBAKKRAMAT KARANGANYAR 2008/2009 Academic Year. In this research, thewriter acts as an active observer. The writer interacts with the students as well as the teacher.In speaking lesson, the writer observes their speaking skill, such as; their pronunciation,vocabulary, memorizes and their brave in speaking lesson.2. TestAccording to Sudjana (1987:16) a test means some question to students to be answered. Thetest is used to compare the students‟ speaking achievements before conducting the research(post-test) and after conducting the research (pre-test). The form of the test can be groupedinto three forms, namely: oral, written, and behavior form. In this research, the writerconducts an oral test. The students make story depend on picture, what they do or everythingin the picture. Then,they memorize the story and tell to their friend in front of class or other group.3. InterviewOne of the ways to get deep and more information in the classroom the writer will interviewthe English teacher. In here, the researcher takes 10 samples of 40 students. What‟s problemof speaking, about speaking lesson during before and after using information gap method inspeaking lesson.G. Data and Data SourceThe data of this research are the procedure and the result of teaching speaking usinginformation gap. The result is in the form of the comparison between pretest and post-testscore. The sources of data in this study are:1. EventIt is the teaching speaking using information gap in the second grade of SMP N 3KEBAKKRAMAT KARANGANYAR.
2. InformantThe informant is the English teacher and students in SMP N 3 Kebakkramat Karanganyar.3. PlaceThe researcher observes and teaches in the classroom of SMP N 3 KebakkramatKaranganyar.H. Technique for Analyzing DataThe researcher conducts the action research of teaching speaking using information gaptechnique at the second grade of SMP N 3 KEBAKKRAMAT KARANGANYAR. Whatfollows are steps in analyzing the data based on Miles and Huberman (1984: 170).a. Reducting the dataThis is the first component in analyzing the data that contains selection process, focusing, andsummarizing data from field notes. In this step, the researchers‟ selects, limits, andsummarize the data from the implementation of teaching speaking using information gaptechnique.b. Displaying the dataThe second step of analyzing the data is describing the data in narrative which the researchconclusion will be possible to be done. This step is describing the result of the research whichis described in systematic and logic sentence, therefore the result is understandable the formof displaying is not always in the sentences, but can displayed in table form which supportsthe narrative data.c. Drawing ConclusionThe last step is the researcher makes conclusion of the research. Then the researcher alsoverifies the conclusion the technique is by discussing the research conclusion with thecollaborator of the research. This step is very important to be done in order to get goodresearch conclusion.