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XPDDS18: Unleashing the Power of Unikernels with Unikraft - Florian Schmidt, NEC Laboratories Europe GmbH

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By leveraging specialization and the use of minimalistic OSes, unikernels are able to yield impressive numbers, including fast instantiation times (tens of milliseconds or less), tiny memory footprints (a few MBs or even KBs), and high consolidation (e.g., being able to run many instances on a single device), not to mention a reduced attack surface and easier certification.

The fundamental drawback of unikernels is that they require that applications be manually ported to the underlying minimalistic OS; this requires both expert work and often considerable amount of time.

To address this, we present Unikraft, a Xen sub-project aimed at automating the process of building customized unikernels tailored
to specific applications and thus significantly reducing development time. We will provide a detailed explanation of the system as well as a demonstration of it.

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XPDDS18: Unleashing the Power of Unikernels with Unikraft - Florian Schmidt, NEC Laboratories Europe GmbH

  1. 1. Unleashing the Power of Unikernels with Florian Schmidt, Research Scientist, NEC Laboratories Europe This work has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreements no. 675806 (“5G CITY”) and 761592 (“5G ESSENCE”). This work reflects only the author’s views and the European Commis- sion is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.
  2. 2. 2 © NEC Corporation 2018 VMs vs Containers ▌VMs have been around for a long time  They allow consolidation, isolation, migration, …
  3. 3. 3 © NEC Corporation 2018 VMs vs Containers ▌VMs have been around for a long time  They allow consolidation, isolation, migration, … ▌Then containers came and many people LOVED them. Why?
  4. 4. 4 © NEC Corporation 2018 VMs vs Containers ▌VMs have been around for a long time  They allow consolidation, isolation, migration, … ▌Then containers came and many people LOVED them. Why?  “Containers are much faster to bring up than VMs. My VM takes a minute to boot, my container only a second.”
  5. 5. 5 © NEC Corporation 2018 VMs vs Containers ▌VMs have been around for a long time  They allow consolidation, isolation, migration, … ▌Then containers came and many people LOVED them. Why?  “Containers are much faster to bring up than VMs. My VM takes a minute to boot, my container only a second.”  “Containers are much smaller. My VM takes 10 GB, my container only a few hundred MB.”
  6. 6. 6 © NEC Corporation 2018 VMs vs Containers ▌VMs have been around for a long time  They allow consolidation, isolation, migration, … ▌Then containers came and many people LOVED them. Why?  “Containers are much faster to bring up than VMs. My VM takes a minute to boot, my container only a second.”  “Containers are much smaller. My VM takes 10 GB, my container only a few hundred MB.” “Containers are much easier to create and deploy. I just write this Dockerfile and I’m done.”
  7. 7. 7 © NEC Corporation 2018 Containers vs Unikernels ▌I don’t want to bash containers.  Containers can be great!  For example, I love them for build environments ▌But VMs do not have to be large, slow, and complicated
  8. 8. 8 © NEC Corporation 2018 Containers vs Unikernels ▌I don’t want to bash containers.  Containers can be great!  For example, I love them for build environments ▌But VMs do not have to be large, slow, and complicated ▌This is where unikernels come in A single binary containing OS and (single) application  A shared address space, no mode switching  No isolation within unikernel, but by the hypervisor Can be extremely small and blazingly fast
  9. 9. 9 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example: Instantiation Time Comparison 100 101 102 103 104 105 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Time[ms] Number of running guests Process Create Server: Intel Xeon E5-1630 v3 CPU@3.7GHz (4 cores), 128GB DDR4 RAM, Xen/Linux versions 4.8 Process: 0.7ms-10ms
  10. 10. 10 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example: Instantiation Time Comparison Server: Intel Xeon E5-1630 v3 CPU@3.7GHz (4 cores), 128GB DDR4 RAM, Xen/Linux versions 4.8 100 101 102 103 104 105 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Time[ms] Number of running guests Process Create Docker Boot Process: 0.7ms-10ms Docker: 150ms-550ms
  11. 11. 11 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example: Instantiation Time Comparison Server: Intel Xeon E5-1630 v3 CPU@3.7GHz (4 cores), 128GB DDR4 RAM, Xen/Linux versions 4.8 100 101 102 103 104 105 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Time[ms] Number of running guests Docker Boot Debian Boot Debian Create Process: 0.7ms-10ms Docker: 150ms-550ms Debian: 2.6-82 secs
  12. 12. 12 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example: Instantiation Time Comparison Server: Intel Xeon E5-1630 v3 CPU@3.7GHz (4 cores), 128GB DDR4 RAM, Xen/Linux versions 4.8 100 101 102 103 104 105 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Time[ms] Number of running guests MiniOS Boot MiniOS Create Process: 0.7ms-10ms Docker: 150ms-550ms Debian: 2.6-82 secs unikernel: 63ms-1.4secs
  13. 13. 13 © NEC Corporation 2018 100 101 102 103 104 105 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Time[ms] Number of running guests MiniOS Boot MiniOS Create Two messages from those results ▌Unikernels can instantiate as fast as containers ▌Except when many are colocated  Speaking of which, what is going wrong there?! Server: Intel Xeon E5-1630 v3 CPU@3.7GHz (4 cores), 128GB DDR4 RAM, Xen/Linux versions 4.8
  14. 14. Intermission
  15. 15. 15 © NEC Corporation 2018 Anybody remember last year? ▌Filipe Manco: “Death to the XenStore!” (Xen Developer and Design Summit 2017)
  16. 16. 16 © NEC Corporation 2018 Anybody remember last year? ▌Filipe Manco: “Death to the XenStore!” (Xen Developer and Design Summit 2017) Yep, the XenStore isn’t exactly fast (and that’s already with oxenstored)
  17. 17. 17 © NEC Corporation 2018 There’s an implementation now! ▌Implementation available  NoXenstore: managing Xen VMs without a central management unit  Plus assorted other bits and pieces of goodies  Technology readiness level: research prototype (so don’t expect to see this exact implementation hit upstream anytime soon…) ▌Materials:  http://sysml.neclab.eu/projects/lightvm/  https://github.com/sysml/lightvm  Manco et al., “My VM is Lighter (and Safer) than your Container”, SOSP 2017
  18. 18. 18 © NEC Corporation 2018 LightVM Creation Performance Server: Intel Xeon E5-1630 v3 CPU@3.7GHz (4 cores), 128GB DDR4 RAM, Xen/Linux versions 4.8 ▌On a dummy unikernel that does nothing, with 1 net device 1 4 16 64 256 1024 4096 0 200 400 600 800 1000 xl chaos [XS] chaos [XS+split] chaos [NoXS] LightVM CreationTime[ms] Number of Running VMs
  19. 19. 19 © NEC Corporation 2018 LightVM Creation Performance Server: Intel Xeon E5-1630 v3 CPU@3.7GHz (4 cores), 128GB DDR4 RAM, Xen/Linux versions 4.8 10x faster Large contributor: ▌On a dummy unikernel that does nothing, with 1 net device 1 4 16 64 256 1024 4096 0 200 400 600 800 1000 xl chaos [XS] chaos [XS+split] chaos [NoXS] LightVM CreationTime[ms] Number of Running VMs
  20. 20. 20 © NEC Corporation 2018 LightVM Creation Performance Server: Intel Xeon E5-1630 v3 CPU@3.7GHz (4 cores), 128GB DDR4 RAM, Xen/Linux versions 4.8 10x faster Large contributor: Don’t enforce domain name strings to be unique ▌On a dummy unikernel that does nothing, with 1 net device 1 4 16 64 256 1024 4096 0 200 400 600 800 1000 xl chaos [XS] chaos [XS+split] chaos [NoXS] LightVM CreationTime[ms] Number of Running VMs
  21. 21. 21 © NEC Corporation 2018 LightVM Creation Performance Server: Intel Xeon E5-1630 v3 CPU@3.7GHz (4 cores), 128GB DDR4 RAM, Xen/Linux versions 4.8 10x faster Large contributor: Don’t enforce domain name strings to be unique ▌On a dummy unikernel that does nothing, with 1 net device 4ms (without devices: 2.3ms) 1 4 16 64 256 1024 4096 0 200 400 600 800 1000 xl chaos [XS] chaos [XS+split] chaos [NoXS] LightVM CreationTime[ms] Number of Running VMs
  22. 22. OK, back to the main topic
  23. 23. 23 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Downside ▌So, unikernels are great and everybody should use them now?
  24. 24. 24 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Downside ▌So, unikernels are great and everybody should use them now? ▌Hold your horses… ▌The big problem is unikernel development: Optimized unikernels are manually built
  25. 25. 25 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Downside ▌So, unikernels are great and everybody should use them now? ▌Hold your horses… ▌The big problem is unikernel development: Optimized unikernels are manually built Building takes several months or even longer • We’ve done it before, multiple times
  26. 26. 26 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Downside ▌So, unikernels are great and everybody should use them now? ▌Hold your horses… ▌The big problem is unikernel development: Optimized unikernels are manually built Building takes several months or even longer • We’ve done it before, multiple times Potentially lather, rinse, repeat for each target application • We’ve done that too…
  27. 27. 27 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Downside ▌So, unikernels are great and everybody should use them now? ▌Hold your horses… ▌The big problem is unikernel development: Optimized unikernels are manually built Building takes several months or even longer • We’ve done it before, multiple times Potentially lather, rinse, repeat for each target application • We’ve done that too… ▌That’s not an effective way of doing things
  28. 28. 28 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft - A Unikernel Framework
  29. 29. 29 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft - A Unikernel Framework Unicore
  30. 30. 30 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft - A Unikernel Framework Unicore
  31. 31. 31 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft - A Unikernel Framework Unicore Unikraft
  32. 32. 32 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft - A Unikernel Framework Motivation ▌ Core principle: Support a wide range of use cases ▌ Provide common code base for unikernel development ▌ Simplify building and optimizing Unicore Unikraft
  33. 33. 33 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft - A Unikernel Framework Motivation ▌ Core principle: Support a wide range of use cases ▌ Provide common code base for unikernel development ▌ Simplify building and optimizing Unicore Unikraft
  34. 34. 34 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft - A Unikernel Framework Motivation ▌ Core principle: Support a wide range of use cases ▌ Provide common code base for unikernel development ▌ Simplify building and optimizing Our Approach ▌Decompose OS functionality into libraries ▌Unikraft’s two components: Library Pool Build Tool Unicore Unikraft
  35. 35. 35 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft - A Unikernel Framework Motivation ▌ Core principle: Support a wide range of use cases ▌ Provide common code base for unikernel development ▌ Simplify building and optimizing Our Approach ▌Decompose OS functionality into libraries ▌Unikraft’s two components: Library Pool Build Tool ▌Started as an internal project at NEC Labs in early 2017 ▌Made public early on Discussed ideas at Xen Summit 2017 Accepted as an incubator project in October 2017 First public code release in December 2017 Unicore Unikraft
  36. 36. 36 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Unikraft Way Decompose OS into a set of libraries (“Everything is a library”) Recompose them to meet the needs of particular applications
  37. 37. 37 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Unikraft Way Decompose OS into a set of libraries (“Everything is a library”) Recompose them to meet the needs of particular applications profiling memory allocator scheduler drivers timers filesystem network stack Application(s)
  38. 38. 38 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Unikraft Way profiling memory allocator scheduler drivers timers filesystem network stack Application(s) Decompose OS into a set of libraries (“Everything is a library”) Recompose them to meet the needs of particular applications
  39. 39. 39 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Unikraft Way profiling memory allocator scheduler drivers timers filesystem network stack Application(s) Decompose OS into a set of libraries (“Everything is a library”) Recompose them to meet the needs of particular applications
  40. 40. 40 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Unikraft Way profiling memory allocator scheduler drivers timers filesystem network stack Application(s) Once decomposed, we can pick and choose which parts/libraries we actually need for our application Decompose OS into a set of libraries (“Everything is a library”) Recompose them to meet the needs of particular applications
  41. 41. 41 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft Overview – Everything as a Library myapp Select / build / port Application 1
  42. 42. 42 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft Overview – Everything as a Library main libs drivers libconsole.o libblkfront.o libnetfront.o network stack liblwip.o libtcpip.o libhttp.o memory allocators libbuddy.o libheap.o libmempool.o filesystems libvfs.o libfat.o libext3.o runtimes libocaml.o libpython.o liberlang.o schedulers libcoop.o libpreempt.o librt.o standard libs libc.o libnewlibc.o libopenssl.o myapp Select / build / port Application 1 Select and configure libraries 2
  43. 43. 43 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft Overview – Everything as a Library main libs platform libs libxenplat.o drivers libconsole.o libblkfront.o libnetfront.o network stack liblwip.o libtcpip.o libhttp.o memory allocators libbuddy.o libheap.o libmempool.o filesystems libvfs.o libfat.o libext3.o runtimes libocaml.o libpython.o liberlang.o schedulers libcoop.o libpreempt.o librt.o standard libs libc.o libnewlibc.o libopenssl.o libbaremetalplat.o Libkvmplat.o liblinuxuplat.o myapp Select / build / port Application 1 Select and configure libraries 2
  44. 44. 44 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft Overview – Everything as a Library architecture libs main libs platform libs libarm32arch.olibx86_64arch.o libxenplat.o drivers libconsole.o libblkfront.o libnetfront.o network stack liblwip.o libtcpip.o libhttp.o memory allocators libbuddy.o libheap.o libmempool.o filesystems libvfs.o libfat.o libext3.o runtimes libocaml.o libpython.o liberlang.o schedulers libcoop.o libpreempt.o librt.o standard libs libc.o libnewlibc.o libopenssl.o libbaremetalplat.o Libkvmplat.o libarm64arm.o liblinuxuplat.o myapp Select / build / port Application 1 Select and configure libraries 2
  45. 45. 45 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft Overview – Everything as a Library architecture libs main libs platform libs libarm32arch.olibx86_64arch.o libxenplat.o drivers libconsole.o libblkfront.o libnetfront.o network stack liblwip.o libtcpip.o libhttp.o memory allocators libbuddy.o libheap.o libmempool.o filesystems libvfs.o libfat.o libext3.o runtimes libocaml.o libpython.o liberlang.o schedulers libcoop.o libpreempt.o librt.o standard libs libc.o libnewlibc.o libopenssl.o libbaremetalplat.o Libkvmplat.o libarm64arm.o liblinuxuplat.o myapp Select / build / port Application 1 Select and configure libraries 2 Build3
  46. 46. 46 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft Overview – Everything as a Library architecture libs main libs platform libs libarm32arch.olibx86_64arch.o libxenplat.o Unikernels unikraft_linuxu_x86_64unikraft_bare_x86_64 unikraft_bare_arm32 unikraft_bare_arm64 unikraft_xen_x86_64 unikraft_xen_arm32 unikraft_xen_arm64 unikraft_kvm_x86_64 unikraft_kvm_arm32 unikraft_kvm_arm64 drivers libconsole.o libblkfront.o libnetfront.o network stack liblwip.o libtcpip.o libhttp.o memory allocators libbuddy.o libheap.o libmempool.o filesystems libvfs.o libfat.o libext3.o runtimes libocaml.o libpython.o liberlang.o schedulers libcoop.o libpreempt.o librt.o standard libs libc.o libnewlibc.o libopenssl.o libbaremetalplat.o Libkvmplat.o libarm64arm.o liblinuxuplat.o myapp Select / build / port Application 1 Select and configure libraries 2 unikraft_linuxu_arm32 unikraft_linuxu_arm64 Build3 Run4
  47. 47. 47 © NEC Corporation 2018 Two Library Types ▌Built-in: functionality specific to Unikraft, live in the main unikraft repo  ukboot  ukschedpreempt  …
  48. 48. 48 © NEC Corporation 2018 Two Library Types ▌Built-in: functionality specific to Unikraft, live in the main unikraft repo  ukboot  ukschedpreempt  … ▌External: software projects external to Unikraft, have their own unikraft-lib repos  lwip  micropython  …
  49. 49. 49 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example System ▌Micropython Unikernel for Xen on x86_64 app_my_python.o
  50. 50. 50 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example System ▌Micropython Unikernel for Xen on x86_64 libmicropython.oapp_my_python.o
  51. 51. 51 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example System ▌Micropython Unikernel for Xen on x86_64 liblwip.o libmicropython.oapp_my_python.o
  52. 52. 52 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example System ▌Micropython Unikernel for Xen on x86_64 liblwip.o libvfscore.o libmicropython.oapp_my_python.o
  53. 53. 53 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example System ▌Micropython Unikernel for Xen on x86_64 liblwip.o libvfscore.o libmicropython.o libschedcoop.o app_my_python.o
  54. 54. 54 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example System ▌Micropython Unikernel for Xen on x86_64 liblwip.o libvfscore.o liballocbbuddy.o libmicropython.o libschedcoop.o app_my_python.o
  55. 55. 55 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example System ▌Micropython Unikernel for Xen on x86_64 liblwip.o libxenplat.o libvfscore.o liballocbbuddy.o libmicropython.o libschedcoop.o app_my_python.o
  56. 56. 56 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example System ▌Micropython Unikernel for Xen on x86_64 liblwip.o libxenplat.o libx86_64arch.o libvfscore.o liballocbbuddy.o libmicropython.o libschedcoop.o app_my_python.o
  57. 57. 57 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example System ▌Micropython Unikernel for Xen on x86_64 liblwip.o libxenplat.o libx86_64arch.o libvfscore.o liballocbbuddy.o libmicropython.o libschedcoop.o app_my_python.o Unikernel
  58. 58. 58 © NEC Corporation 2018 Putting Things Together – The Unikraft Build Tool
  59. 59. 59 © NEC Corporation 2018 Putting Things Together – The Unikraft Build Tool ▌ Kconfig/Makefile based
  60. 60. 60 © NEC Corporation 2018 Putting Things Together – The Unikraft Build Tool ▌ Kconfig/Makefile based ▌ make menuconfig
  61. 61. 61 © NEC Corporation 2018 Putting Things Together – The Unikraft Build Tool ▌ Kconfig/Makefile based ▌ make menuconfig  Choose options in the menu that you want for your application
  62. 62. 62 © NEC Corporation 2018 Putting Things Together – The Unikraft Build Tool ▌ Kconfig/Makefile based ▌ make menuconfig  Choose options in the menu that you want for your application  Choose your target platform(s) (currently: Xen, KVM, Linux) and architectures
  63. 63. 63 © NEC Corporation 2018 Putting Things Together – The Unikraft Build Tool ▌ Kconfig/Makefile based ▌ make menuconfig  Choose options in the menu that you want for your application  Choose your target platform(s) (currently: Xen, KVM, Linux) and architectures ▌ Save config and make
  64. 64. 64 © NEC Corporation 2018 Putting Things Together – The Unikraft Build Tool ▌ Kconfig/Makefile based ▌ make menuconfig  Choose options in the menu that you want for your application  Choose your target platform(s) (currently: Xen, KVM, Linux) and architectures ▌ Save config and make .config
  65. 65. 65 © NEC Corporation 2018 A Baseline Example… ▌Xen PV x86_64 binary
  66. 66. 66 © NEC Corporation 2018 A Baseline Example… ▌Xen PV x86_64 binary libnolibc.o libukboot.o libukdebug.o libxenplat.o unikraft_xen-x86_64.o unikraft_xen-x86_64 (32,7kB) Final linking
  67. 67. 67 © NEC Corporation 2018 A Baseline Example… ▌Xen PV x86_64 binary ▌Boots and prints messages to debug console (with min. 208kB RAM) libnolibc.o libukboot.o libukdebug.o libxenplat.o unikraft_xen-x86_64.o unikraft_xen-x86_64 (32,7kB) Final linking
  68. 68. Building a Unikraft Hello World App
  69. 69. 69 © NEC Corporation 2018 Repo Structure ▌Clone the main Unikraft repo git clone git://xenbits.xen.org/unikraft/unikraft.git ▌Clone any external library repos git clone git://xenbits.xen.org/unikraft/libs/newlib.git ▌Create repo for the actual application
  70. 70. 70 © NEC Corporation 2018 Repo Structure ▌Clone the main Unikraft repo git clone git://xenbits.xen.org/unikraft/unikraft.git ▌Clone any external library repos git clone git://xenbits.xen.org/unikraft/libs/newlib.git ▌Create repo for the actual application ├── unikraft ├── unikraft-apps │ └── helloworld ├── unikraft-libs │ ├── axtls │ ├── lwip │ ├── micropython │ ├── newlib │ ├── toybox
  71. 71. 71 © NEC Corporation 2018 Repo Structure ▌Clone the main Unikraft repo git clone git://xenbits.xen.org/unikraft/unikraft.git ▌Clone any external library repos git clone git://xenbits.xen.org/unikraft/libs/newlib.git ▌Create repo for the actual application ├── unikraft ├── unikraft-apps │ └── helloworld ├── unikraft-libs │ ├── axtls │ ├── lwip │ ├── micropython │ ├── newlib │ ├── toybox Unikraft repo (+ built-in libs)
  72. 72. 72 © NEC Corporation 2018 Repo Structure ▌Clone the main Unikraft repo git clone git://xenbits.xen.org/unikraft/unikraft.git ▌Clone any external library repos git clone git://xenbits.xen.org/unikraft/libs/newlib.git ▌Create repo for the actual application ├── unikraft ├── unikraft-apps │ └── helloworld ├── unikraft-libs │ ├── axtls │ ├── lwip │ ├── micropython │ ├── newlib │ ├── toybox Unikraft repo (+ built-in libs) application repo(s)
  73. 73. 73 © NEC Corporation 2018 Repo Structure ▌Clone the main Unikraft repo git clone git://xenbits.xen.org/unikraft/unikraft.git ▌Clone any external library repos git clone git://xenbits.xen.org/unikraft/libs/newlib.git ▌Create repo for the actual application ├── unikraft ├── unikraft-apps │ └── helloworld ├── unikraft-libs │ ├── axtls │ ├── lwip │ ├── micropython │ ├── newlib │ ├── toybox Unikraft repo (+ built-in libs) application repo(s) external libraries repos
  74. 74. 74 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (I) UK_ROOT ?= $(PWD)/../../unikraft UK_LIBS ?= $(PWD)/../../unikraft-libs LIBS := $(UK_LIBS)/newlib all: @make -C $(UK_ROOT) A=$(PWD) L=$(LIBS) $(MAKECMDGOALS): @make -C $(UK_ROOT) A=$(PWD) L=$(LIBS) $(MAKECMDGOALS) Makefile: specify where the main Unikraft repo is, as well as repos for external libraries
  75. 75. 75 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (I) UK_ROOT ?= $(PWD)/../../unikraft UK_LIBS ?= $(PWD)/../../unikraft-libs LIBS := $(UK_LIBS)/newlib all: @make -C $(UK_ROOT) A=$(PWD) L=$(LIBS) $(MAKECMDGOALS): @make -C $(UK_ROOT) A=$(PWD) L=$(LIBS) $(MAKECMDGOALS) path to unikraft repo Makefile: specify where the main Unikraft repo is, as well as repos for external libraries
  76. 76. 76 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (I) UK_ROOT ?= $(PWD)/../../unikraft UK_LIBS ?= $(PWD)/../../unikraft-libs LIBS := $(UK_LIBS)/newlib all: @make -C $(UK_ROOT) A=$(PWD) L=$(LIBS) $(MAKECMDGOALS): @make -C $(UK_ROOT) A=$(PWD) L=$(LIBS) $(MAKECMDGOALS) path to unikraft repo path to external libs Makefile: specify where the main Unikraft repo is, as well as repos for external libraries
  77. 77. 77 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (I) UK_ROOT ?= $(PWD)/../../unikraft UK_LIBS ?= $(PWD)/../../unikraft-libs LIBS := $(UK_LIBS)/newlib all: @make -C $(UK_ROOT) A=$(PWD) L=$(LIBS) $(MAKECMDGOALS): @make -C $(UK_ROOT) A=$(PWD) L=$(LIBS) $(MAKECMDGOALS) path to unikraft repo path to external libs external libs needed Makefile: specify where the main Unikraft repo is, as well as repos for external libraries
  78. 78. 78 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (II) $(eval $(call addlib,apphelloworld)) APPHELLOWORLD_SRCS-y += $(APPHELLOWORLD_BASE)/main.c Makefile.uk: specifies the sources to build for the application
  79. 79. 79 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (II) $(eval $(call addlib,apphelloworld)) APPHELLOWORLD_SRCS-y += $(APPHELLOWORLD_BASE)/main.c register app with unikraft build system Makefile.uk: specifies the sources to build for the application
  80. 80. 80 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (II) $(eval $(call addlib,apphelloworld)) APPHELLOWORLD_SRCS-y += $(APPHELLOWORLD_BASE)/main.c register app with unikraft build system Add main.c to build Makefile.uk: specifies the sources to build for the application
  81. 81. 81 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (III) ### Invisible option for dependencies config APPHELLOWORLD_DEPENDENCIES bool default y select LIBNOLIBC if !HAVE_LIBC ### App configuration config APPHELLOWORLD_PRINTARGS bool "Print arguments" default y help Prints argument list (argv) to stdout Config.uk: to populate Unikraft’s menu with application-specific option
  82. 82. 82 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (IV) #include <stdio.h> /* Import user configuration: */ #include <uk/config.h> int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { printf("Hello world!n"); #if CONFIG_APPHELLOWORLD_PRINTARGS int i; printf("Arguments:s"); for (i=0; i<argc; ++i) printf(" "%s"", argv[i]); printf("n"); #endif } main.c: source file to provide (at least) a main() function
  83. 83. 83 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (IV) #include <stdio.h> /* Import user configuration: */ #include <uk/config.h> int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { printf("Hello world!n"); #if CONFIG_APPHELLOWORLD_PRINTARGS int i; printf("Arguments:s"); for (i=0; i<argc; ++i) printf(" "%s"", argv[i]); printf("n"); #endif } main.c: source file to provide (at least) a main() function Unikernel entry point after boot
  84. 84. 84 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (IV) #include <stdio.h> /* Import user configuration: */ #include <uk/config.h> int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { printf("Hello world!n"); #if CONFIG_APPHELLOWORLD_PRINTARGS int i; printf("Arguments:s"); for (i=0; i<argc; ++i) printf(" "%s"", argv[i]); printf("n"); #endif } main.c: source file to provide (at least) a main() function Unikernel entry point after boot defined by Config.uk
  85. 85. Porting an External Library
  86. 86. 86 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library
  87. 87. 87 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library ▌Write Makefile.uk and add the external library source files to it  The library’s original Makefile can serve as a template  I’ll show how to in a second
  88. 88. 88 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library ▌Write Makefile.uk and add the external library source files to it  The library’s original Makefile can serve as a template  I’ll show how to in a second ▌Write Config.uk with library-specific options
  89. 89. 89 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library ▌Write Makefile.uk and add the external library source files to it  The library’s original Makefile can serve as a template  I’ll show how to in a second ▌Write Config.uk with library-specific options  Isn’t strictly required  But at least a simple “library on/off” option for kbuild is a good idea
  90. 90. 90 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library ▌Write Makefile.uk and add the external library source files to it  The library’s original Makefile can serve as a template  I’ll show how to in a second ▌Write Config.uk with library-specific options  Isn’t strictly required  But at least a simple “library on/off” option for kbuild is a good idea ▌Sometimes a bit of glue code is needed  E.g., in newlib to link POSIX thread creation to Unikraft’s thread library
  91. 91. 91 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library ▌Write Makefile.uk and add the external library source files to it  The library’s original Makefile can serve as a template  I’ll show how to in a second ▌Write Config.uk with library-specific options  Isn’t strictly required  But at least a simple “library on/off” option for kbuild is a good idea ▌Sometimes a bit of glue code is needed  E.g., in newlib to link POSIX thread creation to Unikraft’s thread library ▌ In this early phase: implement core unikraft functionality that is required to support your library, for example:  File descriptors/sockets  Threading support
  92. 92. 92 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library – Makefile.uk ################################################################################ # Library registration ################################################################################ $(eval $(call addlib_s,libaxtls,$(LIBAXTLS)))
  93. 93. 93 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library – Makefile.uk ################################################################################ # Library registration ################################################################################ $(eval $(call addlib_s,libaxtls,$(LIBAXTLS))) Register library with unikraft build system
  94. 94. 94 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library – Makefile.uk ################################################################################ # Library registration ################################################################################ $(eval $(call addlib_s,libaxtls,$(LIBAXTLS))) ################################################################################ # Source Download ################################################################################ # Nothing here: sources are small and included directly in the uk library repo Register library with unikraft build system
  95. 95. 95 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library – Makefile.uk ################################################################################ # Library registration ################################################################################ $(eval $(call addlib_s,libaxtls,$(LIBAXTLS))) ################################################################################ # Source Download ################################################################################ # Nothing here: sources are small and included directly in the uk library repo Register library with unikraft build system Download and patch library code $(eval $(call fetch,libnewlibc,$(LIBNEWLIB_URL))) $(eval $(call patch,libnewlibc,$(LIBNEWLIB_PATCHDIR),newlib-$(LIBNEWLIB_VERSION)))
  96. 96. 96 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library – Makefile.uk ################################################################################ # Library registration ################################################################################ $(eval $(call addlib_s,libaxtls,$(LIBAXTLS))) ################################################################################ # Source Download ################################################################################ # Nothing here: sources are small and included directly in the uk library repo ################################################################################ # Library includes ################################################################################ CINCLUDES-y += -I$(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/include -I$(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/crypto -I$(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/ssl Register library with unikraft build system Download and patch library code $(eval $(call fetch,libnewlibc,$(LIBNEWLIB_URL))) $(eval $(call patch,libnewlibc,$(LIBNEWLIB_PATCHDIR),newlib-$(LIBNEWLIB_VERSION))) The library’s original include directories
  97. 97. 97 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library – Makefile.uk ################################################################################ # Library registration ################################################################################ $(eval $(call addlib_s,libaxtls,$(LIBAXTLS))) ################################################################################ # Source Download ################################################################################ # Nothing here: sources are small and included directly in the uk library repo ################################################################################ # Library includes ################################################################################ CINCLUDES-y += -I$(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/include -I$(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/crypto -I$(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/ssl ################################################################################ # sources ################################################################################ LIBAXTLS_SRCS-y += $(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/crypto/aes.c LIBAXTLS_SRCS-y += $(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/crypto/bigint.c … LIBAXTLS_SRCS-y += $(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/crypto/sha512.c Register library with unikraft build system Download and patch library code $(eval $(call fetch,libnewlibc,$(LIBNEWLIB_URL))) $(eval $(call patch,libnewlibc,$(LIBNEWLIB_PATCHDIR),newlib-$(LIBNEWLIB_VERSION))) The library’s original include directories The library’s original source files
  98. 98. Unikraft 0.2 Titan Current Status
  99. 99. 99 © NEC Corporation 2018 Available Libraries ▌Core Libraries libfdt • Flat device tree parser libnolibc • A tiny libc replacement libukalloc • Memory allocator abstraction libukallocbbuddy • Binary buddy allocator libukargparse • Argument parser library libukboot • Unikraft bootstrapping libukdebug • Debug and kernel printing • Assertions, hexdump libuksched • Scheduler abstraction libukschedcoop • Cooperative scheduler ▌External Libraries libnewlib • libc originally aimed at embedded devices liblwip • lightweight TCP/IP stack ▌Architecture Libraries libarmmath • 64bit arithmetic on ARMv7 ▌Platform Libraries libxenplat • Xen (PV) • x86_64, ARMv7 libkvmplat • QEMU/kvm • x86_64 liblinuxu • Linux userspace • x86_64, ARMv7 libukbus • abstraction for device buses, e.g., PCI libuklock • mutexes and semaphores libukmpi • message-passing interface libukswrand • pseudo-RNG interface libuktimeconv • time calculation/conversion libvfscore • basic file descriptor management / mapping / handling
  100. 100. 100 © NEC Corporation 2018 Coming soon: in the pipeline ▌Core Libraries libukschedpreempt • Pre-emptive scheduler ▌External Libraries libclick • Click modular router (e.g., for NFV) libaxtls • TLS support aimed at embedded devices libmicropython • Python implemented for microcontrollers ▌Platform Libraries libxenplat • ARM64 support(?) • netfront support libkvmplat • ARM64 support • virtio-net support liblinuxu • tap device based networking support Talk by Kaly (ARM) later today!
  101. 101. 101 © NEC Corporation 2018 The road ahead ▌Project got accepted as incubator project in December ▌Initially, mostly internal contributors ▌Currently contributions in the pipeline from contributors from  Romania (netfront, scheduling; from University Politehnica Bucharest)  Israel (bare-metal support)  China (ARM64 support; from ARM) ▌We welcome additional contributors! ▌Resources:  Code: xenbits.org/unikraft/*  On-line documentation: unikraft.org  IRC: #unikraft @ freenode  Mailing list: shared with minios: minios-devel@lists.xen.org

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