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OSSEU18: From Handcraft to Unikraft: Simpler Unikernelization of Your Application - Florian Schmidt, NEC Labs Europe

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Unikernels have produced impressive performance, including fast instantiation times, tiny memory footprints, and high consolidation, plus potentially a reduced attack surface and easier certification. Their main drawback is that they require applications to be manually ported to the underlying minimal OS; this means both expert work and considerable amount of time.

In this talk we present Unikraft, an incubator project under the auspices of the Xen Project and the Linux Foundation aimed at automating the process of building customized images tailored to specific applications and thus significantly reducing development time. Unikraft decomposes the OS into elementary pieces (e.g., schedulers, memory allocators, drivers, etc.) that users can pick and choose from. It then builds images tailored to the needs of specific applications as well as the target platform (e.g., KVM, Xen) and architecture (e.g., ARM or x86).

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OSSEU18: From Handcraft to Unikraft: Simpler Unikernelization of Your Application - Florian Schmidt, NEC Labs Europe

  1. 1. From Handcraft to Unikraft: Simpler Unikernelization of Your Application Florian Schmidt Research Scientist, NEC Labs Europe This work has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreements no. 675806 (“5G CITY”) and 761592 (“5G ESSENCE”). This work reflects only the author’s views and the European Commis- sion is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.
  2. 2. 2 © NEC Corporation 2018 VMs vs Containers ▌VMs have been around for a long time  They allow consolidation, isolation, migration, …
  3. 3. 3 © NEC Corporation 2018 VMs vs Containers ▌VMs have been around for a long time  They allow consolidation, isolation, migration, … ▌Then containers came and many people LOVED them. Why?
  4. 4. 4 © NEC Corporation 2018 VMs vs Containers ▌VMs have been around for a long time  They allow consolidation, isolation, migration, … ▌Then containers came and many people LOVED them. Why?  “Containers are much faster to bring up than VMs. My VM takes a minute to boot, my container only a second.”
  5. 5. 5 © NEC Corporation 2018 VMs vs Containers ▌VMs have been around for a long time  They allow consolidation, isolation, migration, … ▌Then containers came and many people LOVED them. Why?  “Containers are much faster to bring up than VMs. My VM takes a minute to boot, my container only a second.”  “Containers are much smaller. My VM takes 10 GB, my container only a few hundred MB.”
  6. 6. 6 © NEC Corporation 2018 VMs vs Containers ▌VMs have been around for a long time  They allow consolidation, isolation, migration, … ▌Then containers came and many people LOVED them. Why?  “Containers are much faster to bring up than VMs. My VM takes a minute to boot, my container only a second.”  “Containers are much smaller. My VM takes 10 GB, my container only a few hundred MB.”  “Containers are much easier to create and deploy. I just write this Dockerfile and I’m done.”
  7. 7. 7 © NEC Corporation 2018 Containers vs Unikernels ▌I don’t want to bash containers.  Containers can be great!  For example, I love them for build environments
  8. 8. 8 © NEC Corporation 2018 Containers vs Unikernels ▌I don’t want to bash containers.  Containers can be great!  For example, I love them for build environments ▌But VMs have their advantages  Most importantly, strong isolation
  9. 9. 9 © NEC Corporation 2018 Containers vs Unikernels ▌I don’t want to bash containers.  Containers can be great!  For example, I love them for build environments ▌But VMs have their advantages  Most importantly, strong isolation 200 250 300 350 400 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 No.ofsyscalls Linux Release Year
  10. 10. 10 © NEC Corporation 2018 Containers vs Unikernels ▌I don’t want to bash containers.  Containers can be great!  For example, I love them for build environments ▌But VMs have their advantages  Most importantly, strong isolation ▌And they do not have to be large, slow, and complicated 200 250 300 350 400 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 No.ofsyscalls Linux Release Year
  11. 11. 11 © NEC Corporation 2018 Containers vs Unikernels ▌I don’t want to bash containers.  Containers can be great!  For example, I love them for build environments ▌But VMs have their advantages  Most importantly, strong isolation ▌And they do not have to be large, slow, and complicated  This is where unikernels come in 200 250 300 350 400 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 No.ofsyscalls Linux Release Year
  12. 12. 12 © NEC Corporation 2018 Traditional VMs vs. Unikernels Kernel Hardware Kernel App B Libs B Traditional VMs Hypervisor App A Libs A
  13. 13. 13 © NEC Corporation 2018 Traditional VMs vs. Unikernels ▌Unikernels are purpose-built  A single binary containing OS and (single) application  One application  Flat and single address space Kernel Hardware Kernel App B Libs B Traditional VMs Hypervisor App A Libs A App A Libs A App B Libs B Unikernels Hardware Hypervisor
  14. 14. 14 © NEC Corporation 2018 Traditional VMs vs. Unikernels ▌Unikernels are purpose-built  A single binary containing OS and (single) application  One application  Flat and single address space ▌No isolation within unikernel, but by the hypervisor Kernel Hardware Kernel App B Libs B Traditional VMs Hypervisor App A Libs A App A Libs A App B Libs B Unikernels Hardware Hypervisor
  15. 15. 15 © NEC Corporation 2018 Traditional VMs vs. Unikernels ▌Unikernels are purpose-built  A single binary containing OS and (single) application  One application  Flat and single address space ▌No isolation within unikernel, but by the hypervisor ▌Can be extremely small and blazingly fast ▌Example: unikernel web server  5-6x more req/s than standard nginx Kernel Hardware Kernel App B Libs B Traditional VMs Hypervisor App A Libs A App A Libs A App B Libs B Unikernels Hardware Hypervisor
  16. 16. 16 © NEC Corporation 2018 Traditional VMs vs. Unikernels ▌Unikernels are purpose-built  A single binary containing OS and (single) application  One application  Flat and single address space ▌No isolation within unikernel, but by the hypervisor ▌Can be extremely small and blazingly fast ▌Example: unikernel web server  5-6x more req/s than standard nginx  Nearly saturates 40Gb/s link Kernel Hardware Kernel App B Libs B Traditional VMs Hypervisor App A Libs A App A Libs A App B Libs B Unikernels Hardware Hypervisor
  17. 17. 17 © NEC Corporation 2018 Traditional VMs vs. Unikernels ▌Unikernels are purpose-built  A single binary containing OS and (single) application  One application  Flat and single address space ▌No isolation within unikernel, but by the hypervisor ▌Can be extremely small and blazingly fast ▌Example: unikernel web server  5-6x more req/s than standard nginx  Nearly saturates 40Gb/s link  Image: 670kB, RAM: <32MB Kernel Hardware Kernel App B Libs B Traditional VMs Hypervisor App A Libs A App A Libs A App B Libs B Unikernels Hardware Hypervisor
  18. 18. 18 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example: Instantiation Time Comparison 100 101 102 103 104 105 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Time[ms] Number of running guests Process Create Server: Intel Xeon E5-1630 v3 CPU@3.7GHz (4 cores), 128GB DDR4 RAM, Xen/Linux versions 4.8 Process: 0.7ms-10ms
  19. 19. 19 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example: Instantiation Time Comparison Server: Intel Xeon E5-1630 v3 CPU@3.7GHz (4 cores), 128GB DDR4 RAM, Xen/Linux versions 4.8 100 101 102 103 104 105 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Time[ms] Number of running guests Process Create Docker Boot Process: 0.7ms-10ms Docker: 150ms-550ms
  20. 20. 20 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example: Instantiation Time Comparison Server: Intel Xeon E5-1630 v3 CPU@3.7GHz (4 cores), 128GB DDR4 RAM, Xen/Linux versions 4.8 100 101 102 103 104 105 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Time[ms] Number of running guests Docker Boot Debian Boot Debian Create Process: 0.7ms-10ms Docker: 150ms-550ms Debian: 2.6-82 secs
  21. 21. 21 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example: Instantiation Time Comparison Server: Intel Xeon E5-1630 v3 CPU@3.7GHz (4 cores), 128GB DDR4 RAM, Xen/Linux versions 4.8 100 101 102 103 104 105 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Time[ms] Number of running guests MiniOS Boot MiniOS Create Process: 0.7ms-10ms Docker: 150ms-550ms Debian: 2.6-82 secs unikernel: 63ms-1.4secs
  22. 22. 22 © NEC Corporation 2018 100 101 102 103 104 105 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Time[ms] Number of running guests MiniOS Boot MiniOS Create Example: Instantiation Time Comparison ▌Unikernels can instantiate as fast as containers  Often faster  Except when many are colocated • Speaking of which, what is going wrong there?! • If you’re interested, talk to me later • Bottom line: this is a solvable implementation problem Server: Intel Xeon E5-1630 v3 CPU@3.7GHz (4 cores), 128GB DDR4 RAM, Xen/Linux versions 4.8
  23. 23. 23 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Downside ▌So, unikernels: Give you the speed and size of containers  At the strong isolation of VMs
  24. 24. 24 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Downside ▌So, unikernels: Give you the speed and size of containers  At the strong isolation of VMs ▌So why isn’t everyone using them already?
  25. 25. 25 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Downside ▌So, unikernels: Give you the speed and size of containers  At the strong isolation of VMs ▌So why isn’t everyone using them already? ▌The big problem is unikernel development: Optimized unikernels are manually built
  26. 26. 26 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Downside ▌So, unikernels: Give you the speed and size of containers  At the strong isolation of VMs ▌So why isn’t everyone using them already? ▌The big problem is unikernel development: Optimized unikernels are manually built Building takes several months or even longer • We’ve done it before, multiple times
  27. 27. 27 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Downside ▌So, unikernels: Give you the speed and size of containers  At the strong isolation of VMs ▌So why isn’t everyone using them already? ▌The big problem is unikernel development: Optimized unikernels are manually built Building takes several months or even longer • We’ve done it before, multiple times Potentially lather, rinse, repeat for each target application • We’ve done that too…
  28. 28. 28 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Downside ▌So, unikernels: Give you the speed and size of containers  At the strong isolation of VMs ▌So why isn’t everyone using them already? ▌The big problem is unikernel development: Optimized unikernels are manually built Building takes several months or even longer • We’ve done it before, multiple times Potentially lather, rinse, repeat for each target application • We’ve done that too… ▌That’s not an effective way of doing things
  29. 29. 29 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft - A Unikernel Framework
  30. 30. 30 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft - A Unikernel Framework Motivation ▌ Support wide range of use cases ▌ Provide common code base for unikernel development ▌ Simplify building and optimizing ▌ Support different hypervisors and CPU architectures
  31. 31. 31 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft - A Unikernel Framework Motivation ▌ Support wide range of use cases ▌ Provide common code base for unikernel development ▌ Simplify building and optimizing ▌ Support different hypervisors and CPU architectures
  32. 32. 32 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft - A Unikernel Framework Motivation ▌ Support wide range of use cases ▌ Provide common code base for unikernel development ▌ Simplify building and optimizing ▌ Support different hypervisors and CPU architectures Our Approach ▌Decompose OS functionality into libraries ▌Unikraft’s two components: Library Pool Build Tool
  33. 33. 33 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft - A Unikernel Framework Motivation ▌ Support wide range of use cases ▌ Provide common code base for unikernel development ▌ Simplify building and optimizing ▌ Support different hypervisors and CPU architectures Our Approach ▌Decompose OS functionality into libraries ▌Unikraft’s two components: Library Pool Build Tool ▌Started as an internal project at NEC Labs in early 2017 ▌Made public early on Discussed ideas at Xen Summit 2017 Accepted as a Xen incubator project in October 2017 First public code release in December 2017
  34. 34. 34 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Unikraft Way Decompose OS into a set of libraries (“Everything is a library”) Recompose them to meet the needs of particular applications
  35. 35. 35 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Unikraft Way Decompose OS into a set of libraries (“Everything is a library”) Recompose them to meet the needs of particular applications profiling memory allocator scheduler drivers timers filesystem network stack Application(s)
  36. 36. 36 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Unikraft Way profiling memory allocator scheduler drivers timers filesystem network stack Application(s) Decompose OS into a set of libraries (“Everything is a library”) Recompose them to meet the needs of particular applications
  37. 37. 37 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Unikraft Way profiling memory allocator scheduler drivers timers filesystem network stack Application(s) Decompose OS into a set of libraries (“Everything is a library”) Recompose them to meet the needs of particular applications
  38. 38. 38 © NEC Corporation 2018 The Unikraft Way profiling memory allocator scheduler drivers timers filesystem network stack Application(s) Once decomposed, we can pick and choose which parts/libraries we actually need for our application Decompose OS into a set of libraries (“Everything is a library”) Recompose them to meet the needs of particular applications
  39. 39. 39 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft Overview – Everything as a Library myapp Select / build / port Application 1
  40. 40. 40 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft Overview – Everything as a Library main libs drivers libconsole.o libblkfront.o libnetfront.o network stack liblwip.o libtcpip.o libhttp.o memory allocators libbuddy.o libheap.o libmempool.o filesystems libvfs.o libfat.o libext3.o runtimes libocaml.o libpython.o liberlang.o schedulers libcoop.o libpreempt.o librt.o standard libs libc.o libnewlibc.o libopenssl.o myapp Select / build / port Application 1 Select and configure libraries 2
  41. 41. 41 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft Overview – Everything as a Library main libs platform libs libxenplat.o drivers libconsole.o libblkfront.o libnetfront.o network stack liblwip.o libtcpip.o libhttp.o memory allocators libbuddy.o libheap.o libmempool.o filesystems libvfs.o libfat.o libext3.o runtimes libocaml.o libpython.o liberlang.o schedulers libcoop.o libpreempt.o librt.o standard libs libc.o libnewlibc.o libopenssl.o libbaremetalplat.o Libkvmplat.o liblinuxuplat.o myapp Select / build / port Application 1 Select and configure libraries 2
  42. 42. 42 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft Overview – Everything as a Library architecture libs main libs platform libs libarm32arch.olibx86_64arch.o libxenplat.o drivers libconsole.o libblkfront.o libnetfront.o network stack liblwip.o libtcpip.o libhttp.o memory allocators libbuddy.o libheap.o libmempool.o filesystems libvfs.o libfat.o libext3.o runtimes libocaml.o libpython.o liberlang.o schedulers libcoop.o libpreempt.o librt.o standard libs libc.o libnewlibc.o libopenssl.o libbaremetalplat.o Libkvmplat.o libarm64arm.o liblinuxuplat.o myapp Select / build / port Application 1 Select and configure libraries 2
  43. 43. 43 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft Overview – Everything as a Library architecture libs main libs platform libs libarm32arch.olibx86_64arch.o libxenplat.o drivers libconsole.o libblkfront.o libnetfront.o network stack liblwip.o libtcpip.o libhttp.o memory allocators libbuddy.o libheap.o libmempool.o filesystems libvfs.o libfat.o libext3.o runtimes libocaml.o libpython.o liberlang.o schedulers libcoop.o libpreempt.o librt.o standard libs libc.o libnewlibc.o libopenssl.o libbaremetalplat.o Libkvmplat.o libarm64arm.o liblinuxuplat.o myapp Select / build / port Application 1 Select and configure libraries 2 Build3
  44. 44. 44 © NEC Corporation 2018 Unikraft Overview – Everything as a Library architecture libs main libs platform libs libarm32arch.olibx86_64arch.o libxenplat.o Unikernels unikraft_linuxu_x86_64unikraft_bare_x86_64 unikraft_bare_arm32 unikraft_bare_arm64 unikraft_xen_x86_64 unikraft_xen_arm32 unikraft_xen_arm64 unikraft_kvm_x86_64 unikraft_kvm_arm32 unikraft_kvm_arm64 drivers libconsole.o libblkfront.o libnetfront.o network stack liblwip.o libtcpip.o libhttp.o memory allocators libbuddy.o libheap.o libmempool.o filesystems libvfs.o libfat.o libext3.o runtimes libocaml.o libpython.o liberlang.o schedulers libcoop.o libpreempt.o librt.o standard libs libc.o libnewlibc.o libopenssl.o libbaremetalplat.o Libkvmplat.o libarm64arm.o liblinuxuplat.o myapp Select / build / port Application 1 Select and configure libraries 2 unikraft_linuxu_arm32 unikraft_linuxu_arm64 Build3 Run4
  45. 45. 45 © NEC Corporation 2018 Two Library Types ▌Built-in: functionality specific to Unikraft, live in the main unikraft repo  ukboot  ukschedpreempt …
  46. 46. 46 © NEC Corporation 2018 Two Library Types ▌Built-in: functionality specific to Unikraft, live in the main unikraft repo  ukboot  ukschedpreempt … ▌External: software projects external to Unikraft, have their own unikraft-lib repos  lwip  micropython  …
  47. 47. 47 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example System ▌Micropython Unikernel for KVM on x86_64 app_my_python.o
  48. 48. 48 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example System ▌Micropython Unikernel for KVM on x86_64 libmicropython.oapp_my_python.o
  49. 49. 49 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example System ▌Micropython Unikernel for KVM on x86_64 liblwip.o libmicropython.oapp_my_python.o
  50. 50. 50 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example System ▌Micropython Unikernel for KVM on x86_64 liblwip.o libvfscore.o libmicropython.oapp_my_python.o
  51. 51. 51 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example System ▌Micropython Unikernel for KVM on x86_64 liblwip.o libvfscore.o libmicropython.o libschedcoop.o app_my_python.o
  52. 52. 52 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example System ▌Micropython Unikernel for KVM on x86_64 liblwip.o libvfscore.o liballocbbuddy.o libmicropython.o libschedcoop.o app_my_python.o
  53. 53. 53 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example System ▌Micropython Unikernel for KVM on x86_64 liblwip.o libkvmplat.o libvfscore.o liballocbbuddy.o libmicropython.o libschedcoop.o app_my_python.o
  54. 54. 54 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example System ▌Micropython Unikernel for KVM on x86_64 liblwip.o libkvmplat.o libx86_64arch.o libvfscore.o liballocbbuddy.o libmicropython.o libschedcoop.o app_my_python.o
  55. 55. 55 © NEC Corporation 2018 Example System ▌Micropython Unikernel for KVM on x86_64 liblwip.o libkvmplat.o libx86_64arch.o libvfscore.o liballocbbuddy.o libmicropython.o libschedcoop.o app_my_python.o Unikernel
  56. 56. 56 © NEC Corporation 2018 Putting Things Together – The Unikraft Build Tool
  57. 57. 57 © NEC Corporation 2018 Putting Things Together – The Unikraft Build Tool ▌ Kconfig/Makefile based
  58. 58. 58 © NEC Corporation 2018 Putting Things Together – The Unikraft Build Tool ▌ Kconfig/Makefile based ▌ make menuconfig
  59. 59. 59 © NEC Corporation 2018 Putting Things Together – The Unikraft Build Tool ▌ Kconfig/Makefile based ▌ make menuconfig  Choose options in the menu that you want for your application
  60. 60. 60 © NEC Corporation 2018 Putting Things Together – The Unikraft Build Tool ▌ Kconfig/Makefile based ▌ make menuconfig  Choose options in the menu that you want for your application  Choose your target platform(s) (currently: Xen, KVM, Linux) and architectures
  61. 61. 61 © NEC Corporation 2018 Putting Things Together – The Unikraft Build Tool ▌ Kconfig/Makefile based ▌ make menuconfig  Choose options in the menu that you want for your application  Choose your target platform(s) (currently: Xen, KVM, Linux) and architectures ▌ Save config and make .config
  62. 62. 62 © NEC Corporation 2018 A Baseline Example… ▌Xen PV x86_64 binary
  63. 63. 63 © NEC Corporation 2018 A Baseline Example… ▌Xen PV x86_64 binary libnolibc.o libukboot.o libukdebug.o libxenplat.o unikraft_xen-x86_64.o unikraft_xen-x86_64 (32,7kB) Final linking
  64. 64. 64 © NEC Corporation 2018 A Baseline Example… ▌Xen PV x86_64 binary ▌Boots and prints messages to debug console (with min. 208kB RAM) libnolibc.o libukboot.o libukdebug.o libxenplat.o unikraft_xen-x86_64.o unikraft_xen-x86_64 (32,7kB) Final linking
  65. 65. 65 © NEC Corporation 2018 A Baseline Example… ▌Xen PV x86_64 binary ▌Boots and prints messages to debug console (with min. 208kB RAM) ▌More functional example: routing unikernel (click): 4.5 MB (8 MB RAM) libnolibc.o libukboot.o libukdebug.o libxenplat.o unikraft_xen-x86_64.o unikraft_xen-x86_64 (32,7kB) Final linking
  66. 66. Building a Unikraft Hello World App
  67. 67. 67 © NEC Corporation 2018 Repo Structure ▌Clone the main Unikraft repo git clone git://xenbits.xen.org/unikraft/unikraft.git ▌Clone any external library repos git clone git://xenbits.xen.org/unikraft/libs/newlib.git ▌Create repo for the actual application
  68. 68. 68 © NEC Corporation 2018 Repo Structure ▌Clone the main Unikraft repo git clone git://xenbits.xen.org/unikraft/unikraft.git ▌Clone any external library repos git clone git://xenbits.xen.org/unikraft/libs/newlib.git ▌Create repo for the actual application ├── unikraft ├── unikraft-apps │ └── helloworld ├── unikraft-libs │ ├── axtls │ ├── lwip │ ├── micropython │ ├── newlib │ ├── toybox
  69. 69. 69 © NEC Corporation 2018 Repo Structure ▌Clone the main Unikraft repo git clone git://xenbits.xen.org/unikraft/unikraft.git ▌Clone any external library repos git clone git://xenbits.xen.org/unikraft/libs/newlib.git ▌Create repo for the actual application ├── unikraft ├── unikraft-apps │ └── helloworld ├── unikraft-libs │ ├── axtls │ ├── lwip │ ├── micropython │ ├── newlib │ ├── toybox Unikraft repo (+ built-in libs)
  70. 70. 70 © NEC Corporation 2018 Repo Structure ▌Clone the main Unikraft repo git clone git://xenbits.xen.org/unikraft/unikraft.git ▌Clone any external library repos git clone git://xenbits.xen.org/unikraft/libs/newlib.git ▌Create repo for the actual application ├── unikraft ├── unikraft-apps │ └── helloworld ├── unikraft-libs │ ├── axtls │ ├── lwip │ ├── micropython │ ├── newlib │ ├── toybox Unikraft repo (+ built-in libs) application repo(s)
  71. 71. 71 © NEC Corporation 2018 Repo Structure ▌Clone the main Unikraft repo git clone git://xenbits.xen.org/unikraft/unikraft.git ▌Clone any external library repos git clone git://xenbits.xen.org/unikraft/libs/newlib.git ▌Create repo for the actual application ├── unikraft ├── unikraft-apps │ └── helloworld ├── unikraft-libs │ ├── axtls │ ├── lwip │ ├── micropython │ ├── newlib │ ├── toybox Unikraft repo (+ built-in libs) application repo(s) external libraries repos
  72. 72. 72 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (I) UK_ROOT ?= $(PWD)/../../unikraft UK_LIBS ?= $(PWD)/../../unikraft-libs LIBS := $(UK_LIBS)/newlib all: @make -C $(UK_ROOT) A=$(PWD) L=$(LIBS) $(MAKECMDGOALS): @make -C $(UK_ROOT) A=$(PWD) L=$(LIBS) $(MAKECMDGOALS) Makefile: specify where the main Unikraft repo is, as well as repos for external libraries
  73. 73. 73 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (I) UK_ROOT ?= $(PWD)/../../unikraft UK_LIBS ?= $(PWD)/../../unikraft-libs LIBS := $(UK_LIBS)/newlib all: @make -C $(UK_ROOT) A=$(PWD) L=$(LIBS) $(MAKECMDGOALS): @make -C $(UK_ROOT) A=$(PWD) L=$(LIBS) $(MAKECMDGOALS) path to unikraft repo Makefile: specify where the main Unikraft repo is, as well as repos for external libraries
  74. 74. 74 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (I) UK_ROOT ?= $(PWD)/../../unikraft UK_LIBS ?= $(PWD)/../../unikraft-libs LIBS := $(UK_LIBS)/newlib all: @make -C $(UK_ROOT) A=$(PWD) L=$(LIBS) $(MAKECMDGOALS): @make -C $(UK_ROOT) A=$(PWD) L=$(LIBS) $(MAKECMDGOALS) path to unikraft repo path to external libs Makefile: specify where the main Unikraft repo is, as well as repos for external libraries
  75. 75. 75 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (I) UK_ROOT ?= $(PWD)/../../unikraft UK_LIBS ?= $(PWD)/../../unikraft-libs LIBS := $(UK_LIBS)/newlib all: @make -C $(UK_ROOT) A=$(PWD) L=$(LIBS) $(MAKECMDGOALS): @make -C $(UK_ROOT) A=$(PWD) L=$(LIBS) $(MAKECMDGOALS) path to unikraft repo path to external libs external libs needed Makefile: specify where the main Unikraft repo is, as well as repos for external libraries
  76. 76. 76 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (II) $(eval $(call addlib,apphelloworld)) APPHELLOWORLD_SRCS-y += $(APPHELLOWORLD_BASE)/main.c Makefile.uk: specifies the sources to build for the application
  77. 77. 77 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (II) $(eval $(call addlib,apphelloworld)) APPHELLOWORLD_SRCS-y += $(APPHELLOWORLD_BASE)/main.c register app with unikraft build system Makefile.uk: specifies the sources to build for the application
  78. 78. 78 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (II) $(eval $(call addlib,apphelloworld)) APPHELLOWORLD_SRCS-y += $(APPHELLOWORLD_BASE)/main.c register app with unikraft build system Add main.c to build Makefile.uk: specifies the sources to build for the application
  79. 79. 79 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (III) ### Invisible option for dependencies config APPHELLOWORLD_DEPENDENCIES bool default y select LIBNOLIBC if !HAVE_LIBC ### App configuration config APPHELLOWORLD_PRINTARGS bool "Print arguments" default y help Prints argument list (argv) to stdout Config.uk: to populate Unikraft’s menu with application-specific option
  80. 80. 80 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (IV) #include <stdio.h> /* Import user configuration: */ #include <uk/config.h> int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { printf("Hello world!n"); #if CONFIG_APPHELLOWORLD_PRINTARGS int i; printf("Arguments:s"); for (i=0; i<argc; ++i) printf(" "%s"", argv[i]); printf("n"); #endif } main.c: source file to provide (at least) a main() function
  81. 81. 81 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (IV) #include <stdio.h> /* Import user configuration: */ #include <uk/config.h> int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { printf("Hello world!n"); #if CONFIG_APPHELLOWORLD_PRINTARGS int i; printf("Arguments:s"); for (i=0; i<argc; ++i) printf(" "%s"", argv[i]); printf("n"); #endif } main.c: source file to provide (at least) a main() function Unikernel entry point after boot
  82. 82. 82 © NEC Corporation 2018 Hello World – Four Required Files (IV) #include <stdio.h> /* Import user configuration: */ #include <uk/config.h> int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { printf("Hello world!n"); #if CONFIG_APPHELLOWORLD_PRINTARGS int i; printf("Arguments:s"); for (i=0; i<argc; ++i) printf(" "%s"", argv[i]); printf("n"); #endif } main.c: source file to provide (at least) a main() function Unikernel entry point after boot defined by Config.uk
  83. 83. Porting an External Library
  84. 84. 84 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library
  85. 85. 85 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library ▌Write Makefile.uk and add the external library source files to it  The library’s original Makefile can serve as a template  I’ll show how to in a second
  86. 86. 86 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library ▌Write Makefile.uk and add the external library source files to it  The library’s original Makefile can serve as a template  I’ll show how to in a second ▌Write Config.uk with library-specific options
  87. 87. 87 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library ▌Write Makefile.uk and add the external library source files to it  The library’s original Makefile can serve as a template  I’ll show how to in a second ▌Write Config.uk with library-specific options  Isn’t strictly required  But at least a simple “library on/off” option for kbuild is a good idea
  88. 88. 88 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library ▌Write Makefile.uk and add the external library source files to it  The library’s original Makefile can serve as a template  I’ll show how to in a second ▌Write Config.uk with library-specific options  Isn’t strictly required  But at least a simple “library on/off” option for kbuild is a good idea ▌Sometimes a bit of glue code is needed  E.g., in newlib to link POSIX thread creation to Unikraft’s thread library
  89. 89. 89 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library ▌Write Makefile.uk and add the external library source files to it  The library’s original Makefile can serve as a template  I’ll show how to in a second ▌Write Config.uk with library-specific options  Isn’t strictly required  But at least a simple “library on/off” option for kbuild is a good idea ▌Sometimes a bit of glue code is needed  E.g., in newlib to link POSIX thread creation to Unikraft’s thread library ▌ In this early phase: implement core unikraft functionality that is required to support your library, for example:  File descriptors/sockets  Threading support
  90. 90. 90 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library – Makefile.uk ################################################################################ # Library registration ################################################################################ $(eval $(call addlib_s,libaxtls,$(LIBAXTLS)))
  91. 91. 91 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library – Makefile.uk ################################################################################ # Library registration ################################################################################ $(eval $(call addlib_s,libaxtls,$(LIBAXTLS))) Register library with unikraft build system
  92. 92. 92 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library – Makefile.uk ################################################################################ # Library registration ################################################################################ $(eval $(call addlib_s,libaxtls,$(LIBAXTLS))) ################################################################################ # Source Download ################################################################################ # Nothing here: sources are small and included directly in the uk library repo Register library with unikraft build system
  93. 93. 93 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library – Makefile.uk ################################################################################ # Library registration ################################################################################ $(eval $(call addlib_s,libaxtls,$(LIBAXTLS))) ################################################################################ # Source Download ################################################################################ # Nothing here: sources are small and included directly in the uk library repo Register library with unikraft build system Download and patch library code $(eval $(call fetch,libaxtls,$(LIBAXTLS_URL))) $(eval $(call patch,libaxtls,$(LIBAXTLS_PATCHDIR),newlib-$(LIBAXTLS_VERSION)))
  94. 94. 94 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library – Makefile.uk ################################################################################ # Library registration ################################################################################ $(eval $(call addlib_s,libaxtls,$(LIBAXTLS))) ################################################################################ # Source Download ################################################################################ # Nothing here: sources are small and included directly in the uk library repo ################################################################################ # Library includes ################################################################################ CINCLUDES-y += -I$(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/include -I$(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/crypto -I$(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/ssl Register library with unikraft build system Download and patch library code $(eval $(call fetch,libaxtls,$(LIBAXTLS_URL))) $(eval $(call patch,libaxtls,$(LIBAXTLS_PATCHDIR),newlib-$(LIBAXTLS_VERSION))) The library’s original include directories
  95. 95. 95 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library – Makefile.uk ################################################################################ # Library registration ################################################################################ $(eval $(call addlib_s,libaxtls,$(LIBAXTLS))) ################################################################################ # Source Download ################################################################################ # Nothing here: sources are small and included directly in the uk library repo ################################################################################ # Library includes ################################################################################ CINCLUDES-y += -I$(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/include -I$(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/crypto -I$(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/ssl ################################################################################ # sources ################################################################################ LIBAXTLS_SRCS-y += $(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/crypto/aes.c LIBAXTLS_SRCS-y += $(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/crypto/bigint.c … LIBAXTLS_SRCS-y += $(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/crypto/sha512.c Register library with unikraft build system Download and patch library code $(eval $(call fetch,libaxtls,$(LIBAXTLS_URL))) $(eval $(call patch,libaxtls,$(LIBAXTLS_PATCHDIR),newlib-$(LIBAXTLS_VERSION))) The library’s original include directories The library’s original source files
  96. 96. 96 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library: Outlook ▌This can be a lot of busywork ▌What about special cases?  Special build systems  Additional steps other than compiling/linking  Preprocessing/dependencies? ################################################################################ # Library registration ################################################################################ $(eval $(call addlib_s,libaxtls,$(LIBAXTLS))) ################################################################################ # Source Download ################################################################################ # Nothing here: sources are small and included directly in the uk library repo ################################################################################ # Library includes ################################################################################ CINCLUDES-y += -I$(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/include -I$(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/crypto -I$(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/ssl ################################################################################ # sources ################################################################################ LIBAXTLS_SRCS-y += $(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/crypto/aes.c LIBAXTLS_SRCS-y += $(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/crypto/bigint.c … LIBAXTLS_SRCS-y += $(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/crypto/sha512.c
  97. 97. 97 © NEC Corporation 2018 How To Port an External Library: Outlook ▌This can be a lot of busywork ▌What about special cases?  Special build systems  Additional steps other than compiling/linking  Preprocessing/dependencies? ▌Coming soon: Build passthrough mode  Currently under review  Vastly simplifies Makefile creation work  Especially for large or complicated libraries ################################################################################ # Library registration ################################################################################ $(eval $(call addlib_s,libaxtls,$(LIBAXTLS))) ################################################################################ # Source Download ################################################################################ # Nothing here: sources are small and included directly in the uk library repo ################################################################################ # Library includes ################################################################################ CINCLUDES-y += -I$(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/include -I$(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/crypto -I$(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/ssl ################################################################################ # sources ################################################################################ LIBAXTLS_SRCS-y += $(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/crypto/aes.c LIBAXTLS_SRCS-y += $(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/crypto/bigint.c … LIBAXTLS_SRCS-y += $(LIBAXTLS_BASE)/crypto/sha512.c ################################################################################ # build ################################################################################ UK_ARS-y += $(LIBAXTLS_ORIGIN)/$(LIBAXTLS_DIR)/build/libaxtls.o LIBAXTILS/.prepared: $(call verbose_cmd,CONFIGURE,libaxtls: $@, mkdir -p $(LIBAXTLS_ORIGIN)/$(LIBAXTLS_DIR) && ./configure && make)
  98. 98. Unikraft 0.2 Titan Current Status
  99. 99. 99 © NEC Corporation 2018 Available Libraries ▌Core Libraries libfdt • Flat device tree parser libnolibc • A tiny libc replacement libukalloc • Memory allocator abstraction libukallocbbuddy • Binary buddy allocator libukargparse • Argument parser library libukboot • Unikraft bootstrapping libukdebug • Debug and kernel printing • Assertions, hexdump libuksched • Scheduler abstraction libukschedcoop • Cooperative scheduler ▌External Libraries  libnewlib • libc originally aimed at embedded devices  liblwip • lightweight TCP/IP stack ▌Architecture Libraries  libarmmath • 64bit arithmetic on ARMv7  libx86ctx • Extended register support for x86 ctx switch ▌Platform Libraries  libxenplat • Xen (PV) • x86_64, ARMv7  libkvmplat • QEMU/kvm • x86_64, ARM64, virtio-net support  liblinuxu • Linux userspace • x86_64, ARMv7 libukbus • abstraction for device buses, e.g., PCI libuklock • mutexes and semaphores libukmpi • message-passing interface libuknetdev • network device support libukswrand • pseudo-RNG interface libuktimeconv • time calculation/conversion libvfscore • basic file descriptor management / mapping / handling
  100. 100. 100 © NEC Corporation 2018 Current work: coming soon (in the pipeline) or being ported ▌Core Libraries libukschedpreempt • Pre-emptive scheduler ▌External Libraries libclick • Click modular router (e.g., for NFV) libaxtls • TLS support aimed at embedded devices libstdc++ libmicropython • Python implemented for microcontrollers ▌Architecture Libraries libarmctx • Extended register support for Arm ctx switch ▌Platform Libraries libxenplat • ARM64 support • netfront support liblinuxu • tap device based networking support
  101. 101. 101 © NEC Corporation 2018 The road ahead ▌First public alpha release (without much functionality) in December ▌Released as a Xen incubator project ▌Initially, mostly internal contributors from NEC Labs ▌Currently external contributors from  Romania (netfront, scheduling; from University Politehnica Bucharest)  Israel (bare-metal support)  China (ARM64 support; from ARM) ▌We welcome additional contributors! ▌Resources:  Code: https://xenbits.xen.org/gitweb/?pf=unikraft (make sure you check out staging!)  On-line documentation: unikraft.org  IRC: #unikraft @ freenode  Mailing list: minios-devel@lists.xen.org

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