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CRANIAL NERVES- ANATOMY

BRIEF INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW ABOUT THE ORIGIN, STRUCTURE, ATTACHMENTS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE CRANIAL NERVES FROM HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM.

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CRANIAL NERVES :
ANATOMY
INTRODUCTION
 Twelve pairs
 Pass through or into the cranial bones
(thus cranial nerves)
 Numbered I to XII roughly in order from
top (rostral) to bottom (caudal)
 Some cranial nerves contain only sensory
fibres, some contain only motor fibres,
and some contain both.
 Some cranial nerves convey parasympathetic
fibres, some convey taste fibres, some convey
both, and some neither
 Olfactory and optic nerves are not “proper”
nerves
 I and II are attached to the cerebral hemispheres
 III to XII to are attached to the brain stem
(midbrain, pons and medulla)
CRANIAL NERVES
NAME TYPE PRNCIPAL FUNCTION
I Olfactory Sensory Smell
II Optic Sensory Vision
III Oculomotor Motor Movt of eyeballs
IV Trochlear Motor Movt of eyeballs
NAME TYPE PRNCIPAL FUNCTION
V Trigeminal
Va: Ophthalmic
Vb: Maxillary
Vc: Mandibular
Va: Sensory
Vb: Sensory
Vc: Mixed
Va: Sensation from eyeball,
anterior scalp, upper face
Vb: Sensation from nasal cavity
and sinuses, palate, mid face,
maxillary teeth
Vc: Muscles of mastication,
tensor tympani
Sensation from chin, temple, oral
cavity, tongue, TM Joint,
mandibular teeth, ear,
proprioception from muscles of
mastication
VI Abducens Motor Movements of eyeball:
lateral rectus muscle
VII Facial Mixed Muscles of facial expression,
stapedius (middle ear)
(parasympathetic: lacrimal,
NAME TYPE PRNCIPAL FUNCTION
IX Glossopharyngeal Mixed Sensation from oropharynx,
posterior tongue, carotid body
and sinus
(taste: posterior tongue)
(muscle: stylopharyngeus)
(parasympathetic: parotid gland)
X Vagus Mixed Muscles of larynx, pharynx
(phonation, swallowing)
Sensation from larynx,
hypopharynx, heart, lungs,
abdominal viscera
(taste: epiglottic region,
hypopharynx)
(parasympathetic: cardiac
muscle; muscles and glands of
foregut and
midgut: intestinal activity)
XI Accessory Motor Muscles: sternocleidomastoid,
trapezius
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CRANIAL NERVES- ANATOMY

  • 2. INTRODUCTION  Twelve pairs  Pass through or into the cranial bones (thus cranial nerves)  Numbered I to XII roughly in order from top (rostral) to bottom (caudal)  Some cranial nerves contain only sensory fibres, some contain only motor fibres, and some contain both.
  • 3.  Some cranial nerves convey parasympathetic fibres, some convey taste fibres, some convey both, and some neither  Olfactory and optic nerves are not “proper” nerves  I and II are attached to the cerebral hemispheres  III to XII to are attached to the brain stem (midbrain, pons and medulla)
  • 4. CRANIAL NERVES NAME TYPE PRNCIPAL FUNCTION I Olfactory Sensory Smell II Optic Sensory Vision III Oculomotor Motor Movt of eyeballs IV Trochlear Motor Movt of eyeballs
  • 5. NAME TYPE PRNCIPAL FUNCTION V Trigeminal Va: Ophthalmic Vb: Maxillary Vc: Mandibular Va: Sensory Vb: Sensory Vc: Mixed Va: Sensation from eyeball, anterior scalp, upper face Vb: Sensation from nasal cavity and sinuses, palate, mid face, maxillary teeth Vc: Muscles of mastication, tensor tympani Sensation from chin, temple, oral cavity, tongue, TM Joint, mandibular teeth, ear, proprioception from muscles of mastication VI Abducens Motor Movements of eyeball: lateral rectus muscle VII Facial Mixed Muscles of facial expression, stapedius (middle ear) (parasympathetic: lacrimal,
  • 6. NAME TYPE PRNCIPAL FUNCTION IX Glossopharyngeal Mixed Sensation from oropharynx, posterior tongue, carotid body and sinus (taste: posterior tongue) (muscle: stylopharyngeus) (parasympathetic: parotid gland) X Vagus Mixed Muscles of larynx, pharynx (phonation, swallowing) Sensation from larynx, hypopharynx, heart, lungs, abdominal viscera (taste: epiglottic region, hypopharynx) (parasympathetic: cardiac muscle; muscles and glands of foregut and midgut: intestinal activity) XI Accessory Motor Muscles: sternocleidomastoid, trapezius
  • 7. DEVELOPMENT  Forebrain: 1. Telencephalon (the cerebral hemispheres) and 2. Diencephalon (the thalamic structures surrounding the third ventricle)  Midbrain, or mesencephalon  Hindbrain: pons, cerebellum and medulla
  • 9. ATTACHMENTS OF CRANIAL NERVES  Forebrain Cranial n. I  Telencephalon: limbic system Cribriform plate (ethmoid) Cranial n. II  Diencephalon: lateral geniculate body  Optic canal (sphenoid)
  • 10.  Midbrain Cranial n. III  Upper midbrain (ventral): Interpeduncular fossa  Superior orbital fissure (sphenoid) Cranial n. IV  Lower midbrain (dorsal): below inferior colliculi  Superior orbital fissure (sphenoid)
  • 11.  Hindbrain Cranial n. V  Pons (lateral aspect)  Va: superior orbital fissure (sphenoid) Vb: foramen rotundum (sphenoid) Vc: foramen ovale (sphenoid) Cranial n. VI  Pontomedullary junction (Near midline)  Superior orbital fissure (sphenoid)
  • 12. Cranial n. VII  Pontomedullary junction (Cerebellopontine angle )  Internal acoustic meatus, facial canal, stylomastoid foramen (temporal) Cranial n. VIII  Pontomedullary junction (Cerebellopontine angle )  Internal acoustic meatus (Temporal)
  • 13. Cranial n. IX, X, XI  Medulla (Rootlets, lateral to inferior olive, extending down to cervical cord)  Jugular foramen (between occipital and temporal bones) Cranial n. XII  Medulla ( Rootlets between pyramid and olive)  Hypoglossal canal (occipital)
  • 16. TYPES OF NERVE FIBRE WITHIN CRANIAL NERVES  Motor nerves: voluntary/involuntary  Motor nerves: somatic/visceral  Sensory nerves: somatic/visceral
  • 17. GANGLION AND NUCLEUS  Easily confused  Both contain nerve cell bodies  Some cranial nerves are associated with both a ganglion and a nucleus with the same name  Example, the trigeminal nerve (V) is associated with the trigeminal ganglion and several trigeminal nuclei
  • 18.  In a nerve, ganglion means a swelling on the nerve.  Caused by a collection of nerve cell bodies on a peripheral nerve  A nucleus is an aggregation of cell bodies in the CNS  Exception: basal ganglia of the brain  Ganglia are peripheral; nuclei are central
  • 19. CRANIAL NERVE NUCLEI  A nucleus is a collection in the central grey matter of cell bodies of neurons serving similar functions  Motor and sensory nuclei  In the developing neural tube, motor components are in the ventral portion (basal lamina) and sensory components in the dorsal portion (alar lamina)  separated by the sulcus limitans
  • 20.  Visceral elements develop near the sulcus  Somatic elements towards the dorsal and ventral margins  Ventral to dorsal arrangement: Somatic motor, visceral motor, visceral sensory and somatic sensory.
  • 22.  In the brain stem:  dorsal aspects of the brain stem were forcibly parted by the enlarging central canal which becomes the fourth ventricle.  The sequence of somatic motor, visceral motor, visceral sensory, somatic sensory is medial to lateral