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11th vol3

  1. 1. Eleventh Five Year Plan 2007-12 Eleventh Five Year Plan 2007-12 Volume III agrIculture, rural deVelopment, Industry, serVIces, and physIcal Infrastructure Volume I I I Planning Commission Government of India
  2. 2. Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007–2012)Agriculture, Rural Development, Industry, Services and Physical Infrastructure Volume III Planning Commission Government of India
  3. 3. 1 YMCA Library Building, Jai Singh Road, New Delhi 110 001 Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide in Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press in the UK and in certain other countries Published in India By Oxford University Press, New Delhi © Planning Commission (Government of India) 2008 The moral rights of the author have been asserted First published 2008All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by any means,electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from Planning Commission, Government of India ISBN-13: 978-0-19-569650-9 ISBN-10: 0-19-569650-6 Published by Oxford University Press YMCA Library Building, Jai Singh Road, New Delhi 110 001 On behalf of Planning Commission, Government of India, Yojna Bhawan, Sansad Marg, New Delhi 110 001
  4. 4. 1ContentsList of Tables vList of Figures ixList of Boxes xList of Annexures xiiList of Acronyms xiv I. Agriculture1. AGRICULTURE 32. WATER MANAGEMENT AND IRRIGATION 433. FOREST 65 II. Rural Development4. RAPID POVERTY REDUCTION 795. ENSURING RURAL AND URBAN LIVELIHOODS 1046. BHARAT NIRMAN AND FLAGSHIP PROGRAMMES 129 III. Industry7. INDUSTRY 139 7.1 Industry including Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) 139 7.2 Minerals 206 IV. Services8. SERVICES 239 8.1 Construction 239 8.2 Tourism 245
  5. 5. iv Contents 8.3 IT and IT-Enabled Services 251 8.4 Financial Services 259 V. Physical Infrastructure09. TRANSPORT 279 9.1 Integrated Transport System 279 9.2 Railways 279 9.3 Roads 289 9.4 Shipping 308 9.5 Ports 314 9.6 Civil Aviation 32010. ENERGY 34211. URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE, HOUSING, BASIC SERVICES AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION 39412. COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 423 12.1 Telecommunications 423 12.2 Information Technology 431 12.3 India Post 438 12.4 Information and Broadcasting 444 AppendixPROJECTED GBS FOR THE ELEVENTH PLAN 455
  6. 6. 1Tables 1.1 Average GDP Growth Rates—Overall and in Agriculture 4 1.2 Growth Rates of National State Domestic Product (NSDP) from Agriculture 4 1.3 Growth Rate in Output of Various Sub-sectors of Agriculture 5 1.4 Trend Growth Rate in Area, Input Use, Credit and Capital Stock in Agriculture—1980–81 to 2005–06 6 1.5 Investment in Agriculture 8 1.6 Region-specific Factors Causing Low Productivity 9 1.7 Outlay and Expenditure of Ministry of Agriculture during the Tenth Five Year Plan 10 1.8 Production and Distribution of Seeds 16 1.9 Changing Share of Private and Public Sector in Seeds Production 171.10 Credit Flow to Agriculture Sector by Co-operatives 211.11 Progress of Reforms in Agricultural Markets (APMC Act) as on March 2008 23 2.1 Estimates of Water Resources in India 44 2.2 Ultimate Irrigation Potential, Potential Created and Potential Utilized 45 2.3 Water Requirement for Various Sectors 46 2.4 Physical Progress under CAD and Water Management (CADWM) Programme in the Tenth Plan 47 2.5 Physical and Financial Performance of MMI Sector during the Tenth Plan 47 2.6 Spillover Major, Medium and ERM Projects into the Eleventh Plan 48 2.7 Unapproved Major, Medium and ERM Projects 49 2.8 Performance of AIBP Projects 50 2.9 Physical and Financial Performance of MI Sector during the Tenth Plan 502.10 Financial Performance in Flood Management during the Tenth Plan 522.11 Flood Damage and Relief in the Tenth Plan 522.12 Progress of Inter-linking of Rivers 572.13 State-wise Number of WUAs Formed and Irrigated Area Covered 592.14 The Overall Outlay for the Eleventh Five Year Plan 622.15 Physical Target 622.16 Overall Employment Potential 62 4.1 Percentage of People Below Poverty Line in India (1973–2004) 79 4.2 Number of Persons Below Poverty Line in India (1973–2004) 80
  7. 7. vi Tables 4.3 Percentage of Households by Asset-holding Categories, by Social Group 81 4.4 Land Owned per Household by Social Group, 2003 82 4.5 Incidence of Indebtedness by Social Group 82 4.6 Health and Nutrition Indicators by Social Groups in 2005–06 (NFHS-3) 83 4.7 Gross Enrolment, Dropout at Primary Stage (I–V) by Social Groups, 2004–05 83 5.1 Performance of Handloom Sector during the Tenth Plan Period 108 5.2 Performance of Handicraft Sector during the Tenth Plan Period 111 5.3 Performance of Powerloom Sector during the Tenth Plan Period 113 5.4 Performance of Sericulture Sector during the Tenth Plan 115 5.5 Tenth Plan Achievements and Eleventh Plan Targets for Wool Sector 118 5.6 Performance of the KVI Sector during the Tenth Five Year Plan 120 5.7 Performance of Coir Industry during the Tenth Plan Period 121 5.8 Performance of FPI Sector during the Tenth Plan Period 123 5.9 Year-wise Physical Targets for the Eleventh Plan for FPI (MSME Manufacturing Units) 125 A5.1 Indian Clusters—An Overview 127 6.1 Index of Social and Economic Infrastructure 129 6.2 Targets under Bharat Nirman 130 6.3 Irrigation Targets under Bharat Nirman 130 6.4 Physical Progress of Bharat Nirman during 2005–07 131 7.1.1 Growth Rates 139 7.1.2 Sectoral Share in GDP 140 7.1.3 Trends in the Performance of Industrial Sub-Sectors —Annual Growth Rate 141 7.1.4 Gross Capital Formation and Capital Formation in Manufacturing 141 7.1.5 Employment in Organized Manufacturing 143 7.1.6 Contribution of Non-departmental Enterprises to GDP at Factor Cost (Current Price) 153 7.1.7 Macro View of Central Public Sector Enterprises 154 7.1.8 Performance Indicators of State-level Public Enterprises 155 7.1.9 Projection of Growth in Vehicle Production and Exports in the Eleventh Five Year Plan 1667.1.10 Capacity, Production, and Export of Cement 1707.1.11 Projected Shipbuilding Order Book Turnover 1867.1.12 Plan Outlays for the Last Three Five Year Plans for VSE Sector 1957.1.13 Chinese Town and Village Enterprises (TVEs) Exports 1967.1.14 Definition of MSMEs 1977.1.15 Year-wise Physical Targets for the Eleventh Plan 203 7.2.1 Production and Imports of Lead–Zinc Concentrate 212 7.2 2 Minerals—Unrealized Potential 213 8.2.1 Contribution of Travel and Tourism (T&T) in GDP and Employment in 2007 245 8.2.2 Tourists Arrivals in India 246 8.2.3 Tourism Receipts 246 8.3.1 Growth of IT-ITES Professionals in India—Indian IT Sector: Knowledge Professionals Employed 253 8.3.2 Manpower Requirements for IT-ITES in India 254 8.3.3 Indian IT-ITES Exports Forecast 2007–2012 259 8.4.1 Growth Rate (Real) of Financial Services (Banking and Insurance) 259 8.4.2 Savings and Loan Accounts 260 8.4.3 Credit Access of Farmer Households 261 8.4.4 Flow of Credit to Agriculture 262
  8. 8. Tables vii8.4.5 Distribution of Outstanding Credit of SCBs according to the Size of the Credit Limit 2628.4.6 Sector-wise Distribution of Outstanding Credit of SCBs 2638.4.7 Artisan and Village Industries and Other Small-Scale Industries 2638.4.8 Average Population per Branch Office 2699.2.1 Physical Targets and Achievements 2809.2.2 Productivity Performance 2819.2.3 Throw Forward of Projects 2859.2.4 Projection of Freight Traffic in the Eleventh Five Year Plan vis-à-vis Achievements in the Ninth and Tenth Plans 2879.2.5 Projection of Passenger Traffic in the Eleventh Five Year Plan vis-à-vis Achievements in the Ninth and Tenth Plans 2879.2.6 Eleventh Five Year Plan—Requirement for Rolling Stock 2889.3.1 Achievements on National Highways 2909.3.2 Corridor-wise Details of Progress on the Golden Quadrilateral as on 31 August 2007 2919.3.3 Status of NHDP and Other NHAI Projects as on 31 August 2007 2929.3.4 Connectivity Status under PMGSY (as on 31 March 2007)—Targets versus Achievements 2949.3.5 Shortfall in Funds for Road Maintenance in the Tenth Plan 2959.3.6 Phasing of Expressway by the Study Group of MoSRTH 2979.3.7 Estimated Targets for the Eleventh Five Year Plan 3039.4.1 Financial Performance of the Shipping Sector in the Tenth Plan 3089.4.2 Increase in Tonnage 3099.5.1 Tenth Plan Cargo Traffic Targets and Achievements 3149.5.2 Tenth Plan—Capacity Added to Major Ports 3159.5.3 Tenth Plan—Productivity Parameters of Major Ports 3159.5.4 Capacity Creation and Projected Traffic in Major Ports in the Eleventh Plan 3179.6.1 Financial Performance of Air India 3249.6.2 Growth in Capacity and Traffic during the Tenth Plan 3249.6.3 Financial Performance of Indian Airlines 3259.6.4 Growth in Capacity and Traffic during the Tenth Plan 3259.6.5 Financial Performance of Airports Authority of India 3269.6.6 Financial Performance of Pawan Hans Helicopters Ltd 3269.6.7 Financial Performance of Air India Charters Ltd 327 10.1 Projected Primary Energy Requirement for India, 2030 343 10.2 Trends in Demand and Supply of Primary Energy 345 10.3 Source-wise Energy Demand 346 10.4 Percentage Demand met from Domestic Sources 346 10.5 Projected Commercial Energy Requirement for 2011–12 at the Rate of 9% Growth 347 10.6 Growth Rates of Domestic Supply 347 10.7 Installed Capacity Addition during the Tenth Plan 351 10.8 All-India Cumulative Generating Capacity 351 10.9 Cumulative Achievements of Transmission Lines at the End of the Tenth Plan 35210.10 Summary of Investment Component of APDRP (as on 31 August 2007) 35210.11 Viability of State Utilities not Improving 35310.12 Outlay/Expenditure—Centre, State and UTs 35410.13 Status of Capacity Addition during the Eleventh Plan 35410.14 Sector-wise, Mode-wise Capacity Addition during the Eleventh Plan 35510.15 Generating Capacity Anticipated at the End of the Eleventh Plan 355
  9. 9. viii Tables 10.16 Fuel Requirement during 2011–12 357 10.17 Physical Programmes—Petroleum and Natural Gas 365 10.18 Outlays/Expenditure—Petroleum and Natural Gas 365 10.19 Crude Oil Production 368 10.20 Natural Gas Production 368 10.21 LNG Supply Projections during the Eleventh Plan 369 10.22 Projected Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production from Overseas 369 10.23 Public Sector Outlays for the Eleventh Plan 370 10.24 Accretion of Coal Reserves over the Years 372 10.25 Company-wise/Scheme-wise Expenditure during the Tenth Plan 375 10.26 Household Energy Consumption in India (July 1999–June 2000) 384 10.27 Estimated Medium-term (2032) Potential and Cumulative Achievements as on 31 March 2007 386 10.28 Progress in Grid Interactive Renewable Power 387 10.29 Capital Costs and the Typical Cost of Generated Electricity from the Renewable Options 387 10.30 Power Generation through Grid Interactive Renewable Power 387 10.31 Financial Outlays Proposed for the Eleventh Plan 388 10.32 Physical Targets Proposed for the Eleventh Plan 388 10.33 Proposed R&D Initiatives in the Eleventh Plan 390 11.1 City/Town-wise Average Access to Drinking Water 402 11.2 Funds Requirement—Urban Basic Services 404 11.3 Proposed Flow of Funds 404 11.4 Comparison of Poverty Estimates Based on Uniform Recall Period 405 11.5 Comparison of Poverty Estimates Based on Mixed Recall Period 405 11.6 Number of Persons below Poverty Line in Urban and Rural Areas 405 11.7 Social Housing Schemes 407 11.8 Urban Local Bodies/Parastatals which have been Granted Permission for Issue of Tax-Free Bonds 418 11.9 Outlay and Expenditure 420 11.10 Funds Requirement 422 11.11 Sources of Funding 422 11.12 Slum Population—Census 2001 422 11.13 Population, Housing and Basic Amenities 42212.1.1 Telecom Network Status in India as on March 2007 42312.1.2 Private Sector Participation (as on 31 March 2006) 42412.1.3 Status of Telecom Indicators in Some Countries as on December 2005 42412.1.4 Expansion of Telecom Network—Public and Private Operators and Fixed and Mobile (PSUs and Private Operators) during the Tenth Plan Period (2002–07) 42512.1.5 Performance of Telecom Equipment Manufacturing Sector during the Tenth Plan 42612.4.1 Annual Growth of Indian Entertainment and Media Industry 445
  10. 10. 1Figures 2.1 Expenditure on Irrigation 46 2.2 Categorization of Blocks/Mandals/Talukas as on March 2004 51 7.1.1 Share in World Exports of Manufactured Goods 142 7.1.2 Starting a Business—Time, and Procedures 144 7.1.3 Closing a Business—Time, and Recovery Rate 145 7.1.4 Contribution of States to Output and Employment in Manufacturing 160 7.1.5 Auto Components—Projection of Turnover and Exports 167 7.1.6 Cement—Export, Project Demand and Capacity needed by 2011–12 170 7.1.7 Share (Value of Output) of Different Segments of Chemical Industry in India 173 7.1.8 Domestic Sales and Exports of Pharmaceuticals 174 7.1.9 Pharmaceuticals—Exports, Retail Sale and Institutional Sale by 2011–12 1757.1.10 Demand of Fertilizer by 2011–12 1787.1.11 Indian Leather Exports—Changing Structure 1807.1.12 Projected Growth of India’s Exports of Leather and Leather Products 1807.1.13 Relative Scale of Operation of Plastic Processing Industry 1837.1.14 Ownership-wise Distribution 1907.1.15 Project Cost Sanctioned under TUFS 1937.1.16 Growth of the SME Sector in India 1987.1.17 Availability of Credit for SSI and Tiny Units 201 7.2.1 Approvals of Reconnaissance Permit 207 7.2.2 Production and Export of Aluminium 208 7.2.3 Capacity, Production and Export of Copper 208 7.2.4 Capacity and Production of Zinc 209 7.2.5 Capacity and Production of Lead 210 10.1 Estimated Sector-wise Demand for Coal in 2011–12 37612.4.1 Indian Entertainment and Media Industry—Status and Projections 445
  11. 11. 1Boxes 1.1 Strengths and Weaknesses of Watershed Development Projects in India after 1994 27 3.1 Avoided Deforestation Incentive Mechanism for States 73 5.1 Untapped Domestic and International Markets for Traditional Crafts 105 5.2 Hope Looms 108 5.3 Eleventh Plan Schemes—Handicrafts 112 5.4 Eleventh Plan Schemes 119 5.5 From Poverty to Prosperity 1257.1.1 Autonomous Institutions in Industry Sector 1577.1.2 Industrial Area Development Schemes 1587.1.3 Dwindling of a Vibrant Sector 2007.1.4 Small Success 2048.1.1 Holistic Human Resource Development (HRD)—Construction Industry Development Council (CIDC) 2419.2.1 Expansion of Chinese and Indian Railways (1992–2002)—A Comparison 2829.2.2 Dedicated Freight Corridors (DFCs) 2839.2.3 Throw Forward—A Way Forward 2859.2.4 Fare–Freight Ratio of World Railways 2859.2.5 Public–Private Partnership (PPP) 2869.3.1 Initiatives taken to Expedite Completion of Quality Road Projects 2939.3.2 Modernization of Maintenance Management 2969.3.3 Initiatives taken to Facilitate Private Sector Investment 2969.3.4 Road Sector Objectives for the Eleventh Plan 3009.3.5 Innovations by some State Governments 3019.3.6 Some Options of Resource Mobilization for Rural Roads 3019.5.1 Tariff Setting Mechanism 319 10.1 Integrated Energy Policy 343 10.2 Energy Equivalence 345 10.3 Private Sector Participation 357 11.1 Vision 394 11.2 Strategy of Urban Development 395 11.3 Status of Urban Services 402
  12. 12. Boxes xi 11.4 Objectives for Urban Poverty Alleviation 406 11.5 Slums 406 11.6 Integrated Slum Development 406 11.7 Spread of Slums 406 11.8 Housing Construction and Ownership 407 11.9 New Focus in SJSRY 408 11.10 Housing Stock 410 11.11 Housing Shortage and Requirement 411 11.12 Investment Requirement 412 11.13 Financing of Housing Loans 412 11.14 Best Practices in Public Transport 42112.2.1 Major Government Initiatives 43212.2.2 Indicative List of Successful Initiatives in the States 43312.3.1 Basic Profile of the Postal Sector 439
  13. 13. 1Annexures 1.1 Plan Outlays for the Centre, States and UTs 41 1.2 Degraded Lands Developed under Various Watershed Development Programmes—since Inception upto the Tenth Five Year Plan 42 1.3 Projection for Central Sector GBS–Ministry-wise for the Eleventh Plan 42 2.1 Plan-wise Cumulative Potential Created and Utilized 64 4.1 Headcount Ratio and Number of Poor Persons Below Poverty Line in India (Combined) 100 4.2 Headcount Ratio and Number of Poor Persons Below Poverty Line in India (Rural) 101 4.3 Headcount Ratio and Number of Poor Persons Below Poverty Line in India (Urban) 102 4.4 Percentage of Population Below Poverty Line by Social Groups—2004–05 103 5.1 Cluster Development in India—Towards a Reinvigorated Cluster Approach 127 7.1.1 Industrial Investment Proposals 217 7.1.2 Investment Projects Benefiting from Loans from Banks/FIs in 2004–05, 2005–06 and 2006–07 217 7.1.3 Composition of Exports and Growth Rates 218 7.1.4 Performance of CPSEs during the Tenth Five Year Plan 219 7.1.5 State-wise and Year-wise Investment Intentions (IEMs + LOIs + DILs) 220 7.1.6 State-wise Investment Projects Benefiting from Loans from Banks/FIs during 2004–05, 2005–06 and 2006–07 221 7.1.7 Production and Export of Vehicles 222 7.1.8 Production and Export Performance in Capital Goods Sector 222 7.1.9 Production of Chemicals 2237.1.10 Production, Consumption and Import of Fertilizers 2237.1.11 Production, Import and Export of Paper and Paperboard 2247.1.12 Production, Import and Export of Newsprint 2247.1.13 Performance of Commodity Polymers and Synthetic Fibres 2247.1.14 Production, Import and Export of Finished Steel 2257.1.15 Estimated Requirement of Raw Material and Other Inputs in Steel Production by 2011–12 2257.1.16 Production, Consumption and Export of Sugar during 2002–03 to 2006–07 2257.1.17 Production of Cloth—Year on Year Growth 2267.1.18 Exports of Textiles and Clothing during the Tenth Five Year Plan 2267.1.19 The Tenth Plan Outlay and Anticipated Expenditure and the Eleventh Plan Outlay 227
  14. 14. Annexures xiii7.1.20 Performance of SSIs, Year 2001–01 to 2006–07 2287.1.21 Export Destination (Country) of SSI Products 2287.1.22 Participation of Women in SSI Sector, State-wise 2297.1.23 Schemes for MSME 230 7.2.1 Organization/Company-wise Actual Expenditure in the Tenth Five Year Plan—Ministry of Mines 232 7.2.2 Life Indices of Important Minerals 232 7.2.3 Estimated Apparent Consumption, Domestic Production, Resource Situation and Life Index of Selected Minerals 233 7.2.4 Material Balance of Principal Non-ferrous Metals 234 7.2.5 Iron Ore Availability—Haematite (as on 1 April 2005) 234 7.2.6 Iron Ore Availability—Magnetite (as on 1 April 2005) 234 7.2.7 Physical Targets Proposed by GSI for some Important Activities for the Eleventh Plan (2007–12) 235 7.2.8 Physical Targets Proposed by IBM and MECL for some Important Activities for the Eleventh Plan (2007–12) 235 7.2.9 Expansion Projects of NALCO—Capacity Additions 2367.2.10 Scheme-wise Break-up of Eleventh Plan Outlays at Current Price—Ministry of Mines 236 8.2.1 Financial and Physical Performance of Tourism during the Tenth Five Year Plan 273 9.2.1 Resource Mobilization for the Tenth Five Year Plan 329 9.2.2 Gross Budgetary Support 329 9.3.1 Financial and Physical Performance 330 9.3.2 Central Road Sector Outlay and Expenditure—At Current and Constant Price for the Tenth Plan 332 9.3.3 Plan-wise Addition to NH Length 333 9.3.4 Bharat Nirman—Targets for New Connectivity 334 9.3.5 Tenth Five Year Plan (2002–07)—Financial and Physical Performance of Road Transport 336 9.3.6 State-wise Sanctions and Releases of Central Share in Respect of Model Driving Training School—Status as on 31 March 2007 337 9.3.7 Physical Performance of State Road Transport Corporations/Undertakings 338 9.5.1 Year-wise Physical Targets and Achievements during the Tenth Plan— Major Ports (Commodity-wise) 339 9.5.2 Year-wise Physical Targets and Achievements during the Tenth Plan— Major Ports (Port-wise) 339 9.5.3 Tenth Plan—Outlays and Expenditure in Ports Sector 340 9.6.1 Financial Progress of the Civil Aviation Sector during the Tenth Plan 341 10.1 Coal Demand/Supply—Sector-wise Break-up 391 10.2 Company-wise Coal Production Programme 392 10.3 Calorific Values, Units and Conversion Factors 39312.2.1 Performance of IT Hardware and Software during the Tenth Five Year Plan 45012.2.2 Performance of Export Segment of IT Hardware and Software during the Tenth Five Year Plan 45012.4.1 Progress of the Plan Expenditure of Communication and Information Sector 451
  15. 15. 1Acronyms3G Third Generation APEDA Agricultural and Processed FoodA&N Islands Andaman and Nicobar Islands Products Export DevelopmentAAI Airports Authority of India AuthorityAAUI Automobile Association of APES Apparel Parks for Exports Upper India SchemeABB Asea Brown Boveri Ltd API Active Pharmaceutical IngredientACA Additional Central Assistance APM Administered Price MechanismACI Aero Club of India APMC Agricultural Product MarketingACZs Agro-Climatic Zones CommitteeADB Asian Development Bank ARAI Automotive Research AssociationAGR Adjusted Gross Revenue of IndiaAI Air India ASI Annual Survey of IndustriesAIBP Accelerated Irrigation Benefit AT&C Aggregate Technical and Programme CommercialAICL Air India Charters Limited ATF Aviation Turbine FuelAICRP All-India Co-ordinated Research ATI Automotive Training Institutes Project ATM Air Traffic ManagementAIDS Acquired Immuno Deficiency ATMAs Agriculture Technology Syndrome Management AgenciesAIR All-India Radio AUWSP Accelerated Urban Water SupplyALHW Andaman Lakshadweep Harbour Programme Works AVT Artisan, Village, and TinyALIMCO Artificial Limbs Manufacturing AWBI Animal Welfare Board of India Corporation BALCO Bharat Aluminium Co. LtdAMR Addition, Modification and BARC Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Replacement BC Business CorrespondentsANDA Abbreviated New Drug Application BCAS Bureau of Civil Aviation SecurityAP Annual Plan BCCL Bharat Coking Coal LimitedAP Andhra Pardesh bcm billion cubic metreAPDRP Accelerated Power Development BCPL Brahmaputra Cracker and Polymer and Reforms Programme Ltd
  16. 16. Acronyms xvBCPL Bengal Chemicals and CAD Command Area Development Pharmaceuticals Limited CAD Computer Aided DesignBDDS Bomb Detection and Disposal CADWM Command Area Development and Squad Water ManagementBE Budget Estimate CAGR Compound Annual Growth RateBEE Bureau of Energy Efficiency CAMPA Compensatory Afforestation FundBG Broad Gauge Management and PlanningBHEL Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd AuthorityBIFR Bureau of Industrial and Financial CARA Central Adoption Resource Agency Reconstruction CART Credit Appraisal and Rating ToolBih Bihar CAS Conditional Access SystemBIFR Bureau of Industrial and Financial CBM Coal Bed Methane Reconstruction CBOs Community Based OrganizationsBIS Bureau of Indian Standards CBSP Capacity Building for ServiceBkWh billion kilowatt hours ProviderBLA BLA Industries CBVS Chanderi Bunkar Vikas SamitiBMI Body Mass Index CBWE Central Board for Workers’BMTC Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Education Corporation CCA Culturable Command AreaBMTPC Building Materials and Technology CCBs Central Co-operative Banks Promotion Council CCDA Coal Conservation andBMS Basic Minimum Services Development ActBOO Build–Own–Operate CCEA Cabinet Committee on EconomicBOT Build, Operate, and Transfer AffairsBPCL Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd CCL Central Coalfields LimitedBPL Below Poverty Line CCO Coal Controller OrganizationBPO Business Process Outsourcing CDI Coal Dust InjectionBRDB Border Roads Development Board CDMA Code Division Multiple AccessBRGF Backward Regions Grant Fund CDP City Development PlanBRK Brick Kiln CDSCO Central Drugs Standard ControlBRO Border Roads Organization OrganizationBRPL Bongaigaon Refineries and CEA Central Electricity Authority Petrochemicals Ltd CERC Central Electricity RegulatoryBRPSE Board for Reconstruction of Public Commission Sector Enterprises CENVAT Central Value-Added TaxBS Budgetary Support CERT-In Indian Computer EmergencyBSNL Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd Response TeamBSUP Basic Services to the Urban Poor CFC Common Facility CentreBt Billion tonne CFS Container Freight StationBTKM Billion Tonne Kilometre CFt Cubic Feetbtu British Thermal Unit CGWB Central Ground Water BoardBU Billion Unit Cha ChhattisgarhC-DOT Centre for Development of CHMS Complaints Handling Management Telematics SystemCAA Constitution Amendment Act CIC Community Information CentreCACP Commission for Agricultural Costs CIDC Construction Industry and Prices Development Council
  17. 17. xvi AcronymsCII Confederation of Indian Industries CSO Central Statistical OrganizationCIL Coal India Limited CSS Centrally Sponsored SchemesCIPET Central Institute of Plastics CST Central Sales Tax Engineering and Technology CTL Coal To LiquidCIRT Central Institute of Road CTSA Central Tibetan School Transport AdministrationCITES Convention on International Trade CUM Cubic Metre in Endangered Species of Wild CUSP Cryogenic Upper Stage Project Fauna and Flora CVs Commercial VehiclesCLA Central Loan Assistance CWC Central Water CommissionCLCS Credit-Linked Capital Subsidy CWDB Central Wool Development BoardCLCSS Credit Linked Capital Subsidy CZA Central Zoo Authority Scheme DAC Department of Agriculture andCLIFF Community-linked Finance Facility Co-operationCMTI Central Manufacturing Technology DAE Department of Atomic Energy Institute DAHDF Department of Animal Husbandry,CNS Communication, Navigations and Dairying, and Fisheries Surveillance DAP Di-Ammonium PhosphateCoI Committee on Infrastructure DARE Department of AgriculturalCOIN Co-operative Bank Information Research and Education Network DBT Department of BiotechnologyCOSCAP Co-operative Development of DC Development Commissioner Operational Safety and Continuing DCI Dredging Corporation of India Airworthiness Programme DD DoordarshanCPCL Chennai Petroleum Corporation DDHPY Deen Dayal Hathkargha Protsahan Ltd YojanaCPCSEA Committee for the Purpose of DDP Desert Development Plan Control and Supervision of Del Delhi Experiments on Animals DFC Dedicated Freight CorridorCPDS Chemical Promotion and DFID Department for International Development Scheme DevelopmentCPL Commercial Pilot Licence DFP Directorate of Field PublicityCPP Calling Party Pays DFPD Department of Food and PublicCPP Captive Power Plant DistributionCPPRI Central Pulp and Paper Research DGCA Directorate General of Civil Institute AviationCPSE Central Public Sector Enterprise DGH Directorate General ofCPSU Central Public Sector Undertaking HydrocarbonCRC Chawki Rearing Centre DGLL Directorate General of LighthousesCRF Central Road Fund and LightshipsCRRI Central Road Research Institute DGMS Directorate General of MinesCSB Central Silk Board SafetyCSC Common Service Centre DGPS Differential Global PositioningCSD Cutter Suction Dredger SystemsCSIR Council of Scientific and Industrial DG (S) Directorate General of Shipping Research DHI Department of Heavy IndustryCSL Cochin Shipyard Ltd DIL Direct Industrial License
  18. 18. Acronyms xviiDIPP Department of Industrial Policy and EMSC Environmental Measures and Promotion Subsidence ControlDIT Department of Information EOR Enhanced Oil Recovery Technology ERC Expenditure Reform CommitteeDMF Drug Master File ERM Extension, Renovation, andDMIC Delhi–Mumbai Industry Corridor ModernizationDPAP Drought Prone Area Programme ERP Enterprise Resource PlanningDPC District Programme Co-coordinator ESA External Support AgenciesDPE Department of Public Enterprises EU European UnionDPR Detailed Project Report EV Electric vehicleDoDWS Department of Drinking Water EWS Economically Weaker Sections Supply FAB Fabrication UnitsDOE Directorate of Extension FAO Food and Agricultural OrganizationDoNER Development of North East Region FAR Floor Area RatioDoP Department of Posts FASAL Forecasting Agriculture OutputDoRTH Department of Road Transport and using Space, Agro-Meteorology, and Highways Land-based ObservationDoT Department of Telecommunications FBRs Fast Breeder ReactorsDRDA District Rural Development Agency FCI Food Craft InstituteDRM Digital Radio Mondiale FCRI Fluid Control Research InstituteDSIR Department of Scientific and FDA Forest Development Agency Industrial Research FDDI Footwear Design and DevelopmentDSL Digital Subscriber Lines InstituteDSM Demand Side Management FDI Foreign Direct InvestmentDTH Direct To Home FICCI Federation of Indian Chambers ofDTO District Transport Office Commerce and IndustryDVC Damodar Valley Corporation FM Frequency ModulationDWCUA Development of Women and FO Furnace Oil Children in Urban Areas FOB Free On BoardDWT Dead Weight Tonnage FOIS Freight Operation InformationE&I Roads of Economic and Interstate System Importance FPI Food Processing IndustryE&P Exploration and Production FPR Flood Prone RiverEAPs Externally Aided Projects FR Feasibility ReportEBR Extra Budgetary Resources FRM Fertilizer Raw MaterialEC Expert Committee FSI Floor Space IndexECBC Energy Conservation Building Codes FSI Forest Survey of IndiaECE Economic Commission for Europe FTA Free Trade AgreementECL Eastern Coalfields Limited FTII Film and Television Institute of IndiaEDI Electronic Data Interchange FTL Fluorescent Tube LightEDP Entrepreneurship Development FWW Four Wheeler Wagon Programme G&P Ginning and PressingEFC Expenditure Finance Committee GAIL Gas Authority of India LtdEFR Environment Flow Releases Gbps Gigabits per secondEGS Education Guarantee Scheme GBS Gross Budgetary SupportEIA Environmental Impact Assessment GCF Gross Capital FormationEIC Export Inspection Council GCV Gross Calorific Value
  19. 19. xviii AcronymsGDCF Gross Domestic Capital HPCL Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Formation LtdGDP Gross Domestic Product HPL Hindustan Prefab LimitedGER Gross Enrolment Ratio HR Human ResourceGHz Gigahertz HRD Human Resource DevelopmentGI Geographical Indication HSL Hindustan Shipyard LtdGIS Geographic Information Systems HUDCO Housing Urban DevelopmentGLP Good Laboratory Practices CorporationGMP Good Manufacturing Practice HZL Hindustan Zinc LtdGoI Government of India I&B Information and BroadcastingGoM Group of Ministers I&M Industry and MineralsGP Gram Panchayat IAY Indira Awaas YojanaGPS Global Positioning System IBM Indian Bureau of MinesGQ Golden Quadrilateral IBP Indo Burma Petroleum CompanyGRE Graduate Record Examination LtdGSI Geological Survey of India IC Integrated CircuitsGSM Global System for Mobile ICAR Indian Council of Agricultural Communications ResearchGSPC Gujarat State Petroleum ICDS Integrated Child Development Corporation Limited ServicesGSRDC Gujarat State Road Development ICE Information, Communication and Corporation EntertainmentGST Goods and Service Tax ICFRE Indian Council of Forestry ResearchGT Gross Tonnages and EducationGuj Gujarat ICML Integrated Coal Mining LtdGVA Gross Value Added ICPS Integrated Child ProtectionGWe Gigawatt Electrical SchemeGW-Yr Gigawatt Year ICRIER Indian Council for Research onha Hectare International Economic RelationsHACCP Hazard Analysis and Critical ICT Information and Communication Control Point TechnologyHar Haryana ID Industrial DisputeHCI Hotel Corporation of India IDA International DevelopmentHCL Hindustan Copper Ltd AssociationHCR Headcount Ratio IDLS Integrated Development ofHDTV High Definition Television Leather SectorHEMM Heavy Earth Moving Machinery IDSMT Integrated Development of SmallHEP Hydro Electric Project and Medium TownsHFC Housing Finance Company IDTR Institute of Driving Training andHH Household ResearchHMCPs Hardware Manufacturing Cluster IEBR Internal and Extra Budgetary Parks ResourceHP Himachal Pradesh IEC Information, Education, andHOCL Hindustan Organics Chemicals Communication Limited IEM Industrial EntrepreneurHPC High Powered Inter-Ministerial Memoranda Committee IEPR Integrated Energy Policy Report
  20. 20. Acronyms xixIFFCO Indian Farmers Fertilizer IOR Improved Oil Recovery Co-operative Ltd IP Internet ProtocolIGCAR Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic IPE Institute of Public Enterprise Research IPEA International PreliminaryIGCC Integrated Gasification Combined Examining Authority Cycle IPFT Institute of Pesticides FormulationIGRUA Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Uran Technology Akademi IPIRTI Indian Plywood Industries ResearchIHM Institutes of Hotel Management and Training InstituteIHSDP Integrated Housing and Slum IPM Integrated Pest Management Development Programme IPO Indian Intellectual Property OfficeIID Integrated Infrastructure IPRs Intellectual Property Rights Development IPTV Internet Protocol TelevisionIIFM Indian Institute of Forest IR Internal Resources Management IRDA Insurance Regulatory andIIM Indian Institute of Management Development AuthorityIIMC Indian Institute of Mass IREDA Indian Renewable Energy Communication Development AgencyIIP Index for Industrial Production IREP Integrated Rural Energy ProgrammeIISCO Indian Iron and Steel Company IRMRA Indian Rubber ManufacturersIIT Indian Institute of Technology Research AssociationIITM Indian Institute of Tropical IRQP Improvement of Riding Quality Metereology ProgrammeIITTMs Indian Institute of Tourism and ISA International Searching Authority Travel Management ISO International Organization forIIUS Industrial Infrastructure Standardization Upgradation Scheme ISP Internet Service ProviderIL&FS Infrastructure Leasing and Financial IT Information Technology Services Ltd ITC Industrial Training CentresILCS Integrated Low Cost Sanitation ITES IT-enabled Services Scheme ITI Industrial Training InstituteILD International long distance ITS Intelligent Transportation SystemILDP Indian Leather Development IWAI Inland Waterways Authority of India Programme IWDP Integrated Wasteland DevelopmentIMD Indian Meteorological Department ProjectIMF Irrigation Maintenance Fund IWT Inland Water TransportIMO Instant money-order J&K Jammu and KashmirIMR Infant Mortality Rate JBIC Japan Bank for InternationalIMU Indian Maritime University CooperationINCOIS Indian National Centre for Ocean JFM Joint Forest Management Information Services Jha JharkhandIndal Indian Aluminium Company Limited JKML Jammu and Kashmir Mineral LtdINSA Indian National Shipowners’ JNNURM Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Association Renewal MissionIOC Indian Oil Corporation JNPT Jawaharlal Nehru Port TrustIODP Integrated Ocean Drilling JSMDCL Jharkhand State Mineral Programme and Geotechnoic Development Corporation
  21. 21. xx AcronymsJSPL Jindal Steel and Power Ltd MCuM Million Cubic MetresJV Joint Venture MDM Mid-day MealJVC Joint Venture Company MDF Mineral Development FundK–G Krishna–Godavari MDR Major District RoadKar Karnataka MECL Mineral Exploration CorporationKBK Koraput, Bolangir, and Kalahandi LtdKcal Kilocalorie MEMU Mainline Electric Multiple UnitKCCs Kisan Credit Cards MFI Micro Finance InstitutionKer Kerala MFPI Ministry of Food ProcessingKg Kilogram IndustriesKgoe Kilogram of oil equivalent MGIRI Mahatma Gandhi Institute for RuralKm Kilometre IndustrializationKPO Knowledge Process Outsourcing MH Million HectareKRIBHCO Krishak Bharati Co-operative MHRD Ministry of Human Resources Limited DevelopmentKRL Kochi Refineries Ltd MI Minor irrigationKV Kilo Volt MICE Meetings Incentives ConventionsKVI Khadi and Village Industries and ExhibitionsKVIC Khadi and Village Industries MIS Management Information Systems Commission MITI Model Industrial Training InstituteKVK Krishi Vigyan Kendra ML Mining LeaseKW Kilowatt MLAs Members of Legislative AssemblyKWh Kilowatt hour MMA Macro Management SchemeKWp Kilowatt peak MMBtu Million British Thermal UnitLEAP Lifelong Education and Awareness MMI Major and Medium Irrigation Programme MMP Mission Mode ProjectLED Light-emitting diode MMDR Act Mines and Minerals (DevelopmentLIC Life Insurance Corporation and Regulation) ActLIG Low-Income Groups MMSCMD Million Standard Cubic MetresLMT Lakh Metric Tonnes per DayLNG Liquefied Natural Gas MNC Multi-National CompanyLOI Letter of Intent MNRE Ministry of New and RenewableLSIs Large-Scale Industries Energym metre MoA Union Ministry of Agriculturem2 square metre MoC Ministry of Coalm3 cubic metres MoCA Ministry of Civil AviationMah Maharashtra MoEF Ministry of Environment and ForestMAMID Mine Accident Analysis and MoHUPA Ministry of Housing and Urban Modernization of information Poverty Alleviation Database MoI&B Ministry of Information andMAP Medicinal and Aromatic Plant BroadcastingMAT Management Aptitude Test MoP Ministry of PowerMBC Mail Business Centre MOP Muriate of PotashMCA Model Concession Agreement MORD Ministry of Rural DevelopmentMCA Ministry of Corporate Affairs MoSRTH Ministry of Shipping, RoadMCDR Mineral Conservation and Transport, and Highways Development Rules MoT Ministry of Tourism
  22. 22. Acronyms xxiMoU Memorandum of Understanding NALCO National Aluminium Company Ltd.MoWR Ministry of Water Resources NAP National Afforestation ProgrammeMP Madhya Pradesh NARDCO National Real Estate DevelopmentMPC Metropolitan Planning Committee CouncilMPLAD Member of Parliament Local Area NARS National Agricultural Research Development Programme SystemMPP Marketing Promotion Programme NASSCOM National Association of SoftwareMPP Multipurpose Project and ServiceCompaniesMRIN Marketing Research Surveys and NATRIP National Automotive Testing and Information Network R&D Infrastructure ProjectMRO Maintenance, Repair, and NBC Net Bank Credit Overhaul NBCC National Building ConstructionMRPL Mangalore Refineries and Corporation Petrochemicals Ltd NBFC Non-banking Financial CompanyMRP maximum retail price NBO National Building OrganizationMRTD Marine Research and Technology NBS Net Budgetary Support Development NCA Normal Central AssistanceMRTS Mass Rapid Transit System NCAER National Council for AppliedMSE Micro and Small Enterprise Economic ResearchMSME Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprise NCAOR National Centre for Antarctic andMSMED Act Micro, Small, and Medium Ocean Research Enterprises Development Act NCCBM National Council for Cement andMSP Minimum Support Prices Building Materialsmt metric tonnes NCDC National Climatic Data CentreMTA Mid-Term Appraisal NCERT National Council of EducationalMTNL Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd Research and TrainingMtoe Million Tonne of Oil Equivalent NCEUS National Commission for EnterprisesMU Million Unit in the Unorganized SectorMUTP Mumbai Urban Transport Project NCIWRD National Commission on IntegratedMUV Multi-Utility Vehicle Water Resources DevelopmentMVA Million Volt Amperes NCL Northern Coalfields LtdMW Megawatt NCLT National Company Law TribunalMWe Megawatt Electrical NCMP National Common MinimumNABARD National Bank for Agriculture and Programme Rural Development NCMRWF National Centre for Medium RangeNAEB National Afforestation and Weather Forecast Eco-development Board NCPCR National Commission forNAEEB National Afforestation, Protection of Child Rights Ecorestoration, and Eco- NCR National Capital Region development Board NCRPB National Capital Region PlanningNAEP National Afforestation and Board Eco-Development Project NDC National Development CouncilNAFUS National Fund for the Unorganized NDE Non-Departmental Enterprise Sector NDDB National Dairy Development BoardNAIS National Agricultural Insurance NDMA National Disaster Management Scheme AuthorityNAL National Aerospace Laboratories NE North East/Eastern
  23. 23. xxii AcronymsNEC North Eastern Coalfields NITs National Institutes of TechnologyNEDFI North Eastern Development NITA National Institute of Tribal Affairs Finance Corporation Ltd NLC Neyveli Lignite CorporationNEF National Electricity Fund NLCPR Non-Lapsable Central Pool ofNEF National Equity Fund ResourcesNEF (R&D) National Energy Fund NLD National Long DistanceNeGP National e-Governance Plan NLDCP National Livestock Disease ControlNEIP North East Industrial Policy ProgrammeNEKRTC North East Karnataka Road NLI National Labour Institute Transport Corporation NLW Non Linked WasheryNELP New Exploration Licensing Policy NMBS National Maternity Benefit SchemeNER North Eastern Region NMCC National ManufacturingNFBS National Family Benefit Scheme Competitiveness CouncilNFDB National Fisheries Development NMDFC National Minorities Development Board and Finance CorporationNFHS National Family Health Survey NMT Non-motorized TransportNGN Next Generation Networks NNM National Nutrition MissionNGOs Non-Governmental Organizations NOAPS National Old Age Pension SchemeNH National Highway NOCs National Oil CompaniesNHAI National Highways Authority of India NOVOD National Oilseeds and VegetableNHB National Housing Bank Oils Development BoardNHDP National Highway Development NPC National Productivity Council Programme NPCIL Nuclear Power Corporation of IndiaNHFDC National Handicapped Finance and Limited Development Corporation NPK Nitrogen–Phosphorus–PotassiumNHM National Horticulture Mission NPPA National Pharmaceutical PricingNH (O) National Highways (Original) AuthorityNHPC National Hydroelectric Power NPS New Pricing Scheme Corporation Ltd NRAA National Rainfed Area AuthorityNIAM National Institute of Agricultural NRC National Referral Centre Marketing NRC National Research CentreNIC National Informatics Centre NRCP National River Conservation PlanNIC National Industrial Classification NREG National Rural EmploymentNICFS National Institute of Criminology Guarantee and Forensic Sciences NREGA National Rural EmploymentNICNET National Informatics Centre Guarantee Act Network NREGP National Rural EmploymentNID National Institute of Design Guarantee ProgrammeNIFM National Institute of Finance NREGS National Rural Employment Management Guarantee SchemeNIFT National Institute of Fashion NRHM National Rural Health Mission Technology NRI Non-Resident IndianNIOT National Institute of Ocean NRM Natural Resource Management Technology NRSA National Remote Sensing AgencyNIPER National Institute of NS–EW North–South and East–West Pharmaceutical Education and NSAP National Social Assistance Research Programme
  24. 24. Acronyms xxiiiNSC National Seed Corporation PBITEP Profit before interest, tax, and EPNSDP National Slum Development PCC Pulverized Coal Combustion Programme PCO Public Call OfficeNSDP National State Domestic Product PCPDS Pharma and Chemical PromotionNSIC National Small Industries and Development Scheme Corporation PCPIRs Petroleum, Chemicals, andNSS National Sample Survey Petrochemical Investment RegionsNSSO National Sample Survey PCS Port Community System Organization PCUs Passenger Car UnitsNSVS National Service Volunteer Scheme PDS public distribution systemNTFP Non-Timber Forest Produce PEPSURTC Punjab and East Punjab StatesNTH National Test House Union Road Transport CorporationNTKM Net Tonne Kilometre PESA Panchayat (Extension to ScheduledNTP New Telecom Policy Areas) ActNTPC National Thermal Power PFDF Pooled Finance Development Fund Corporation PFMs Postal Finance MartsNUIF National Urban Infrastructure Fund PGE Platinum Group of ElementsNUIS National Urban Information System PHE Public Health EngineeringNW National Waterway PHED Public Health EngineeringNWDA National Water Development Department Agency PHHL Pawan Hans Helicopters LtdNWDPRA National Watershed Development PHM Post-harvest Management Project for Rainfed Area PHWR Pressurized Heavy Water ReactorNWKRTC North West Karnataka Road PIA Programme Implementation Transport Corporation AgencyNWP National Water Policy PIB Public Investment BoardNYKS Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan PIM Participatory IrrigationO&M Operation and Maintenance ManagementO&OEG Oil and Oil Equivalent of Gas PIU Programme Implementation UnitOBCs Other Backward Classes PL Prospecting LicenseOECD Organization for Economic PLF Plant Load Factor Co-Operation and Development PLR Prime Lending RateOEM Original Equipment Manufacturer PMEGP Prime Minister’s EmploymentOFC Optical Fibre Cable Generation ProgrammeOIL Oil India Ltd PMGSY Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak YojanaOMIFCO Oman India Fertilizer Company PMN Polymettalic NodulesOMS Output per Man-Shift PMRY Prime Minister’s Rozgar YojanaOMT Operation, Maintenance, and PMS Pavement Management Systems Tolling POL Petroleum, Oil, and LubricantsONGC Oil and Natural Gas Corporation PPP Public–Private PartnershipOOH Out-of-Home PRIs Panchayati Raj InstitutionsOOIS Ocean Observation and PRODIP Product Development, Design Information System Intervention, and PackagingOSVs Offshore Supply Vessels PSCs Powerloom Service CentresOTC Open Technology Centre PSCI Postal Staff College IndiaOVL ONGC Videsh Ltd PSE Public Sector EnterprisePAP Project-Affected Person/People PSP Pump Storage Project
  25. 25. xxiv AcronymsPSU Public Sector Undertaking RR Rural RoadsPun Punjab RRBs Regional Rural BanksPURA Provision of Urban Amenities in RSVY Rashtriya Sam Vikas Yojana Rural Areas RSY Rashtriya Sadbhavana YojanaPVC Polyvinyl Chloride RTA Regional Trading ArrangementPWC Pricewaterhouse Coopers RTKM Revenue Tonne KilometresPWD Persons With Disabilities RTOs Regional Transport AuthoritiesPWD Public Works Department RUB Road Under BridgeQCI Quality Council of India RVP River Valley ProjectQts Quintals RW Road WingR&D Research and Development S&T Science and TechnologyR&M Renovation and Modernization SAIL Steel Authority of India Ltd.Raj Rajasthan SARDP-NE Special Accelerated RoadRAS Reclamation of Alkali Soil Development Programme for theRBI Reserve Bank of India North Eastern RegionRCF Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertilizers SARS Severe Acute Respiratory Ltd SyndromeRCPs Rural Community Phones SAT Scholastic Aptitude TestRCSRC Regional Cyber Security Research SAUs State Agricultural Universities Centre SBIRI Small Business Innovation ResearchRDG Route Dispersal Guidelines InitiativeRE Revised Estimate SBLP SHGs–bank linkage programmeREACH Registration, Evaluation, and SC Scheduled Caste Authorization of Chemicals SCA Special Central AssistanceREC Rural Electrification Corporation SCB Scheduled Commercial Banks Ltd SCCL Singareni Collieries Company LtdREGP Rural Employment Generation SCDC Scheduled Caste Development Programme CorporationRF Radio Frequency SCI Shipping Corporation of IndiaRFI Radio Frequency Identification SCP Special Component PalnRGGVY Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikarn SDA State Designated Agency Yojana SDC Strategic Distribution CentreRGSY Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Yojana SDD Song and Drama DivisionRIDF Rural Infrastructure Development SDF Sustainable Development Fund FrameworkRINL Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd SDF Sugar Development FundRISC Rural Industries Service Centes SEB State Electricity BoardRKM Route Kilometres SECL South Eastern Coalfields LtdRKVY Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana SEI–CMM Software Engineering Institute–RMC Ready-Mix Concrete Capacity Maturity ModelRMK Rashtriya Mahila Kosh SERCs State Electricity RegulatoryRMS Risk Management System CommissionsRNI Registrar of Newspaper for India SES Selected Educational StatisticsROB Road Over Bridge SEWA Self Employed Women’sRP Reconnaissance Permit AssociationRPO Regional Project Office SEZ Special Economic ZoneRPS Retention Price Scheme SFCI State Farm Corporation of India
  26. 26. Acronyms xxvSFURTI Scheme of Fund for Regeneration of T&CS Thrift and Credit Societies Traditional Industries T&D Transmission and DistributionSGRY Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar T&T Travel and Tourism Yojana TAT Technical Assistance in Telecom SectorSGSY Swaranjayanti Gram Swarozgar TB Tuberculosis Yojana TCD Metric Tonnes crushed per daySH State Highway TCF Trillion Cubic FeetSHG Self-help Group TCIDS Textile Centres InfrastructureSHPI SHG Promoting Institution Development SchemeSHTP Special Handicrafts Training Project TDSAT Telecom Disputes Settlement andSIAs State Implementing Agencies Appellate TribunalSIDBI Small Industries Development Bank TEC Telecom Engineering Centre of India TETC Telecom Testing and SecuritySISI Small Industries Service Institutes Certification CentreSITP Scheme for Integrated Textile Parks TFC Twelfth Finance CommissionSJSRY Swarna Jayanti Shahri Rozgar TISCO Tata Iron and Steel Company Yojana TMC Technology Mission on CottonSLDB State Land Development Bank TMT Thousand Metric TonneSLNA State-level Nodal Agency TN Tamil NaduSLPEs State-level Public Enterprises TPD Tonnes Per DaySME Small and Medium Enterprise TPY Tonne per YearSMP Statutory Minimum Price TRAI Telecom Regulatory Authority ofSOCFOD Strengthening of Core Functions India of DGMS TSC Total Sanitation CampaignSPA School of Planning and TSD Trailer Suction Dredger Architecture TSP Tribal Sub-PlanSPS Sanitary and Phytosanitary TUFS Technology Upgradation FundSPUs State Power Utilities SchemeSPV Special Purpose Vehicle TVEs Town and Village EnterprisesSq M Square Metre TWh Trillion Watt hourSq Km Square Kilometre UAE United Arab EmiratesSRs State Roads UCG Underground Coal GasificationSREP Strategic Research Extension Plans UGC University Grants CommissionSRFTI Satyajit Ray Film and Television UHV Useful Heat Value Institute UIDSSMT Urban Infrastructure DevelopmentSRR Seed Replacement Rate Scheme for Small and Medium TownsSRSF Special Railway Safety Fund UIP Ultimate Irrigation PotentialSRTUs State Road Transport Undertakings UK United KingdomSRU Ship Repair Unit ULBs Urban Local BodiesSS Secondary School UMA&N Undersea Cabling betweenSSA Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Mainland and Andaman & NicobarSSCP Sethusamudram Channel Project (A&N) IslandsSSIs Small-Scale Industries UMBVS Urmul Marusthali Bunkar VikasST Scheduled Tribe SamitiSTD Sexually Transmitted Disease UMPP Ultra-mega Power ProjectSTPI Software Technology Parks of India UNCCD United Nations Convention toSWAN State-Wide Area Network Combat Desertification
  27. 27. xxvi AcronymsUNCTAD United Nations Conference on VLF Village Level Federation Trade and Development VoIP Voice over Internet ProtocolUNDP United Nations Development VPN Virtual Private Network Programme VPT Village Public TelephoneUNFC United Nations Framework VRS Voluntary Retirement Scheme Classification VSAT Very Small Aperture TerminalUNIDO United Nations Industrial VSE Village and Small Enterprises Development Organization VSNL Videsh Sanchar Nigam LimitedUP Uttar Pradesh WB West BengalUPA United Progressive Alliance WCCU World Class Central UniversityURIF Urban Reform Incentive Fund WCD Women and Child DevelopmentUS/USA United States of America WCL Western Coalfields LtdUSAID United States Agency for WDF Watershed Development Fund International Development WDPSCA Watershed Development Project forUSFDA United Sates Food and Drug Shifting Cultivation Area Administration WHO World Health OrganizationUSO Universal Service Obligation WiFi Wireless FidelityUSOF Universal Service Obligation WII Wildlife Institute of India Fund WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability forUSP Unique Selling Point Microwave AccessUT Union Territory WLL Wireless in Local LoopUtt Uttarakhand WMO Wireless Monitoring OrganizationVAMBAY Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana WPC Wireless Planning & Co-ordinationVAT Value-Added Tax WTO World Trade OrganizationVGF Viability Gap Funding WUA Water Users AssociationVLCC Very Large Crude Carrier ZBB Zero Based Budgeting
  28. 28. IAgriculture
  29. 29. 1AgricultureINTRODUCTION per agricultural worker is currently around Rs 20001.1 Although its share in Gross Domestic Product per month, which is only about 75% higher in real(GDP) has declined from over half at Independence terms than in 1950 compared to a four-fold increaseto less than one-fifth currently, agriculture remains in overall real per capita GDP. While slower growth ofthe predominant sector in terms of employment and GDP in agriculture than non-agriculture is expected,livelihood with more than half of India’s workforce the main failure has been the inability to reduce theengaged in it as the principal occupation. Agriculture dependence of the workforce on agriculture signifi-still contributes significantly to export earnings and cantly by creating enough non-farm opportunities tois an important source of raw materials as well as of absorb the labour surplus in rural areas and equip-demand for many industries. ping those in agriculture to access such opportunities. Half of those engaged in agriculture are still illiterate1.2 India’s agriculture sector has an impressive and just 5% have completed Higher Secondarylong-term record of taking the country out of serious education. Incomes and education are of course leastfood shortages despite rapid population increase. among agricultural labourers. Even families operat-This was achieved through a favourable interplay ing farms now suffer from much smaller holdingsof infrastructure, technology, extension, and policy (70% below 1 hectare in 2003 compared to 56% insupport backed by strong political will. The main 1982), and farming members in such families are twicesource of long-run growth was technological augmen- as likely to be illiterate as non-farming members.tation of yields per unit of cropped area. This resulted Ensuring food security and farmer welfare thus requirein tripling of foodgrain yields, and foodgrain pro- support systems to extend technology and scale ben-duction increased from 51 million tonnes in 1950–51 efits in a sustainable manner to a huge existing work-to 217 million tonnes in 2006–07. Production of oil- force in agriculture that lacks non-farm skills and isseeds, sugarcane, and cotton have also increased also ageing and getting feminized.more than four-fold over the period, reaching 24million tonnes and 355 million tonnes and 23 million RECENT TRENDS AND CONCERNSbales, respectively, in 2006–07. 1.4 The Mid-Term Appraisal (MTA) for the Tenth Five Year Plan had drawn attention to the loss of1.3 But, although GDP from agriculture has more dynamism in agriculture and allied sectors after thethan quadrupled, from Rs 108374 crore in 1950–51 to mid-1990s. In fact, during the last decade or so IndianRs 485937 crore in 2006–07 (both at 1999–2000 price), agriculture has faced a number of severe challenges,the increase per worker has been rather modest. GDP superimposed on the long-term demographics. Recent
  30. 30. 4 Eleventh Five Year Plantrends that have raised concern regarding food secu- • Increased non-agricultural demand for land andrity, farmers’ income, and poverty are: water as a result of the higher overall GDP growth and urbanization.• Slowdown in growth. • Aggravation in social distress as a cumulative• Widening economic disparities between irrigated impact of the above, reflected in an upsurge in and rain-fed areas. farmers’ suicides.• Increased vulnerability to world commodity price volatility following trade liberalization. This had an 1.5 Growth of agricultural GDP decelerated from over adverse effect on agricultural economies of regions 3.5% per year during 1981–82 and 1996–97 to only growing crops such as cotton and oilseeds. around 2% during 1997–98 and 2004–05 (see Table• Uneven and slow development of technology. 1.1). This deceleration, although most marked in rain-• Inefficient use of available technology and inputs. fed areas, occurred in almost all States and covered• Lack of adequate incentives and appropriate insti- almost all major sub-sectors, including those such as tutions. horticulture, livestock, and fisheries where growth was• Degradation of natural resource base. expected to be high (see Table 1.3). Consequently,• Rapid and widespread decline in groundwater table, growth of agricultural GDP has been well below the with particularly adverse impact on small and mar- target of 4% set in both Ninth and Tenth Plans. In fact, ginal farmers. Tenth Plan growth averaged even less than that during TABLE 1.1 Average GDP Growth Rates—Overall and in Agriculture (% per Year at 1999–2000 Price) Period Total Economy Agriculture and Allied Sectors Crops and Livestock1. Pre-green revolution 1951–52 to 1967–68 3.69 2.54 2.652. Green revolution period 1968–69 to 1980–81 3.52 2.44 2.723. Wider technology dissemination period 1981–82 to 1990–91 5.40 3.52 3.654. Early reforms period 1991–92 to 1996–97 5.69 3.66 3.685. Ninth Plan 1997–98 to 2001–02 5.52 2.50 2.496. Tenth Plan period 2002–03 to 2006–07 7.77 2.47 2.51 of which 2002–03 to 2004–05 6.60 0.89 0.89 2005–06 to 2006–07 9.51 4.84 4.96Source: National Accounts Statistics 2008 (New Series), Central Statistical Organization, Ministry of Statistics and ProgrammeImplementation, New Delhi. TABLE 1.2 Growth Rates of National State Domestic Product (NSDP) from Agriculture (States Ranked by % of Rainfed Area)State Growth Rate in Rainfed State Growth Rate in Rainfed NSDP Agriculture (%) NSDP Agriculture (%) 1984–85 to 1995–96 to 1984–85 to 1995–96 to 1995–96 2004–05 1995–96 2004–051 2 3 4 5 6 7 8Punjab 4.00 2.16 3 Gujarat 5.09 0.48 64Haryana 4.60 1.98 17 Rajasthan 5.52 0.30 70Uttar Pradesh 2.82 1.87 32 Orissa –1.18 0.11 73Tamil Nadu 4.95 –1.36 49 Madhya Pradesh 3.63 –0.23 74West Bengal 4.63 2.67 49 Karnataka 3.92 0.03 75Bihar –1.71 3.51 52 Maharashtra 6.66 0.10 83Andhra Pradesh 3.18 2.69 59 Kerala 3.60 –3.54 85All-India 3.62 1.85 60 Assam 1.65 0.95 86Source: National Accounts Statistics, (State Series) Central Statistical Organization, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementa-tion, New Delhi.
  31. 31. Agriculture 5 TABLE 1.3 Growth Rate in Output of Various Sub-sectors of Agriculture (Gross Value of Output at 1999–2000 Price)Period Cereals Pulses and Fruits and Other All Livestock Fishery Oilseeds Vegetables Crops Crops1951–52 to 1967–68 4.19 2.98 2.67 2.42 3.00 1.02 4.681968–69 to 1980–81 3.43 0.97 4.82 2.98 3.00 3.26 3.081981–82 to 1990–91 3.52 5.41 2.84 1.71 2.97 4.78 5.74 1991–92 to 1996–97 2.36 2.92 6.07 2.18 3.09 4.00 7.05Ninth Plan 1997–98 to 2001–02 1.49 –1.43 4.11 3.82 2.25 3.53 2.63Tenth Plan 2002–03 to 2006–07 1.28 4.29 2.97 3.58 2.46 3.69 3.23of which 2002–03 to 2004–05 –1.27 5.95 0.30 1.57 0.42 3.32 1.772005–06 to 2006–07 3.52 1.61 6.97 6.59 5.53 4.23 5.49Source: New Series of National Accounts Statistics, Central Statistical Organization, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementa-tion, New Delhi.Ninth Plan because, as was noted in the MTA, growth at 4%. The recent trend towards diversion of food cropsplummeted to below 1% during its first three years, for biofuels in surplus countries means that foodthat is from 2002–03 to 2004–05. There has been some security needs a stronger production response basedupturn since then and growth has averaged more than on tackling supply side problems in the foodgrains4% in the subsequent two years, with early indications sector.that this is likely to be maintained in 2007–08 also. Thisrevival gives hope that at least some of the causes 1.7 The supply side performance of agriculture is af-of recent poor agricultural performance are being fected by a large number of factors, several of whichreversed and that the Eleventh Plan target, set at 4%, interact among each other. These factors are the natu-may actually be attainable. ral resource base (including rainfall), technology, in- frastructure (including irrigation), and the economic1.6 The improved performance in the second half of environment comprising price signals and institutionsTenth Plan is a welcome development, but there is no (Table 1.4). Analysis by the Steering Group for the Elev-reason for complacency. Not only is the period too enth Plan has identified technological change (usingshort to reach firm judgment on trends, the prolonged yield potential of varieties of major crops released bydeceleration over several years has meant that despite the National Agricultural Research System [NARS] asthe improvements, per capita output of cereals, pulses, a proxy), public investment (including investment onoilseeds, and also of some major vegetables and fruits irrigation), and diversification (represented by area(e.g., potatoes and bananas) in 2006–07 remained under fruits and vegetables) as the most importantbelow 1996–97 levels. Moreover, despite significant proximate determinants of growth. The Steeringimports, food prices flared up in 2006. This was un- Group analysis shows (Table 1.4) that progress on firstlike during 2000–05 when, although production was two of these factors slowed down from early 1990s.even lower, prices remained subdued because of low However, the negative effect in growth was offset bydomestic demand and depressed world prices. Part private investment, which was the fourth most impor-of the recent production upturn is clearly price-led, tant factor in the analysis, because the terms of trade,following a marked hardening of world commodity which affect profitability and thus private investment,prices and possibly also responding to the fact that improved during 1990–97. As a result, growth contin-domestic food demand has responded positively to ued to be relatively high in this period. However, termshigher overall GDP growth and the introduction of of trade turned against agriculture from 1999–2000Rural Employment Guarantee. However, although to 2004–05 and reduced profitability of farming quiteimportant in the short-run, such price response alone sharply. This occurred partly because of low domesticcannot be the basis of sustained agricultural growth food demand and partly because removal of quota