Clasp- retained partial denture


Points of View
Six Phases of Partial Denture Service
Education if patient

McCracken's removable partial prosthodontics





Fig. 2-1 A, Maxillary removable partial denture with complet...
signed properly, the only advantage of the internal
attachment denture is esthetics, because abutment

McCracken's removable partial prosthodontics

Diagnosis, treatment planning, design, treatment
sequencing, and mouth p...

Fig. 2-2 Dental cast surveyor'tacilitates the design of a
removable partial denture. It is an instrument by whi...

McCracken's removable partial prosthodontics

same position parallel to the blackout material. This is
easily done by ...


Foremost is the requirement that certain soft tissues
in the primary supporting area should be
recorded or...
Clasp-retained partial denture
2. 7. Recording of jawthe technician with a orient master
2 clasp  retained partial denture
2 clasp  retained partial denture
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2 clasp retained partial denture

  1. 1. 2 Clasp- retained partial denture .. Points of View Six Phases of Partial Denture Service Education if patient Diagnosis, treatment planning, design, treatment sequencing, and mouth preparation Support jor distal extension denture bases Establishment and verification relations and tooth arrangements Initial placement procedures Periodic recall Reasons for Failure of Clasp-Retained Partial Dentures Self-Assessment Aids POINTS OF VIEW Despite these disadvantages, the use of removable prostheses may be preferred whenever tooth-bounded edentulous spaces are too large to be restored safely with fixed prostheses or when cross-arch stabilization and wider distribution of forces to supporting teeth and tissues are desirable. Fixed partial dentures, however, should always be considered and used when indicated. The removable partial denture retained by internal attachments eliminates some of the disadvantages of clasps, but it also has other disadvantages, one of which is too great a cost for a large percentage of patients needing partial dentures. However, when the alignment of the abutment teeth is favorable, the periodontal health and bone support are adequate, the clinical crown is of sufficient length, the pulp morphology can accommodate the required tooth preparation, and the economic status of the patient permits, an internal attachment prosthesis is unquestionably preferable for esthetic reasons. In most instances, if the extracoronal claspretained partial denture is de The clasp-retained partial denture, with extracoronal direct retainers, is probably used a hundred times more than is the intracoronal, or internal attachment, partial denture (Fig. 2-1). Although the clasp-retained partial denture has disadvantages, for reasons of cost and time devoted to fabrication, it will continue to be widely used because it is capable of providing physiologically sound treatment for most patients needing partial denture restorations. The following are some of the possible disadvantages of a clasp-retained partial denture: 1. Strain on the abutment teeth often is due to improper tooth preparation, clasp design, and/ or loss of tissue support under distal extension partial dentures bases. 2. Clasps can be unesthetic, particularly when they are placed on visible tooth surfaces. 3. Caries may develop beneath clasp compo nents, especially if the patient fails to keep the prosthesis and the abutments clean. if occlusal 9
  2. 2. 10 McCracken's removable partial prosthodontics B A D c Fig. 2-1 A, Maxillary removable partial denture with complete palatal coverage. It is retained by extracoronal retainers (clasps) on terminal abutments. B, Mandibular removable prosthesis is retained by clasps on terminal abutments. C, Maxillary arch is prepared for an internal attachment restoration. Note the dovetail preparations in the distal portions of the restored first premolars. Male portions of the attachments will be inserted into dovetail preparations in restored abutments. D, Internal attachment restoration in the patient's mouth. Note the precise fit of male and female portions of the attachments. E, Mandibular internal attachment partial denture viewed from the residual ridge side. Male portions of attachments can be seen at anterior aspect of each denture base. Buccal extracoronal retentive arms assist in retaining the denture.
  3. 3. Chapter 2 signed properly, the only advantage of the internal attachment denture is esthetics, because abutment protection and stabilizing components should be used with both internal and external retainers. However, economics permitting, esthetics alone may justify the use of internal attachment retainers. Injudicious use of internal attachments can lead to excessive torsional load on the abutments supporting distal extension removable partial dentures, especially in the mandible. The use of hinges or other types of stressbreakers is discouraged in these situations. It is not that they are ineffective, but they are frequently misused. As an example, in the mandibular arch, a stress-broken distal extension partial denture does not provide for crossarch stabilization and frequently subjects the edentulous ridge to excessive trauma from horizontal and torquing forces. Therefore a rigid design is preferred, and some type of extracoronal clasp retainer is still the & most logical and frequently used. It seems likely that its use will continue until a more widely acceptable retainer is devised. Dental treatment for patients must be highly individualized. The dentist must be prepared to apply the concept of optimum services to patients whose individual circumstances, in spite of their needs, may dictate no treatment, limited treatment, or extensive treatment. SIX PHASES OF DENTURE SERVICE PARTIAL Partial denture service may be logically divided into six phases. The first phase is related to patient education. The second phase includes diagnosis, treatment planning, design of the partial denture framework, treatment sequencing, and execution of mouth preparations. The third phase is provision of adequate support for the distal extension denture base. The fourth phase is establishment and verification of harmonious occlusal relationships and tooth relationships with opposing and remaining natural teeth. The fifth phase involves initial placement procedures, including adjustments to the contours and bearing surfaces of denture bases, adjustments to ensure occlusal harmony, and a Clasp-retained partial denture 11 review of instructions given the patient to optimally maintain oral structures and the provided restorations. The sixth and final phase of partial denture service is followup services by the dentist through recall appointments for periodic evaluation of the responses of oral tissues to restorations and of the acceptance of the restorations by the patient. The following is an overview of these phases. The context of each phase is discussed in greater detail in the respective chapters of this book. Education of patient The term patient education is described in Mosby's Dental Dictionary, 1998, as "the process of informing a patient about a health matter to secure informed consent, patient cooperation, and a high level of patient compliance." Responsibility for the ultimate success of a removable partial denture is shared by the dentist and the patient. It is folly to assume that a patient will have an understanding of the benefits of a removable partial denture unless he or she is so informed. It is also unlikely that the patient will have the knowledge to avoid misuse of the restoration or be able to provide the required oral care and maintenance procedures to ensure the success of the partial denture unless he or she is adequately advised. The finest biologically oriented removable partial denture is often doomed to limited success if the patient fails to exercise proper oral hygiene habits or ignores recall appointments. One of the primary objectives for a partial denture, preservation, will most likely not be achieved with only token cooperation on the part of the patient. Patient education should begin at the initial contact with the patient and continue throughout treatment. This educational procedure is especially important when the treatment plan and prognosis are discussed with the patient. The limitations imposed on the success of treatment through failure of the patient to accept responsibility must be explained before definitive treatment is undertaken. A patient will not usually retain all the information presented in the oral educational instructions. For this reason, patients should be presented with written suggestions to reinforce the oral presentations.
  4. 4. 12 McCracken's removable partial prosthodontics Diagnosis, treatment planning, design, treatment sequencing, and mouth preparation Treatment planning and design begin with a thorough health history and a history of past dental experiences. The complete oral examination must include both clinical and roentgenographic interpretation of (1) caries; (2) the condition of existing restorations; (3) periodontal conditions; (4) responses of teeth (especially abutment teeth) and residual ridges to previous stress; and (5) the vitality of remaining teeth. Additionally, evaluation of the occlusal plane, the arch form, and the occlusal relations of the remaining teeth (visually and by accurately articulated diagnostic casts) must be meticulously accomplished. After a complete diagnostic examination has been accomplished, and a removable partial denture has been agreed on as the treatment of choice, a treatment plan and design can be developed and sequenced that is based on the support available for the partial denture. Distal extension situations, in which there are no abutments posterior to the edentulous area, require an entirely different partial denture design than does one in which total abutment tooth support is available. In distal extension configurations, the extension bases must derive their principal support from the underlying residual ridge. Interpretation of the roentgenograms and the surveying of abutments and soft tissue contours to determine necessary mouth preparation must take into consideration the greater torque and tipping leverages that the distal extension partial denture will impose on the abutment teeth. Sufficient differences exist between the toothsupported and the tooth-tissue-supported removable partial denture to justify a distinction between them. Principles of design and techniques employed in fabrication are dissimilar. The following list presents the points of difference: 1. Manner in which the prosthesis is supported 2. Type and extent of mouth preparation 3. Impression methods required for each 4. Types of direct retainers best suited for each 5. Denture base material best suited for each 6. Need for indirect retention A distinction between these two types of removable restorations is adequately made by an acceptable classification of removable partial dentures, such as the Kennedy classification noted in Chapter 3. Basically the same principles apply to the unilateral distal extension denture as to the bilateral distal extension denture. On the other hand, entirely different principles of design, as stated previously, apply to a prosthesis that is totally tooth supported. Each type must be designed according to the manner of support. It is necessary that a specific design be carefully planned in advance of mouth preparations and that these mouth preparations be carried out with care, in the proper sequence, as outlined in the treatment plan and on the diagnostic cast. Then specific and precise mouth preparations, including abutment restorations, will dictate the final form of the denture framework to be outlined on the master cast. The final form of the denture framework should be drawn accurately on the master cast after surveying so that the technician can clearly see and understand the exact design of the partial denture framework that is to be fabricated. The dental cast surveyor (Fig. 2-2) is an absolute necessity in any dental office in which patients are being treated with removable partial dentures. The surveyor is instrumental in diagnosing and guiding the appropriate tooth preparation and verifying that the mouth preparation has been done correctly. There is no more reason to justify its omission from a dentist's armamentarium than there is to ignore the need for roentgenographic equipment, the mouth mirror and explorer, or the periodontal probe used for diagnostic purposes. Several moderately priced surveyors that adequately accomplish the diagnostic procedures necessary for designing the partial denture are available. In many dental offices, this most important phase of dental diagnosis is delegated to the commercial dental laboratory because this invaluable diagnostic tool is absent or because the dentist is apathetic. This situation places the technician in the role of diagnostician. Any clinical treatment based on the diagnosis of the technician remains the responsibility of the dentist. This makes no more sense than relying
  5. 5. Chapter 2 Fig. 2-2 Dental cast surveyor'tacilitates the design of a removable partial denture. It is an instrument by which parallelism or lack of parallelism of abutment teeth and other oral structures, on a stone cast, can be determined. Use of the surveyor is covered in succeeding chapters. on the technician to interpret roentgenograms and to render a diagnosis. After treatment planning, a predetermined sequence of mouth preparations can be performed with a definite goal in mind. It is mandatory that the treatment plan be reviewed to ensure that the mouth preparation necessary to accommodate the removable partial denture design has been properly sequenced. Mouth preparations, in the appropriate sequence, should be oriented toward the goal of providing adequate support, stabilization, retention, and a harmonious occlusion for the partial denture. Placing a crown ,or restoring a tooth out of sequence may result in the need to restore teeth that were not planned for restoration, or it may necessitate remaking a restoration or even seriously jeopardizing the success of the removable partial denture. Through the aid of diagnostic casts on which the tentative design of the partial denture has been outlined and the mouth Clasp-retained partial denture 13 preparations have been indicated in colored pencil, occlusal adjustments, abutment restorations, and abutment modifications can be accomplished. Selected proximal tooth surfaces should be made parallel to provide guiding planes to direct the placement and removal of the prosthesis. Proximal surfaces adjacent to edentulous areas generally provide the optimum location for guiding planes. Occlusal rest seats that direct occlusal forces along the long axis of the supporting teeth should be established so that neither the tooth nor the denture will be displaced under occlusal loading. This dictates that the floor of the rest preparation be made to incline apically from the marginal ridge and be spoon shaped, with the marginal ridge lowered to permit sufficient bulk without occlusal interference from the rest. Retentive areas must be identified or created by tooth modification. They should provide relatively equal and uniform retention on all abutment teeth, sufficient only to resist reasonable dislodging forces. Tooth surfaces on which stabilizing and/or reciprocal clasp arms may be placed also must be identified or created by tooth modification. After mouth preparations are considered completed, an impression should be made in irreversible hydrocolloid and a cast formed in quick-setting stone. This cast can then be surveyed before dismissing the patient to ascertain whether the planned abutment contours have been accomplished or if additional recontouring is necessary. When mouth preparations have been completed, the impression for the master cast should be made and the cast poured immediately. The master cast must then be surveyed so that the design of the partial denture framework can be drawn on it, prefera bly with colored pencil. It must be remembered that the location of the clasp arms is determined by the height of contour of the abutment teeth. This height of contour exists for a given path of placement only; hence proximal guiding planes and accurate blockout of proximal tooth surfaces are required. The position of the cast in relation to the surveyor must be recorded so that the technician can place the cast on a surveyor in the
  6. 6. 14 McCracken's removable partial prosthodontics same position parallel to the blackout material. This is easily done by scoring the base of the cast on three sides parallel to the path of placement or by tripoding the cast (see Fig. 11-16), but this must be done before the cast is removed from the surveyor. Surveying the master cast, recording the relationship of the cast to the surveyor, and drawing a definite outline on the master cast are still not enough. It is difficult to draw all the details of the denture design on the master cast. The detail is accomplished by labeling a colored pencil drawing on an illustration of the dental arch, which provides the technician with an outline of the partial denture framework and allows for instructions for the technician to follow in fabricating the denture. From this information it is possible for the technician to return a casting that the dentist can superimpose on the outline as drawn on the master cast. The dentist is responsible for the design of the partial denture frameworl< from the beginning to finish and therefore is accountable for providing the technician with all the information needed. It is the responsibility of the technician to follow the written instructions given by the dentist, but at the same time it is the technician's prerogative to demand that these instructions be so informative that they can be followed without question. Up to this point the treatment planning and preliminary design of the partial denture, the mouth preparation procedures, and the design of the denture framework have been accomplished by the dentist. With the written instructions and the master cast on which the dentist has precisely drawn the partial denture design, the technician may then fabricate the metal framework. The finished framework should be returned to the dentist so that its fit in the mouth can be evaluated and any necessary adjustments on the framework can be made. When laboratory procedures are correctly executed, the framework should fit the master cast as planned. If the framework does not fit the mouth as planned, the dentist must determine whether the error is the result of a faulty impression, an inaccurate master cast, or a laboratory procedure. In any event, adequate support for distal extension denture bases and the need for exacting occlusal records make it necessary for the denture framework to be returned to the dentist for further records before the restoration is completed. Support for distal extension denture bases The third of the six phases in the treatment of a patient with a partial denture is obtaining adequate support for distal extension bases; therefore it does not apply to toothsupported removable partial dentures. In the latter, support comes entirely from the abutment teeth through the use of rests. For the distal extension partial denture, however, a base made to fit the anatomic ridge form does not provide adequate support under occlusal loading (Fig. 2-3). Neither does it provide for maximum border extension nor accurate border detail. Therefore some type of corrected impression is necessary. This may be accomplished by several means, any of which satisfy the requirements for support of any distal extension partial denture base. Fig. 2-3 Cast on the right was made from an impression that recorded anatomic form of residual ridge. On the left is the same cast, with residual ridge recorded in a functional, or supporting, form by a corrected impression. Note that the supporting form of the ridge clearly delineates the extent of coverage available for a denture base.
  7. 7. Chapter 2 III Foremost is the requirement that certain soft tissues in the primary supporting area should be recorded or related under some loading so that the base may be made to fit the form of the ridge when under function, thereby providing support and ensuring the maintenance of that support for the longest possible time. This requirement makes the distal extension partial denture unique in that the support from the tissues underlying the distal extension base must be made as equal to and compatible with the tooth support as possible. A complete denture is entirely tissue sup ported, and the entire denture can move toward the tissue under function. In contrast, any movement of a partial denture base is inevitably a rotational movement that, if tissueward, may result in undesirable torquing forces to the abutment teeth and loss of planned occlusal contacts. Therefore every effort must be made to provide the best possible support for the distal extension base to minimize these forces. Usually no single impression technique can adequately record the anatomic form of the teeth and adjacent structures and at the same time record the supporting form of the mandibular edentulous ridge. A method should be used that can record these tissues either in their supporting form or in a supporting relationship to the rest of the denture (see Fig. 2-3). This may be accomplished by one of several methods, which will be discussed in Chapter 16. Establishment and verification of occlusal relations and tooth arrangements Whether the partial denture is tooth supported or has one or more distal extension bases, the recording and verification of occlusal relationships and tooth arrangement are important steps in the construction of a partial denture. For the tooth-supported partial denture, ridge form is of less significance than it is for the tooth- and tissue-supported prosthesis because the ridge is not called on to support the prosthesis. For the distal extension base, however, jaw relation records should be made only after obtaining the best possible support for the denture base. This necessitates the making of a base or bases that Clasp-retained partial denture 15 will provide the same support as the finished denture. Therefore the final jaw relations should not be recorded until after the denture framework has been returned to the dentist, the fit of the framework to the abutment teeth and opposing occlusion has been verified and corrected, and a corrected impression has been made. Then, either a new resin base or a corrected base must be used to record jaw relations. Occlusal records for a removable partial denture may be made by the various methods described in Chapter 17. Initial placement procedures The fifth phase of treatment occurs when the patient is given possession of the removable prosthesis. Inevitably it seems that minute changes in the planned occlusal relationships occur during processing of the dentures. Not only must occlusal harmony be ensured before the patient is given possession of the dentures, but also the processed bases must be reasonably perfected to fit the basal seats. It must also be ascertained that the patient understands the suggestions and recommendations given by the dentist for care of the dentures and oral structures, as well as understands about expectations in the adjustment phases and use of the restorations. These facets of treatment are discussed in detail in Chapter 20. Periodic recall Initial placement and adjustment of the prosthesis are certainly not the end of treatment for the partially edentulous patient. Periodic recall of the patient to evaluate the condition of the oral tissues, the response to the tooth restorations, the prosthesis, the patient's acceptance, and the patient's commitment to maintain oral hygiene are all part of total treatment responsibility. Changes in the oral structures or the dentures must be ascertained early to avoid compromised oral health; this can be accomplished by periodic recall. Although a 6-month recall period is adequate for most patients, a more frequent evaluation may be required for some patients. Chapter 20 contains some suggestions concerning this sixth phase of treatment.
  8. 8. 17 Chapter Clasp-retained partial denture 2 SELF-ASSESSMENT 2. 7. Recording of jawthe technician with a orient master Failure to provide relations to properly specific AIDS design and casts to aninformation should be delayed opposing necessary articulator to enable the REASONS FOR FAILURE OF CLASP1. In chronologie order of accomplishment, give the technician to execute the design fitted and a secondary until the framework has been RETAINED PARTIAL DENTURES six sequential, correlated phases in treating a 3. Failure of the technician to follow the design impression has been made. True or false? Why? and written instructions partially edentulous patient with removable 8. In the fifth phase of treatment (initial placement of the prostheses. Support for denture bases are done before the patient restorations), three things Experience with the clasp-retained partial denture made 2. If responsibility for the success of treatment is 1. Inadequate coverage of basal seat tissues Two of these is given possession of the denture(s). by the methods outlined has proved its merit and justifies shared by the dentist and the patient, what must be 2. Failure (1)record basal seat tissues in base contours and are to correction of denture a support its continued use. The occasional objection to the undertaken to prepare patients to accept their ing form discrepancies that may have resulted from occlusal visibility of retentive clasps can be minimized through responsibility? processing and (2) review of patient education, Occlusion the use of wrought-wire clasp arms. There are few 3. Because treatment planning is the sale 1. Failure to develop a harmonious occlusion including adjustment expectations. What other step contraindications for use of a properly designed claspresponsibility of the dentist, which, if any, of the 2. Failure to use compatible materials for opposing must be accom retained partial denture. Practically all objections to this following may be omitted as noncontributory to occlusal surfacesthe appointment? plished during type of denture can be eliminated by pointing to defitotal treatment: (1) a complete health history, (2) a 9. What is the purpose of Patient-dentist relationship periodic recall of patients ciencies in mouth preparation, denture design and history of past dental experiences, (3) an oral treated the removable partial dentures? 1. Failure of withdentist to provide adequate dental fabrication, and patient education; these follow: examination, (4) a roentgenographic examination, health care information, including care and use of 10. What is the one predominant reason why the clasp (5) an evaluation of occlusal relations of prosthesis partial denture is used more often in most type of remaining teeth, (6) a survey of diagnostic casts, 2. Failure of the dentist to provide recall opportu type of practices than is the internal attachment nities on a periodic basis (7) cost, or (8) patient desires? prosthesis? 3. Failure of the patientdesign and afabrication and those 4. A specific design of the removable restoration 11. Deficiencies in to exercise dental health Diagnosis andbe planned before mouth preparation care regimen and respond to recall must treatment planning related to patient education are the culprits of limited 1. Inadequate diagnosis procedures. surveyor or to use a surveyor delegate The dentist (can-should not) success partial denture designed and fabricated A removable in treatment with removable prostheses. 2. Failure to use a the during treatment planning Avoiding these deficiencies will make is goal properly responsibility for the design to a dental so that it avoids the errors and deficiencies listedthe one of laboratory technician. prosthetic dentistry obtainable. This can is made . that proves the clasp type of partial denture goal be to, and Mouth preparation procedures 5. Stability in a removable restoration (is-is not) functional, esthetically pleasing, and long lasting without 1. Failure to properly sequence mouth preparation desirable to help maintain the health of oral damage to the supporting structures. The proof of the procedures structures. A tooth-supported usually merit of this type of restoration lies in the knowledge that 2. Inadequate mouth preparations, restora resulting tion usually (can-cannot) be made more (1) it permits treatment for the largest number of patients, from insufficient planning of the design of the stable than or failure to evaluate by mouth partial denture a restoration supported that teeth and at reasonable cost; residual have been properly accomplished preparations ridges. (2) it provides restorations that are comfortable 3. Failure to return supporting tissues to optimum 6. When a removable partial denture is supported and efficient over a long period of time, with adequate health before impression procedures support by the support and maintenance of occlusal contact relations; (3) both by teeth and residual ridges, Designresidual ridge should be made as equal as it can provide for healthy abutments, free of caries and of the framework possible of the support 1. Incorrect use to clasp designsgiven by the teeth. This periodontal disease; (4) it can provide for the continued 2. Use may be clasps that have too little flexibility, of cast accom health of restored, healthy tissues of the basal seats; and are too broad in tooth coverage, formhave too little ridge(5) it makes possible a partial denture service that is plished by recording which and of the residual consideration for esthetics in making impressionsanatomic (static) or definitive and not merely an interim treatment. 3. Flexible or incorrectly located major and minor functional? Removable partial dentures thus made will contribute connectors to a concept of prosthetic dentistry that has as its goal the 4. Failure to use properly located rests promotion of oral health, Laboratory procedures the restoration of partially edentulous mouths, and an 1. Problems in master cast preparation elimination of the ultimate need for complete dentures. a. Inaccurate impression b. Poor cast-forming procedures c. Incompatible impression materials and gyp sum products 16 McCracken's removable partial prosthodontics