January      Wastewater                                                                                                   ...
When the right      reaction matters ...      Trust BASF Process Catalysts      and Technologies      At crucial moments, ...
www.dipeshengg.com    Autoclave Systems with Quick-Opening Doors for           Aerospace Structural Composites            ...
Circle 05 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-05XX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 2                                        ...
JANUARY 2010                                         In This Issue                                       Volume 117, no. 1...
Competence is knowing how it all fits together.        More than 100,000 customers in every industry around the globe trus...
Winner of Eight Jesse H. Neal      Awards for Editorial Excellence                                                        ...
Letters                                                       Underground storage tanks                                   ...
Choose a better way to         manage your information...         Do you work in a world of last-minute data              ...
Bookshelf                            The Nalco Water Handbook, 3rd ed. By         wastewater. The material on reclaimed wa...
B:8.125”                                                                                 T:7.625”                         ...
RO-2111C Tom Di -Industrial Ad for Chemical Eng. size: 7.875” x 10.75” (Bleed: 8.125” x 11.5”) 4-c date: 10/08/07 (SCD#07R...
Edited by Gerald Ondrey                                                                                                   ...
C hementato R                                                                               Tube side                     ...
P2008 - Chem Engineering           12/17/09    2:30 PM   Page 1                                                           ...
C hementato R                                                                                   DME to propylene          ...
VEBE_0906259_DragH_US_200x273.qxd:_         5/08/09   11:51   Page 1                                            TAF •   BA...
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
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Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
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Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
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Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
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Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
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Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
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Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
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Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
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Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance
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Design decisions: Don't leave economics to chance

  1. 1. January Wastewater 2010 Treatment Page 34 www.che.com Boosting 1 Catalyst ProductivityCapital And Production Costs • wastewater treatment Pipe Sizing Rules Focus on Weighing Audiosonic Acoustic Cleaners Recognizing Your Colleagues Page 26 Pressure Relief Systems Facts At Your Fingertips: NewestVol. 117 No. 1 January 2010 Low-Pressure Scrubbing Measurement Technologies • 01_CHE_010110_COV.indd 1 12/22/09 9:23:54 AM
  2. 2. When the right reaction matters ... Trust BASF Process Catalysts and Technologies At crucial moments, the right reaction matters. When you are looking for the right reaction from your process catalyst, turn to BASF. Our technical experts will recommend the right catalyst from our innovative product line that will achieve the desired reaction. The end results may also include greater yield and better end product properties. When the catalyst is right, the reaction will be right. Trust BASF. � Adsorbents � Chemical catalysts � Polyolefin catalysts � Custom catalysts � Refining catalysts For more information, please visit www.catalysts.basf.com/process Circle 01 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-01XX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 2 12/22/09 9:28:02 AM
  3. 3. www.dipeshengg.com Autoclave Systems with Quick-Opening Doors for Aerospace Structural Composites Agitators offering Homogenous high heat transfer suspension of rates solids/catalysts Optimum Higher catalyst life Spherical Paddle C-GMP Rotocone utilisation of gas due to low shear Chopper Dryer Vacuum Dryer Offered in a variety of construction in Reliable bare/cladded containment of material gas and the product of the reaction Higher productivity Tall Vertical Column due to higher gas interfacial area High flooding limits cGMP Heat Exchanger Silicon Carbide Tube Available with Heat Exchanger (Di-Sic) Custom-designed ASME U U2 for each process Certification or CE as per PED. Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger for OilGas GAS LIQUID REACTORS/HYDROGENATORS For Hydrogenation, Oxidation, Ethoxylation, Phosgenation, Chlorination, Ammonolusis, Carbonation, Bromination, Sulphonation and Flurorination With over 100 trained and highly experienced engineers, backed by more than 400 skilled technicians and six modern plants, we at Dipesh Engineering Works are ready to serve you. Since 1981, we have been Batch Reactor with Internal and External Coils designing and supplying a range of coded process equipment and plants to global clients under third-party and Agitator acceptance of firms like Lloyds, TUV, Jacobs HG, BVIS, AKER, SAIPEM and TCS. Our aim has remained consistent over all these years: Be a one-stop-shop and provide all standards-based process equipment and services under one roof. Our clients say we make a huge difference to them through our innovative approach. We invite you to benefit from our experience and expertise. cGMP Reactors cGMP Reaction Kettle Let us know how we can help you. 3, Sheroo Villa, 87 J.P. Road, Andheri West, Mumbai 400053. India. Tel: +91.22.2674 3719 / 2674 3729 | Fax: +91.22.2674 3507 E-mail: sales@dipeshengg.net | www.dipeshengg.com Alloy-20 Reaction-cum-Filtration Vessel WORLD-CLASS, CUSTOM DESIGNED AND CODED PLANTS EQUIPMENT SINCE 1981 Circle 04 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-04XX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 1 12/22/09 9:31:02 AM
  4. 4. Circle 05 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-05XX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 2 12/22/09 9:31:48 AM
  5. 5. JANUARY 2010 In This Issue Volume 117, no. 1 Commentary 5 ditor’s Page E New HART award aims to spark progress across the CPI The HART www.che.com Innovation Achieve- ment Award, given in recognition of Cover story exceptional achieve- 26 over Story Capital And Production C ment, ingenuity and Costs: Improving the Bottom Line De- innovation in using cisions made in early phases of a project HART communica- affect production costs for years to come. tion, is unveiled The disciplined method described here taps into potential savings departments news Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 11 Chementator Recovering energy from fluegas; Large-diameter reverse osmosis Bookshelf. . . . . . . . . . 8 product lowers cost and reduces footprint; Who’s Who. . . . . . . 25 . “Super boiler” achieves higher efficiency 51 olids Processing A Sound Solution S through the recovery of waste heat; A new Reader Service to Material Flow Problems Audiosonic electrochemical process for making potas- page. . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 acoustic cleaners use high-energy, low-fre- sium ferrate; Sound water treatment delivers quency sound waves to eliminate particu- Economic environmental and economic benefits; Com- late buildup, without damaging equipment Indicators. . . . . . 63, 64 mercialization is set for a new distillation technology; and more equipment services advertisers 17 ewsfront Boosting Catalyst Produc- N 24D-2 New Products Services (Domestic tivity Companies are finding different Italian Section. . . . 24I-1 Edition) Protect braided hoses with these pathways to increase catalysts’ ability to sleeves; Harsh environments will not harm Product Showcase. . 56 . produce these pressure transmitters; Unbreakable Classified 20 ewsfront Recognizing Your Col- N switch technology finds application in key- Advertising. . . . . 57–61 leagues Consider nominating a deserving boards; Stainless-steel external trim is stan- colleague for the 2010 Personal Achieve- dard with these ball valves; Use this pump Advertiser Index . . . . 61 ment Award. Entries are due April 15 to evacuate liquid storage terminals; Spe- cialty motors certified for hazardous duty; coming 21 ewsfront Are You Ready? With stricter N in februARY air-pollution-control regulations on the ho- and more rizon, now is the time to examine the new- 24I-12 New Products Services Look for: Feature est scrubbing technologies (International Edition) Reduce rubber Reports on Doing contamination in food with these elas- an Energy Audit; and Engineering tomers; Ceramic membranes help filter Distillation Debottle- surface-treatment effluents; A family of necking; an Environ- 24 acts At Your Fingertips Low-Pressure F mental Manager products for WirelessHart communication; Measurement This one-page guide out- article on Electronic Monitor fermentation in realtime with this lines techniques for measuring low pres- Valve Actuators: probe; A new version for this flowsheet sures, or vacuum an Engineering simulation software; Disposable respirators 34 eature Report Wastewater Treat- F for protection against aerosols; This globe Practice article on ment: Energy-Conservation Opportuni- valve now comes in smaller sizes; and Selecting Variable ties Consider these options to improve more Frequency Drives for energy efficiency and reduce the cost of Centrifugal Pumps; treating wastewater 54 ocus Weighing This weigh belt helps F Focus on Mixers; minimize material buildup; Measure bulk News articles on 42 ngineering Practice Pressure Relief E material flows with no moving parts; This Requirement During External Pool-Fire Supercritical carbon scale is suitable for potentially hazardous dioxide; and Engi- Contingency A practical overview of the areas; This weigh-batch system can loosen important factors that need to be consid- neering Software; bulk material before blending; Handle Facts at Your Fin- ered when designing a pressure relief system eight load cells with this crane weighing gertips on Pumps; 48 ngineering Practice Updating the E system; Use this network interface for and more Rules For Pipe Sizing The most eco- fast transfer of time-critical information; nomical velocity in piping continues to shift Handle a wide range of feedrates with this Cover: downward weigh feeder; and more David Whitcher Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 302_CHE_010110_TOC.indd 3 12/22/09 9:51:40 AM
  6. 6. Competence is knowing how it all fits together. More than 100,000 customers in every industry around the globe trust Endress+Hauser to make their processes safe, efficient and repeatable. Just like a puzzle, many pieces must come together at the right time and place to manufacture a product profitably. Endress+Hauser understands there is a world of difference between a good fit and a perfect fit for your critical process measurement needs. This is evidenced by the hundreds of thousands of instruments we deliver every year worldwide – the widest range available from any one supplier. When you need support with planning, engineering, project management, automation, or just need help with a difficult process, Endress+Hauser is the partner you can depend on. Endress+Hauser, Inc 2350 Endress Place Greenwood, IN 46143 Sales: 888-ENDRESS inquiry@us.endress.com Service: 800-642-8737 www.us.endress.com Fax: 317-535-8498 Circle 06 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-06XX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 4 12/22/09 9:32:24 AM
  7. 7. Winner of Eight Jesse H. Neal Awards for Editorial Excellence Editor’s Page Published since 1902 New HART award aims to spark progress across the CPI An Access Intelligence Publication Publisher Art Design Mike O’Rourke DAVID WHITCHER N Publisher Art Director/ umber six on this magazine’s list of twelve tips for clearer technical morourke@che.com Editorial Production Manager dwhitcher@che.com writing is “When writing about concepts that are new, unfamiliar or Editors Production abstract, try to include examples.” This principle, as articulated in an Rebekkah j. Marshall Editor in Chief MICHAEL D. KRAUS informative article by former CE Editor-in-Chief Nicholas P. Chopey (CE, VP of Production Manufacturing rmarshall@che.com mkraus@accessintel.com July 2003, pp. 73–75), is admittedly simple but can nevertheless be pivotal. Dorothy Lozowski Steve Olson Without effective examples, it would take many innovative solutions far Managing Editor dlozowski@che.com Director of Production too long to saturate their intended outlet and reach their full potential. Manufacturing GERALD ONDREY (Frankfurt) solson@accessintel.com With that reality in mind, CE has the exclusive media privilege of un- Senior Editor John Blaylock-CookE veiling that the Evonik Degussa GmbH (Essen, Germany; www.evonik. gondrey@che.com Ad Production Manager jcooke@accessintel.com com) Methacrylates Complex, at the Multi User Site (MUSC) in Shang- Scott Jenkins Associate Editor Marketing hai’s Chemical Industry Park, has been selected as the winner of the sjenkins@che.com Holly Rountree HART Innovative Achievement Award. The new award is presented by Contributing Editors Marketing Manager hrountree@accessintel.com the HART Communication Foundation (HCF; Austin; www.hartcomm. SUZANNE A. SHELLEY Audience org) in recognition of exceptional achievement, ingenuity and innovation sshelley@che.com Development in using HART communication in realtime applications to improve opera- Charles ButcheR (U.K.) Sylvia sierra cbutcher@che.com Senior Vice President, tions and maintenance. The project and the award itself illustrate how Paul S. Grad (Australia) Corporate Audience Development the CPI’s pioneers can both inspire and be inspired by winning techno- ssierra@accessintel.com pgrad@che.com logical applications. Tetsuo Satoh (Japan) John Rockwell tsatoh@che.com Vice President, Although the HART communication protocol is certainly not new, its Joy LePree (New Jersey) Audience Development Chemical full capabilities can seem abstract to chemical engineers whose process jrockwell@accessintel.com jlepree@che.com Laurie Hofmann control training is too often limited to Laplace transforms or basic control Gerald parkinson Audience Marketing Director theory. Even for engineers who have practical control-system training lhofmann@Accessintel.com (California) gparkinson@che.com and experience, the widescale adoption of HART — or any other com- Terry Best Editorial Audience Development Manager munication bus, for that matter — is much easier to visualize and justify Advisory Board tbest@accessintel.com with the help of compelling success stories. John Carson George Severine Jenike Johanson, Inc. Fulfillment Manager Indeed, the Shanghai facility’s achievement begins with yet another ex- David Dickey gseverine@accessintel.com ample. At the start of its project, Evonik read an application story posted MixTech, Inc. Jen Felling on the HART Website about how a BP facility saved money installing Mukesh Doble List Sales, Statlistics (203) 778-8700 IIT Madras, India j.felling@statlistics.com smart valve positioners to help identify which valves needed to be re- Henry Kister Conferences paired during plant shutdowns. Before the use of HART to identify valve Fluor Corp. Dana D. Carey conditions at BP, a certain number of valves were removed and repaired Director, Global Event Sponsorships Trevor Kletz dcarey@chemweek.com at every shutdown, whether the valve actually needed repair or not. Loughborough University, U.K. Peck Sim Evonik then decided to design-in the use of HART to help reduce its own Gerhard Kreysa (retired) DECHEMA e.V. Senior Manager, maintenance costs and now has over 2,000 HART-compatible instruments Conference Programming Ram Ramachandran psim@chemweek.com and valves from multiple global manufacturers. “Our technician can now BOC Beatriz Suarez quickly and more efficiently access device calibration, integrity and wiring Director of Conference Operations Information bsuarez@chemweek.com information in order to check that the entire control loops are performing services Robert Paciorek Corporate according to the process design,” says the plant representative. “As a di- Senior VP Chief Information Officer Steve Barber rect result of this implementation, we managed to cut loop-check time and rpaciorek@accessintel.com VP, Financial Planning Internal Audit sbarber@accessintel.com costs by 25% compared to the traditional method based on conventional Charles Sands Senior Developer Brian Nessen handheld devices. As well, daily troubleshooting of instruments is now Web/business Applications Architect Group Publisher mainly performed from the safety and convenience of the control room.” csands@accessintel.com bnessen@accessintel.com The team is now initiating a predictive maintenance program, in which Headquarters priority equipment such as key control valves and safety instruments re- 110 William Street, 11th Floor, New York, NY 10038, U.S. Tel: 212-621-4900 Fax: 212-621-4694 ceive immediate attention. “Once they experienced first- European Editorial offices hand the power, performance and reliability of HART Zeilweg 44, D-60439 Frankfurt am Main, Germany technology, they decided to use HART in additional ap- Tel: 49-69-2547-2073 Fax: 49-69-5700-2484 plications.,” says Ed Ladd, HCF director of Technology Circulation Requests: Tel: 847-564-9290 Fax: 847-564-9453 Programs. “This application is a model for new plants Fullfillment Manager; P.O. Box 3588, of all types — that HART is the right communication Northbrook, IL 60065-3588 email: clientservices@che.com choice to lower maintenance and operation costs.” Advertising Requests: see p. 62 We invite you to visit www.che.com for more about For photocopy or reuse requests: 800-772-3350 or info@copyright.com For reprints: chemicalengineering@theygsgroup.com the award and this exemplary application. ■ Rebekkah Marshall Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 503_CHE_010110_ED.indd 5 12/22/09 9:59:44 AM
  8. 8. Letters Underground storage tanks November 2009, Facts At Your Fingertips “Aboveground and Underground Storage Tanks”: It is articles like this one that cause me a major headache. Our company deals in assisting clients with their regulatory compli- ance. When I see a client who has an underground tank my first question is “Why?”. The answer is “We need the above ground space.” There is a third option, overlooked by most and that is to place the tank in a vault. The result is that the tank is regulated as an above ground tank, with all of the advantages of an underground tank. Their next comment is, “But no one told me.” Yes, the ini- tial cost is a little more, but the savings over the long run are considerable. George Moczulski Ambient Engineering Help transform the energy landscape Do you have an idea to transform the energy landscape by a 10x Engineering Factor? The American Institute of Chemical Engineers’ (AIChE) 10xE Competition is open for you to realize your idea potential. Submit your concept to Alan Fuchs and Alok Pradhan by January 31, 2010, at: 10xE@aiche.org The 10xE competition will focus on radically efficient designs of processes and devices that dramatically reduce energy and resource consumption. The submitted con- cepts should focus on capturing the methodology behind radically efficient designs of processes, devices and mate- rials and highlight the results. All can participate. Entrepreneurial teams as well as individual engineers will submit case study papers of their designs and the top entries will be announced atCircle 07 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-07 the Energy Efficiency Plenary by Amory Lovins during the AIChE Spring Meeting, March 23, 2010, San Antonio, Tex. An expert judging panel lead by Amory Lovins of the Rocky Mountain Institute will select the winning papers. The winning concepts will receive the following awards and recognition: • ree AIChE Spring Meeting registration F • n AIChE Energy Efficiency Award Certificate A • ase study review by Amory Lovins at the Energy Ef- C ficiency Plenary • ress coverage P • ublication in RMI 10xE Casebook P In addition, review by investors is planned and a limited number of travel stipends will be made available. To learn more about the challenge, visit www.aiche.org/ Energy/GetInvolved/10xEChallenge.aspx Postscripts, corrections December 2009, Focus on Level Measurement and Con- trol, pp. 51–53: On p. 52, the Website address for Tec- mark Corp. was listed incorrectly. The correct address is www.tecmarkcorp.com. ■ 04_CHE_010110_LET.indd 6 12/21/09 9:45:18 AM
  9. 9. Choose a better way to manage your information... Do you work in a world of last-minute data ❚ Increase plant uptime – increase revenue cleanup and “big bang” data handover? ❚ Enhance compliance and safety and minimise Gaps in your compliance information? reputational risk International teams struggling to ❚ Minimise financial and schedule risks synchronise their data and activities? ❚ Reduce faults and expensive rework ❚ Revamp and extend the life of your plant more easily All compounded by your reliance on rigid, ❚ See clear project progress against plan, including KPIs inflexible data warehouse technology? ❚ Collaborate reliably with international teams, subcontractors, even clients There is another way... AVEVA NET can manage data of any type and make it AVEVA NET’s specialist Information Management accessible and useful, in both AVEVA and third-party capabilities, across the design, engineering, environments. construction and operations phases of both Plant and Marine industries, manage your information to Choose a better way. Choose AVEVA NET - help you: the brand for Information Management. Contact us to learn more! EVA Email us at marketing.contact@aveva.com, quoting reference ANAD09, or find your regional AV N ET contact on our website at www.aveva.com/contact. Visit www.aveva.com/avevanet or take a MIC look at our AVEVA NET plant Owner Operator microsite at www.aveva.com/aveva_net/oos. R OSITE S Head office: High Cross Madingley Road Cambridge CB3 0HB UK Circle 08 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-08XX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 7 12/22/09 9:33:35 AM
  10. 10. Bookshelf The Nalco Water Handbook, 3rd ed. By wastewater. The material on reclaimed water could have Daniel Flynn. McGraw Hill Co., 1221 been expanded to include water reuse, given its increasing Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY importance. The section concludes with chapters on sludge 10121. Web: www.mcgrawhill.com. disposal, emulsions and wet scrubbing of gases. 2009. 1,280 pages. $125.00. Section 3 is devoted largely to reducing energy usage, through lower electric use in motors and other equipment, Reviewed by Brad Buecker, as well as improved aeration and process upgrades. Technical support specialist, The third edition wisely retains a set of industry- AEC PowerFlow, Kansas City, Mo. specific chapters that appeared in earlier versions of the book. The set includes chapters on the paper, power, chem- T he third edition of Nalco’s comprehensive manual ical, petroleum, aluminum, steel, coal, food and municipal on water and water treatment is an effective re- water industries. placement to the previous version as well as an ex- cellent information source for those seeking to learn about Wiley Guide to Chemical Incompati- industrial water treatment and improve plant operation bilities. 3rd ed. By Richard P. Pohanish and efficiency. The opening section covers fundamental and Stanley A. Greene. Wiley Sons water chemistry, and provides useful information for plant Inc., 111 River St., Hoboken, NJ 07030. personnel who may encounter a steep learning curve with Web: www.wiley.com. 2009. 1,110 pages. regard to industrial water treatment. $175.00. Section 2 includes chapters on the removal of impurities from raw water makeup and conditioning of the water to The Science and Engineering of minimize corrosion, scaling or other problems downstream. Cutting. By Tony Atkins. Butterworth- The section contains a comprehensive discussion of water Heinemann, 30 Corporate Dr., Suite clarification and multimedia filtration — technologies that 400, Burlington, MA. 01803. Web: www. have been the backbone of primary water pretreatment elsevier.com. 2009. 432 pages. $64.95. for years — as well as discussions of ion exchange and membrane separation technologies. Although the order of Citizen Engineer: A Handbook for the chapters could have been reversed, the ion exchange Socially Responsible Engineering. chapter contains much useful information, including a good By David Douglas, Greg Papadopoulos discussion of how primary exchange resins function. and John Boutelle. Prentice Hall, One The three pages devoted to micro- and ultra-filtration Lake St., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. may not be enough, given the potential for these systems Web: www.prenhall.com. 2009. 292 to replace clarifiers and sand filters in many applications. pages. $27.00. Discussion of reverse osmosis, which has proven to be an excellent pretreatment technology, was comprehensive. Effective Alarm Management Sys- A portion of the section covers the widely utilized process tem Practices. By The ASM Consor- of steam generation in detail, and includes an informative tium. CreateSpace, 100 Enterprise Way, discussion on a number of industrial boiler designs. A chap- Suite A200, Scotts Valley, CA 95066. ter on boiler feedwater treatment focuses on deposits that Web: www.createspace.com. 2009. 106 foul steam generators, and ways to prevent scaling and pages. $150.00. fouling. A short chapter on turbines is a new and welcome addition to the book, given turbines’ integral role in power Crystal Structure Analysis: Princi- generation and wide use at other industrial plants. Another ples and Practice, 2nd ed. By Alexan- chapter investigates problems that can be caused by oxygen der Blake and others. Oxford University and carbon dioxide in condensate return systems, which Press Inc., 198 Madison Ave., New York, can be relatively complex for industrial applications. NY 10016. Web: www.oup.com/us. 2009. Section 2.3 is devoted to cooling water processes and 387 pages. $59.95. chemistry. Chapter 14 offers a good review of the types of cooling water systems, with much discussion on open Design for Environment: A Guide to recirculating systems that use cooling towers. Notable are Sustainable Product Development, useful chapters on mechanisms of fouling and corrosion, 2nd ed. By Joseph Fiksel. McGraw Hill Co., 1221 Av- others on cooling water system monitoring, as well as sev- enue of the Americas, New York, NY 10121. Web: www. eral chapters on cooling water biology. mcgrawhill.com. 2009. 410 pages. $125.00. A major portion of the book addresses wastewater treat- ment, a complex process that is handled in an informative Advanced Regulatory Control: Applications and manner. An outline of wastewater system designs and Techniques. By David Spitzer. Momentum Press LLC, treatment methods is followed by a helpful discussion of 222 East 46th Street, New York, NY 10017. Web: www.mo- dissolved air flotation as well as the removal of ammonia, mentumpress.net. 2009. 145 pages. $49.95. ■ phosphorous, suspended solids, and heavy metals from Scott Jenkins 8 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201005_CHE_010110_BKS.indd 8 12/22/09 2:45:52 PM
  11. 11. B:8.125” T:7.625” S:7” f over and distribution o ck of sales “We K YHquWRtkgelopbally… Des of e ipmen e tra c 18,000 pie DQG parts, to the right place, get the right at the right time DQG QGeasierparonvdedchReOaIpe r automate more processes Dtomize or im cus ns f solutio S:9.75” T:10.5” B:11” DQG cadus ce timcteifspyentroon service re ll to re er rs s unication impr ove comm rs deale DQG with our vy load for our staff Microsoft Dynamics CRM lifted a heaefficiently.” DQG by managing our relationships more Microsoft Dynamics® CRM integrates information from different sources and puts it in one place, at one time, so everyone in your company sees the information needed to make better decisions faster. It’s simple for your sales and support people to use, and it’s ready to fit your company right away. So you can spend less time on service calls and more time building stronger relationships. To learn more about the efficiencies Microsoft Dynamics CRM can create for your business, go to microsoftdynamics.com/manufacturing Circle 09 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-09XX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 9 12/22/09 9:37:19 AM
  12. 12. RO-2111C Tom Di -Industrial Ad for Chemical Eng. size: 7.875” x 10.75” (Bleed: 8.125” x 11.5”) 4-c date: 10/08/07 (SCD#07ROSS026) “In the auto industry, no one drives faster than Uniseal.” Uniseal is known throughout the OEM auto industry as a premier supplier of structural adhesive and sealant systems. With fast-moving RD, custom formulations and superb quality, it’s easy to see why this company has been so successful. To keep production in the passing lane, Uniseal relies on the finest equipment available anywhere for high-viscosity vacuum mixing: 10- to 1,500-gallon double planetary and triple-shaft mixers engineered right here at Ross. We’d like to help you succeed, too. Call 1-800-243-ROSS. Or visit www.mixers.com. Circle 10 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29246-10 Tom DiGiannurio, Senior Engineer, Ross Employee OwnerXX_CHE_0110_Full_pg_ads.indd 10 12/22/09 9:38:27 AM
  13. 13. Edited by Gerald Ondrey January 2010 Heat source Recovered Dilute Recovering energy Heater Fan water spent liquor from fluegas To stack Warm water Countercurrent A lcoa of Australia (www.alcoa.com.au) has developed a process to recover sensible and latent heat from the fluegas (FG) pro- contacting tower Flash vapor to Quench Hot water duced by Bayer alumina calciners, and use Calciner condenser Indirect the heat to evaporate Bayer spent liquor. fluegas condenser Peter Hay, of Alcoa’s Technology Delivery Pump Falling Group, at Alcoa’s Kwinana Refinery, in film Heat evaporator sink Western Australia, says the recovered heat ery process (flowsheet) are: fluegas quench can also be applied to seawater desalination. to cool the FG to its dew point and to wet Condensate Calcination consumes 25 to 40% of the refin- and discharge the fugitive dust in the FG; ery’s total energy input, and produces large counter-current contacting tower to heat quantities of FG that is generally vented to water and cool the FG; induced draft fan to Concentrated the atmosphere, says Hay. overcome pressure losses in the FG circuit; spent liquor Energy is recovered from the FG by pro- indirect exhaust FG heater to ensure fluegas gressive cooling. Only sensible heat is re- buoyancy and dispersion; falling film evapo- covered between 165°C and the dew point. rator, to exchange heat between the heated Aiding crystal growth Below the dew point, the energy recovered water in the shell with the spent liquor film Scientists at Brookhaven is mainly the latent heat of the water con- flowing inside the tubes thereby evaporat- National Laboratory (BNL; densed. The higher-grade, sensible heat is ing the spent liquor; and indirect heat ex- Upton, N.Y.; www.bnl.gov) have patented a method for only about 10% of the practical recoverable changer, to condense and recover high qual- absorbing hydrogen fluo- energy, considering 50°C to be the heat sink ity condensate from the evaporated liquor. ride gas to enhance crystal practical limit. Water is recovered after the For every metric ton (m.t.) of smelting- growth. HF is commonly dew point is reached. Since considerable re- grade alumina produced, about 0.2 GJ of added to precursors to trans- fining infrastructure is invested to collect sensible heat is recovered from FG exit tem- fer crystalline order from a and store fresh water — an essential raw peratures between 85 and 165°C, and about substrate to a growing mate- material for the Bayer process — any pro- 0.6 m.t. of water is recovered from FG exit rial, but buildup of the gas can cess that can reduce fresh water usage has temperatures between 57 and 82°C. Hay slow down or even stop the significant value to the refining operation, and co-inventor Dean Ilievski, also of Alcoa’s reaction. Simply venting the says Hays. Technology Delivery Group, have applied for HF is not practical because other necessary gases may The basic components of the heat recov- a patent on the process. be present, and also pressure variations cause non-unifor- Large-diameter reverse osmosis product mity in crystals. The BNL method features lowers cost and reduces footprint a solid material that selec- tively absorbs HF, leaving K och Membrane Systems Inc. (KMS; Wilm- ington, Mass.; www.kochmembrane.com) recently unveiled large-diameter reverse get into the range of tens of millions of gal- lons per day, plants can realize cost savings of 30% and footprint reductions of 50%” with behind oxygen, water vapor and other gases that may be necessary for the reac- osmosis (RO) elements and pressure ves- the larger-size product, Jaferey adds. tion. The method has been demonstrated for grow- sels for seawater desalination that offer The economics and smaller space require- ing crystals of a common cost savings and reduced footprints. The ments become increasingly important as yttrium-barium-copper-oxide new RO element and pressure vessel com- seawater desalination plants seek more ca- (YBCO) superconductor. The binations have an 18-in. dia. and a 60-in. pacity and are located in more densely pop- YBCO crystal growth rate length, rather than the standard 8-in.-dia., ulated areas with limited land space. The was faster when using a bar- 40-in.-long size that has been commonly product has installation advantages as well ium-oxide HF absorber than used. The larger size translates to an effec- because it is available in pre-engineered when conventional methods tive membrane area of 17,500 ft2 per ves- packaged plants that require less fieldwork were used, says BNL. The sel, compared to 2,800 ft2 for conventional to install. As desalination requires pressures technology — available for 8-in. elements. of up to 1,200 psi to drive the RO process, licensing or commercializa- “The larger diameter becomes cost-effec- KMS also had the challenges of designing tion — is expected to find tive at capacities of around 1-million gal/d,” larger diameter pressure vessels that could applications in superconduc- tors, optical devices and says Imran Jaferey, Koch’s vice-president meet ASME code requirements, and deliver- microelectronics. for water and wastewater. “Once capacities ing them cost-effectively. Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number on p. 62, or use the website designation. Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 2010 1106_CHE_010110_CHM.indd 11 12/21/09 9:17:53 AM
  14. 14. C hementato R Tube side TMC membrane cross section Shell side TMC element with pore sizes of the layers TMC element 60 to ‘Super Boiler’ achieves higher efficiency Water-vapor ° 80 A ° 500 A ~0.4µm through the recovery of waste heat laden Hot water Capillary condensation of water fluegas inlet outlet occurs in the surface pores A n advanced heat recovery system (AHRS) that boosts the fuel-to-steam efficiency of firetube boilers by as much uses a transport mem- brane condenser (TMC) to capture and use sen- as 15% will be produced by Cannon sible and latent waste Water (and heat) flow Boiler Works Inc. (New Kensington, Pa.; heat via the water vapor www.cannonboilerworks.com) through from fluegas. The Super a license agreement with the Gas Tech- Boiler consists of a two- nology Institute (GTI, Des Plaines, Ill.; pass, high-pressure- Water-vapor www.gastechnology.org). Cannon ex- steam firetube boiler depleted Cold boiler feed water pects to have its first commercial units and an AHRS (diagram), fluegas outlet available late this year, for incorpora- an integrated unit that tion into new boilers or retrofitting onto includes the TMC and low- and high- the tubes. The flowing water draws the existing boilers. pressure economizers. Fluegas flows hot, moist fluegas through the mem- The technology has been proven for through the economizers, where sensible brane to join the flow, thereby recover- high-pressure-steam systems by three heat is removed, then passes to the TMC ing heat. About 30–50% of the water in field demonstrations at various types for recovery of sensible and latent heat. the fluegas passes through the mem- of industrial plants over the past three The TMC consists of hundreds of brane and is recovered as pure water, years, says Curt Bermel, GTI’s business nanoporous ceramic tubes. Cold boiler says Bermel, while the passage of un- development manager. The complete feedwater flows through the tubes, wanted contaminants, including CO2 system, which GTI calls “Super Boiler,” countercurrent to the fluegas outside and O2, is blocked. A new electrochemical process for making K2FeO4 A new process for producing the oxi- dizing agent potassium ferrate (VI) (K2FeO4) can routinely generate multi- and engineers at Battelle. The other key innovation, they say, was varying the power across the anode, which elim- gram yields were achieved on a single, commercial-scale cell, but the cells are modular, and can be replicated to scale- kilogram quantities per day, say sci- inates the accumulation of unstable up, notes Andy Wolter, chief operating entists. Ferratec (St. Louis, Mo.; www. or solid intermediates and keeps the officer of Ferratec and parent company, theincubationfactory.com) and partner anode from “passivating” — a problem The Incubation Factory. Electrosynthesis (Lancaster, N.Y.; www. that has plagued past efforts to produce Initially, Ferratec is targeting a hand- electrosynthesis.com) have licensed the ferrate electrochemically. ful of the many applications for the pow- process technology from Battelle (Co- Advantages of the new process include erful oxidizer, including use as a broad- lumbus, Ohio; www.battelle.org) and a high-purity (95%), highly stable (tol- spectrum disinfectant, a water quality are looking toward commercial-scale erates 70°C) product and a small and tool and for selective oxidations in fine ferrate production. relatively clean waste stream. The kilo- chemical syntheses. The common laboratory method for making the compound involves chlorina- tion of ferric salts, a process that makes Sound water treatment delivers only gram quantities and has not been found to be scalable. The new process is environmental and economic benefits based on an electrochemical cell with an iron anode in a strong caustic medium. As low voltage is applied, the cell produces A two-year collaboration between Ash- land Hercules Water Technologies (AHWT; Wilmington, Del.), a commer- phosphate treatment requiring pH ad- justment through sulfuric acid dosing — with Ashland’s Enviroplus scale-and- K2FeO4 as a slurry, and hydrogen gas. cial unit of Ashland Inc. (Covington, Ky.; corrosion inhibitor, in conjunction with The ferrate is removed continuously from www.ashland.com), and BASF Neder- an Ashland Sonoxide ultrasonic water- the circulating electrolyte and isolated by land B.V. (Nijehaske, the Netherlands) treatment system. solid/liquid separation. Recovered elec- has demonstrated that a combination of Enviroplus uses natural, biodegrade- trolyte is recycled back to the cell. ultrasonic microbial control and corro- able and renewable ingredients (BCA- Relying on electrochemistry rather sion inhibitors not only enhances envi- polymers and low phosphorous PSA than chlorination synthesis methods ronmental performance, but also leads to phosphonate), and eliminates the need was a key technology development in as- a dramatic reduction in total operating for sulfuric acid. The patented Sonox- sembling a viable process and enabling costs for cooling water treatment. BASF ide technology works by passing water high yields, explain Bruce Monzyk and opted to replace its complete cooling-wa- through an ultrasonic chamber where Mike von Fahnestock, process chemists ter-treatment program — a conjugated (Continues on p. 14) 12 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201006_CHE_010110_CHM.indd 12 12/21/09 9:21:31 AM
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  16. 16. C hementato R DME to propylene JGC Corp. (Yokohama; www. Downcomer jgc.co.jp) and Mitsubishi Chemical Corp. (Tokyo, both Commercialization is set for Japan; www.m-kagaku.co.jp) a new distillation technology Stage spacing are investing ¥2.6 billion ($29 million) in a pilot plant to fur- Separator ther develop a new process to A new distillation device developed by UOP LLC (Des Plaines, Ill.; www.uop.com) will make its commercial debut in an ethylene make propylene from diverse feedstock, such as methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) — separation column at LG Chem, Ltd.’s pet- made from coke-oven gas rochemical plant in Yeosu, South Korea. — and underutilized olefins Coflow channel from naphtha crackers. The Scheduled for startup in the near future, the revamped column is expected to process two firms have been working Modular on different aspects of this twice as much ethylene as it previously did width technology since 2007. JGC, with conventional distillation trays. for example, has developed a The capacity of conventional sieve or fixed DME-to-propylene (DTP) pro- valve trays is limited by the froth height and two vapor-liquid separators. The latter are cess, which uses a modified the amount of liquid entrainment that can located on opposite sides of the downcomer, ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst. The be achieved, notes Greg Wisniewski, prod- forming two vapor-liquid coflow channels DTP process is said to have a uct line manager for UOP process equip- between the downcomer and the separa- high selectivity for lower ole- ment. UOP’s technology, called SimulFlow, tors (see diagram). Downflowing liquid is fins, with propylene yields of avoids frothing by entraining all the liquid distributed through spouts at the bottom of 70% achieved. The pilot plant, in the vapor at each column stage. Its high the downcomer and is entrained in upflow- located at Mitsubishi Chemi- cal’s Mizushima Plant, is capacity is achieved by simultaneous cocur- ing vapor. The two phases are mixed, then scheduled to come onstream rent liquid and vapor flow, within a contact- split up by the separators. In the case of at the end of July. ing channel, and by efficient vapor-liquid the LG Chem plant, a mixture of primarily phase separators. ethylene and ethane is fed to the column. SimulFlow differs from a sieve deck tray High-purity ethylene is obtained from the Biomass-to-liquids in that it has multiple horizontal contacting top and the ethane is condensed and recov- The Karlsruhe Institute of ered from the bottom. Technology (KIT; Germany; modules. Each includes a downcomer and www.kit.edu) has received €11 million in German federal and state funding to extend Sound water treatment rates (measured on steel corrosion coupons) KIT’s pilot plant for developing (Continued from p. 12) were shown to be reduced from 0.3–0.4 mil/ its bioliq process — a four- bacteria cells are exposed to a combination yr to 0.23 mil/yr. Compareing with BASF’s stage process for converting of low-power, high-frequency ultrasound previous water treatment costs to those biomass (straw or wood) into and micro-bubble aeration. This reduces associated with the Sonoxide system, en- liquid fuels. The funding will the overall bacteria levels and eliminates gineers found that operating costs were enable KIT to add the last two biofilm formation within the entire cooling reduced by 80%, chemical use was reduced stages — gas cleaning and fuel synthesis — to its pilot water system, says Olaf Pohlmann, AHWT’s by 90% and feed water savings of 20% were plant. The first stage of the pilot Sonoxide commercial leader EMEA. achieved. Results also show a preliminary is flash pyrolysis of biomass After two years of operation, not only was savings of €20,000/yr from feed water and microbial control demonstrated, corrosion chemical use reductions, says Pohlmann. (Continues on p. 16) These nanotube membranes promise superior performance for less cost C arbon nanotube membranes are being developed for water desalina- tion and carbon dioxide sequestration Porifera’s chief technology officer and a former team leader at LLNL. She adds that the membranes will enable an en- controlled within a range of 1–10 nm. The height or length of the tubes, which determines the membrane by Porifera Inc. (Hayward, Calif.; www. ergy reduction of up to 70% in desali- thickness, is currently 3–5 µm. Work- poriferanano.com) under an exclusive nation, compared to the use of conven- ing membranes are assembled by em- license from Lawrence Livermore Na- tional RO membranes. bedding the nanotube structure in a tional Laboratory (LLNL, Livermore, The nanotubes are produced by porous polymeric or ceramic substrate, Calif.). Porifera, a new company, ex- chemical vapor deposition from ethyl- with the nanotubes forming the pores pects to commercialize desalination ene or other carbon-bearing gases at of the membrane. membranes within two years. 800–850°C, under low or atmospheric Porifera is also developing mem- Laboratory tests indicate that the pressure. The carbon deposits onto branes that are tailored to separate CO2 membranes will have “something like multiple iron-based nanoparticle cata- from fluegas. This project, which is at an 10 to 100 times the flux of polymeric lysts, forming an integrated miniature early stage, is being carried out under a reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, due forest of nanotubes. The dimensions of $1 million-plus grant from the U.S. Dept. to a nanofluidic effect unique to car- the tubes can be precisely controlled, of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects bon nanotubes,” says Olgica Bakajin, says Bakajin. The diameters can be Agency (Washington, D.C.). 14 Chemical Engineering www.che.com January 201006_CHE_010110_CHM.indd 14 12/21/09 9:24:45 AM
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