AUGUST                                  2009                                              VISCOSITY:                      ...
Performance Fluids from DowFluids thatMove YourWorld                                                                      ...
Improve bulk dumping 4 ways with            new TIP-TITE™ dumpers from Flexicon®New TIP-TITE™ Universal Drum Dumper handle...
Mighty power in a small package.                                                www.honeywell.com/ps/experionlsCircle 05 o...
AUGUST 2009                                       IN THIS ISSUE                                            VOLUME 116, NO....
© 2009 Swagelok Company                                                            Contrary to what you may think, we’re m...
Winner of Eight Jesse H. Neal  Awards for Editorial Excellence                                                            ...
Bartlett-Snow™ Rotary Calciners   for the Activation of Carbon                                               Letters Custo...
Do you see a ladybug?       We also see an opportunity for industry     to benefit from protecting the environment.Manager...
Calendar                                                               NORTH AMERICA                                      ...
FP4/SH.C.GBwatersmartinnovations.comLas Vegas, Nev.                             October 7–95th Annual Comsol Conference 20...
Circle 12 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23017-12
Edited by Gerald Ondrey                                                                                                   ...
C HEMENTATO R                                                                                                             ...
15)                                                                                                      (Continued from p...
(Continued from p. 13)C HEMENTATO R                                                                                       ...
Circle 13 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23017-13
Technology ShowcaseMONITORINGAIR EMISSIONS           New requirements are spurring      strong demand in air pollution mon...
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed
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Fine Grinding: Getting Up To Speed

  1. 1. AUGUST 2009 VISCOSITY: The Basics PAGE 34 www.che.com8 PAGE 26 REACH: Monitoring Looking Beyond Air Emissions Pre-registration Facts at Your Focus on Fingertips: Boilers & Adsorption Steam Handling Process Control Keeping Cooling and Instrumented Water Clean Safety System Integration
  2. 2. Performance Fluids from DowFluids thatMove YourWorld ™It takes the right fluids to achieve high levels of performance, help maintain winter aviationproductivity and economy. For operating supplies that meet critical safety while contributing to on-time flight departure performance.functional and protection needs in demanding applications, choose www.ucaradf.comperformance fluids from Dow. We supply advanced, proven, andreliable solutions for heat transfer, lubrication, fluid power, freeze We stand behind our fluids with a global support team that canand corrosion protection, and deicing. provide the application, technical, regulatory, sales and customer service assistance you require. For fluids that perform, choose ™ † performance fluids from Dow. increase processing efficiency and economics inhigh temperature processing environments. www.dowtherm.com ™ ™ U.S, Canada, and Mexico: 1-800-447-4369 help prevent system corrosion and freeze Latin America: (+55) 11-5188-9222damage in water-based HVAC, food and beverage, and other Europe: +800-3-694-6367* or (+32) 3-450-2240systems. www.dowfrost.com Asia-Pacific: +800-7776-7776* or (+60) 3-7958-3392 ™ help protect circulatingsystems against corrosion and cavitation erosion damage in gaspipeline compressor engines and other oil and gas service.www.norkool.com ™ reduce wear and extend the life ®TM Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company (“Dow”) or an affiliated company of Dow †SYLTHERM Fluids are manufactured by Dow Corning Corporation and distributed byof industrial, mobile, marine and other equipment while offering The Dow Chemical Companyimportant fire-resistance and economic benefits. www.ucon.com *Toll-free service not available in all countries. Circle 01 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23017-01
  3. 3. Improve bulk dumping 4 ways with new TIP-TITE™ dumpers from Flexicon®New TIP-TITE™ Universal Drum Dumper handles New TIP-TITE™ Box/Container Dumper handles New TIP-TITE™ High-Lift Drum Dumper handlesdrums from 30 to 55 gal (114 to 208 liter) boxes up to 48 in. W x 48 in. D x 44 in. H drums from 30 to 55 gal (114 to 208 liter) (1220 mm W x 1220 mm D x 1118 mm H) TIP-TITE™ dumpers bring newfound efficiencies and cost savings to the age-old task of dumping bulk materials from drums, boxes and containers, redefining this class of everyday plant equipment1 Stop dust 3 Increase reliability Flexicon offers TIP-TITE™ Dumpers in mild steel TIP-TITE™ Dumpers hydraulically raise and Flexicon engineers and builds TIP-TITE™ with durable industrial finishes, with stainless rotate the container, creating a dust-tight seal Dumpers specifically for fail-safe reliability steel material contact surfaces, or in all-stainless against a discharge hood that mates with a under constant use in demanding environ- models finished to food, dairy, pharmaceutical or gasketted inlet port fitted to any receiving vessel. ments—and backs them 100% with a industrial standards. All are available with Flexicon Pneumatic or manual slide gates control flow. performance guarantee. mechanical or pneumatic conveyors, rotary airlock valves or with flanged outlets to feed any process.2 Improve safety 4 Cut cost Most importantly, all are engineered, manufac- Ergonomic concerns of manual methods Smooth, safe, dust-free and reliable operation tured, guaranteed and supported by Flexicon— can be eliminated with controlled, automated improves the efficiency of a repetitive task, TIP-TITE™ Dumpers, which incorporate with significant savings in labor and downtime, your single-source solution for virtually any bulk handling problem. features of stringent global safety standards. maximizing your payback. USA UK +44 (0)1227 374710 sales@flexicon.com AUSTRALIA +61 (0)7 3879 4180 1 888 FLEXICON SOUTH AFRICA +27 (0)41 453 1871 X-0719 Also available (left to right): Open Chute Drum Dumpers, Open Chute Box/Container Dumpers and High Lift Drum Dump Filling Systems .com See the full range of fast-payback equipment at flexicon.com: Flexible Screw Conveyors, Pneumatic Conveying Systems, Bulk Bag Unloaders, Bulk Bag Conditioners, Bulk Bag Fillers, Bag Dump Stations, Drum Dumpers, Box Dumpers, Weigh Batching and Blending Systems, and Automated Plant-Wide Bulk Handling Systems ©2009 Flexicon Corporation. Flexicon Corporation has registrations and pending applications for the trademark FLEXICON throughout the world. Circle 04 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23017-04
  4. 4. Mighty power in a small package. www.honeywell.com/ps/experionlsCircle 05 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23017-05
  5. 5. AUGUST 2009 IN THIS ISSUE VOLUME 116, NO. 8 COMMENTARY 5 Editor’s Page A new ‘lease’ on CPI life? While the worst of the recession may very www.che.com well be over for the global econ- omy in general,COVER STORY the downstream26 Cover Story Fine Grinding effects in the With Impact Mills A primer chemical process on which mill to use for various industries (CPI) are types of products not yet behind usNEWS DEPARTMENTS11 Chementator Capacity to double for an oil-shale process; Letters . . . . . . . . . 6 A silver-based antimicrobial; Scaleup for a ‘downer’ FCC Calendar . . . . . . 8, 9 process; Diamond lubricant cuts Who’s Who . . . . . 24 friction and increases equip- ment life; Making fine particles Reader Service of inhalable drugs; Cellulose- page . . . . . . . . . . 54 to-aromatics process simplifies Economic BTX production; Biobased suc- Indicators . . . 55, 56 cinic acid pilot effort under- way; Green honors; Making SunCatchers instead of cars; ADVERTISERS An alternative to chlor-alkali; A Classified replacement for Cr+6; Weed- Advertising . . 49–52 based biodiesel; and more EQUIPMENT & SERVICES Advertiser Index . 5316 Technology Showcase Monitoring Air Emissions New requirements are spurring 24D-1 New Products & Services strong demand in air pollution monitoring (Domestic Edition) Coriolis meters for low- COMING IN flow applications; Test pH, conductivity, dis- SEPTEMBER18 Newsfront Today’s SIS: Integrated Yet solved oxygen and ion concentrations; Con- Independent Bringing process control and Look for: Feature dition monitoring and analysis integrated in instrumented safety systems together while Reports on Multi- an automation system; An optimum valve still keeping them separate provides benefits variable Predictive for reciprocating pumps; This range of flow- beyond risk reduction Control; and Water meters and controllers is now more flex- Supply and Reuse; ible; This pump provides precise control inENGINEERING Engineering Prac- low-flow applications; An aseptic valve for tice articles on23 Facts At Your Fingertips Adsorption critical areas; A new spray dryer for labo- Evaluating the Safety This one-page guide explains various adsor- ratories; Download CAD drawings for free; Record of CPVC bent properties and provides the correspond- Support EU regulations for classification, Piping; and A New ing equations labeling and packaging; and more Design Approach for34 Feature Report Viscosity: The Basics 47 Focus Boilers & Backmixed Reactors; An important concept, sometimes forgotten, Steam Handling A Solids Processing is that viscosity is not a single-point measure- These new resins are article on Measur- ment. Basic concepts and terminology are an alternative to metal ing Fines in Polymer reviewed and techniques for quantifying boiler components; Processing; A Focus viscosity are addressed Detect variability in on Valves; News boiler operation for articles on Chemical40 Engineering Practice REACH: Looking improved efficiency; Engineering Salaries; Beyond Pre-registration The next steps to Ultra-high efficiency and Plant Security; ensuring compliance are significantly more condensing boilers for tough conditions; Facts at Your Fin- complex This burner offers ultra-low NOx emissions; gertips on Heat43 Operations & Maintenance Keeping Position sensors provide feedback of steam Transfer; An ISA Cooling Water Clean Proper monitoring control valves; For small-scale applications, Show Preview; and control of water chemistry is essential use this steam generator; and more and more CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM AUGUST 2009 3
  6. 6. © 2009 Swagelok Company Contrary to what you may think, we’re much more than a tube fitting company. And we have our obsession with Customer Focus to thank for that. Yes, we’re In addition to tube fittings, known throughout the world for our tube fittings. And yes, we’ve been at it for over 60 years. But when companies are looking harder than ever for greater value, it’s we also make valves, our broad range of products, including orbital welders, modular systems, and a regulators, filters, complete line of hose, that helps us offer more than you expect. See for yourself at swagelok.com/moreproducts. and happier customers. Circle 06 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23017-06
  7. 7. Winner of Eight Jesse H. Neal Awards for Editorial Excellence Editor’s Page Published since 1902 An Access Intelligence Publication A new ‘lease’ on CPI life? hile the worst of the recession may very well be over for the globalPUBLISHERMIKE O’ROURKEPublishermorourke@che.comEDITORS ART & DESIGN DAVID WHITCHER Art Director/ Editorial Production Manager dwhitcher@che.com W S economy in general, the downstream effects in the chemical pro- cess industries (CPI) will take awhile to flush themselves out. Second quarter financial reports were released last month, with most of PRODUCTION t the good news loosing luster in the shadow of the same period last year.REBEKKAH J. MARSHALLEditor in Chief MICHAEL D. KRAUS M Meanwhile, credit options remain tight. Based on these factors alone,rmarshall@che.com VP of Production & Manufacturing mkraus@accessintel.com t the job of any chemical engineer who must justify capital expendituresDOROTHY LOZOWSKIManaging Editor STEVE OLSON i is difficult at best. But, emerging flexibility in how the CPI pays for bothdlozowski@che.com Director of Production & e equipment and services could change the way we look at equipment im- ManufacturingGERALD ONDREY (Frankfurt) solson@accessintel.com p provements, even beyond this particular downturn.Senior Editorgondrey@che.com WILLIAM C. GRAHAM The new approach is a twist on the familiar model of looking at so-called Ad Production ManagerKATE TORZEWSKI bgraham@che.com l lifecycle costs or total costs of ownership. For years, vendors have used life-Assistant Editorktorzewski@che.com MARKETING c cycle cost analysis as a selling point for premium equipment and services,SCOTT JENKINS HOLLY ROUNTREE a arguing that the initially higher up-front investment will save the cus-Associate Editor Marketing Manager t tomer money over the longterm. But at the bottom of a recession and thesjenkins@che.com hrountree@accessintel.com AUDIENCE l last half or quarter of a fiscal year, longterm thinking is often supersededCONTRIBUTING EDITORS DEVELOPMENT b by short-term constraints. Seeing the writing on the wall, a number ofSUZANNE A. SHELLEY SYLVIA SIERRAsshelley@che.com Senior Vice President, e equipment and service providers in the software, automation and controlCHARLES BUTCHER (U.K.) Corporate Audience Development f field have been working on creative ways around such obstacles. In short,cbutcher@che.com ssierra@accessintel.com t they are transforming capital expenditures into operating ones, therebyPAUL S. GRAD (Australia) JOHN ROCKWELLpgrad@che.com Vice President, a avoiding the hurdle of large up-front investments altogether.TETSUO SATOH (Japan) Audience Development Chemical One such example is the Lifecycle Management (LCM) program offered jrockwell@accessintel.comtsatoh@che.com LAURIE HOFMANN b by Honeywell Process Solutions (Phoenix, Ariz.; www.honeywell.com/ps). InJOY LEPREE (New Jersey) Audience Marketing Director a multi-year service agreement, Honeywell and the customer establish an au-jlepree@che.com lhofmann@Accessintel.comGERALD PARKINSON t tomation roadmap that leads to either an “electronic refresh” or a complete TERRY BEST(California) gparkinson@che.com Audience Development Manager m migration during the term of the contract, says Jose Simon, business directorEDITORIAL tbest@accessintel.com L Lifecycle Services. The key here, though, is that the LCM program offers bothADVISORY BOARD GEORGE SEVERINE f flexibility and predictability in how the choices are financed. The costs can be Fulfillment ManagerJOHN CARSON gseverine@accessintel.com r redefined as maintenance expenses, for example. “Instead of paying in oneJenike & Johanson, Inc.DAVID DICKEY JEN FELLING b bucket, you pay over time,” Simon says, citing five years as an example term. List Sales, Statlistics (203) 778-8700MixTech, Inc. j.felling@statlistics.com Such an option is especially attractive for the large number of agingMUKESH DOBLE CONFERENCES p plants around the world, which are looking at high maintenance bills inIIT Madras, IndiaHENRY KISTER DANA D. CAREY t the coming years, anyhow. If these plants can redirect the funds that would Director, Global Event SponsorshipsFluor Corp. dcarey@chemweek.com b be needed for repair into procuring newer models that are also cheaper toTREVOR KLETZ o operate, the approval process becomes a lot easier. A CPI plant can startLoughborough University, U.K. PECK SIMGERHARD KREYSA Senior Manager, d down the path to modernization today and get there incrementally with Conference ProgrammingDECHEMA e.V. psim@chemweek.com l less financial risk.RAM RAMACHANDRAN BEATRIZ SUAREZ And in the wake of second quarter earnings that were announced lastBOC Director of Conference Operations bsuarez@chemweek.com m month, options with less financial risk look better and better. Even com-INFORMATION SERVICESROBERT PACIOREK CORPORATE p panies that have seasoned the storm reasonably well have a lot of eco-Senior VP & Chief Information Officer STEVE BARBER n nomic ground to recover. The Saudi Basic Industries Corp. (SABIC; Ri-rpaciorek@accessintel.com VP, Financial Planning & Internal Audit sbarber@accessintel.com y yadh, Saudi Arabia; www.sabic.com), for instance, reported a 76% drop inCHARLES SANDSSenior Developer BRIAN NESSEN i income from that of the same quarter in 2008 due to the sharp decline inWeb/business Applications Architect Group Publisher d demand and the prices of petrochemicals, plastics and metals. Meanwhile,csands@accessintel.com bnessen@accessintel.com D DuPont (Wilmington, Del.; www.dupont.com) reported a 61% drop, PPGHEADQUARTERS I Industries (Pittsburgh, Pa.; www.ppg.com) experienced a 42% drop, and110 William Street, 11th Floor, New York, NY 10038, U.S.Tel: 212-621-4900 Fax: 212-621-4694 t the list goes on.EUROPEAN EDITORIAL OFFICES To these and other CPI firms that must protect theirZeilweg 44, D-60439 Frankfurt am Main, Germany b budget over the remainder of their 2009 fiscal year, theTel: 49-69-2547-2073 Fax: 49-69-5700-2484 p prospect of shoring up longterm improvements withoutCIRCULATION REQUESTS:Tel: 847-564-9290 Fax: 847-564-9453 t taking an immediate budget hit probably sounds likeFullfillment Manager; P.O. Box 3588, a an unrealistic expectation. In any case, the potentialNorthbrook, IL 60065-3588 email: clientservices@che.com i is quite intriguing. Imagine if the economic recovery ofADVERTISING REQUESTS: see p. 54 t today’s CPI were paired with safer, more reliable andFor photocopy or reuse requests: 800-772-3350 or info@copyright.comFor reprints: chemicalengineering@theygsgroup.com m more efficient operations for tomorrow. Rebekkah Marshall CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM AUGUST 2009 5
  8. 8. Bartlett-Snow™ Rotary Calciners for the Activation of Carbon Letters Custom designed to meet your processing require- ments, Bartlett-Snow™ Rotary Calciners provide a highly effective and efficient means for the continuous Optimal cooling systems activation of carbonaceous materials at high tempera- The following comments relate to the May article, Op- tures under controlled atmospheric conditions. timal Cooling Systems for Coastal Plants (pp. 45–48). 1. The psychrometric chart (Figure 4, p. 47) lacks the The calciner consists of wet bulb temperatures. These are essential for using a cylindrical rotating the chart and are represented by the inclined lines. tube, housed in a gas ˆ 2. Equation (1) on p. 46 is incorrect. Firstly, Pwater is or electric furnace, pos- the partial pressure of water vapor in air at ambient sat itively sealed to prevent temperature, and Pwater is the saturation pressure of air infiltration. Product water vapor in air at ambient temperature. Secondly, quality is optimized with the equation that defines the relative humidity should be multiplied by 100, because the relative humidity of a design that establishes and maintains the tempera- air is expressed in percentage. ture profile required for the process. Giovanni S. Crisi Sao Paulo, Brazil Special internal flight design promotes gentle tumbling Author’s reply action and provides for uniform exposure to the internal 1. The psychrometric chart mentioned in the article is atmosphere and efficient heat transfer. just a descriptive chart that has been included in the article not as a reference for design but for explana- tion of different scenarios included in the article. So 4525 Weaver Pkwy., Warrenville, IL 60555 the inclusion of all the properties of air in the chart Toll Free: 877.661.5509 is not necessary for the mentioned purpose. Complete Air Preheater Company TM Raymond Operations Email: info@airpreheaterco.com and accurate psychrometric data can be found in many chemical and mechanical engineering handbooks. www.bartlettsnowcalciners.com 2. Firstly: Partial pressure is only used for the gasCircle 07 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23017-07 phase (and not liquid or solid phases), so partial pres- sure of water means pressure of water vapor and there is no difference between the two descriptions. Secondly: The definition of relative humidity in all ref- erences is the ratio of partial pressure of water vapor to saturated vapor pressure of water at the ambient temperature (dry bulb temperature). But expression of it is normally performed as percentage due to fluency. Postscripts, corrections July, The Shotgun Approach, pp. 44–48: Equation (2) contains an error. The correct equation should have Sd, not Sb, and appears below: Pmax ⋅ Dbo t= (2) (2 ⋅ Sd + Pmax ) Meanwhile, the author would like to point out that there is a potential risk that the operating conditions using steel shot, as summarized in Table 3, could re- sult in boiler tube damage. To minimize this risk, the steel shot used in the shotgun ammunition should be annealed by appropriate heat treatment before use. In doing so the shot, instead of the tubes, will preferen- tially deform on impact. Additionally, the “Arrangement of Equipment” sketch on p. 47 is meant to be used only when the interior of the boiler operates below atmospheric pressure. The arrange- ment must be appropriately modified when the interior of the boiler operates above atmospheric pressure. In either case external insulation must be provided on that portion of the barrel extending inside the boiler wall. A revised version of the article may be obtained by searching for the article title at www.che.com Circle 08 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23017-086 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM AUGUST 2009
  9. 9. Do you see a ladybug? We also see an opportunity for industry to benefit from protecting the environment.Managers within the industrial sector face the never-ending issue of balancingbusiness performance and environmental compliance goals. As the world referencein environmental services, Veolia Environnement helps industry achieve sustainable objectives through our four core service areas: water services and technologies, waste services, energy and facility management, and transportation and logistics. The environment is our universal challenge. veolianorthamerica.com Circle 09 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23017-09
  10. 10. Calendar NORTH AMERICA ISAs 4th Annual Marketing and Sales Summit: Managing Through the Turbulence and Tumult. International Society of Automation (ISA; Research Tri- angle Park, N.C.). Phone: 919-549-8411; Web: isa.org/mktsales Boston, Mass. September 9–11 24th Annual WateReuse Symposium. WateReuse Assn. (Alexandria, Va.), and co-sponsored by the Ameri- can Water Works Assn. (Denver, Colo.) and the Water Environment Federation (Alexandria, Va.). Phone: 703-548-0880; Web: watereuse.org Seattle, Wash. September 13–16 38th Turbomachinery Symposium. The Turbomachin- ery Laboratory at Texas A&M University (College Station, Tex.), co-located with the ASME Gas Turbine Users Symposium 2009; Phone: 979-862-1012; Web: turbolab. tamu.edu/articles/turbo_symposium Houston, Tex. September 14–17 ASM Heat Treating Society Conference Exposition. ASM International (Novelty, Ohio.). Phone: 805-677-4288; Fax; 805-654-1676; Web: asminternational.orgCircle 10 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23017-10 Indianapolis, Ind. September 14–17 9th Annual SPE Automotive Composites Confer- Harness the power ence & Exhibition. Society of Plastics Engineers Inter- national (SPE) Automotive Division (Troy, Mich.). Phone: of positive press. 248-244-8993; Web: speautomotive.com/comp.htm Troy (Detroit), Mich. September 15–17 OSHA Dust Explosion Inspection Preparatory Training Course. Chilworth Technology (Plainsboro, Custom reprints from Chemical Engineering N.J.). Phone: 609-799-4449; Web: chilworth.com/ could be one of the smartest marketing OSHAtrainingcourse.pdf decisions you make. Columbus, Ohio September 24 ACEEE 5th National Conference on Energy Ef- ficiency as a Resource. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (Washington, D.C.). Phone: 302-292-3966; Web: aceee.org/conf/09ee/09eeindex.htm Chicago September 27–29 2009 Gasification Technologies Conference. Gasification Technologies Council (Arlington, Va.). Phone: 703-276-0110; Web: gasification.org Colorado Springs, Colo. October 4–7 Contact The YGS Group at 717.399.1900 x100 or International Acid Gas Injection Symposium. learn more online at www.theYGSgroup.com/reprints Sphere Technology Connection Ltd. (Calgary, Alta.). Phone: 403-619-6215; Web: spheretechconnect.com Calgary, Alta. October 5–6 The YGS Group is the authorized provider of WaterSmart Innovations Conference and Exposi- custom reprints from Chemical Engineering. tion. American Waterworks Assn. (AWWA; Denver, Colo.), Southern Nevada Water Authority, and U.S. Environmen- tal Protection Agency. Fax: 702-731-3580; Web:8 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM AUGUST 2009
  11. 11. FP4/SH.C.GBwatersmartinnovations.comLas Vegas, Nev. October 7–95th Annual Comsol Conference 2009. Comsol (Bur-lington, Mass.). Phone: 781-273-3322; Web: comsol.com/conference2009/usa/Boston, Mass. October 8–10WEFTEC 09. Water Environment Federation (WEF;Arlington,Va.). Phone: 708-344-9070; Web: weftec.orgOrlando, Fla. October 10–14BioProcess International Conference & Exhibi-tion. IBC Life Sciences (Westborough, Mass.). Phone:800-390-4078; Web: ibclifesciences.com/bpi/usRaleigh, N.C. October 12–16Centrifugal Compressor Operations for 21st Cen-tury Users — Short Course. The TurbomachineryLaboratory at Texas A&M University (College Station).Phone: 979-845-7417; Web: turbolab.tamu.edu/articles/centrifugal_compressor_operations_for_21st_centuryHouston October 27–29EUROPERadTech Europe 2009. RadTech Europe Association(Hague, Netherlands). Phone: + 31 70 3123920; Web:european-coatings/radtechcomNice, France September 13–1514th International Congress for Battery Recycling.ICM AG (Birrwil, Switzerland). Phone: + 41 (0) 62 785 Conveying Palletizing Packaging1000; Fax: + 41 (0) 62 785 1005; Web: icm.chGeneva, Switzerland September 16–1824th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Confer-ence and Exhibition 2009. WIP Renewable Energies BEUMER stretch hood®(Munich, Germany). Phone: +49 (0) 6181 9828042; Web: The powerful packagingwww.photovoltaic-conference.comHamburg, Germany September 21–25 solution for the chemicalEntsorga-Enteco 2009: The International Trade industry.Fair for Waste Management & Environmental Tech-nology. Koelnmesse (Chicago, Ill.). Phone: 773-326-9925;Web: entsorga-enteco.comCologne, Germany October 27–30 Optimal safety for all palletized loading units. Proven reliable in all weather conditions andASIA & ELSEWHERE keeps its appearance at the same time. The18th international Conference on Plastic Optical high-capacity packaging machine, BEUMERFibers 2009. Magic Touch Consultancies (International) stretch hood®, efficiently combines the latestPty Ltd (Sydney, Australia). Phone: +61 2 9524 1799; Web: control technology, sophisticated functionpof2009@mtci.com.au modules and secure film handling. SeeSyndney, Australia September 9–11 for yourself. You can find more information4th World Recycling Forum Shanghai 09. ICM AG about the BEUMER company and its(Birrwhil, Switzerland). Phone: + 41 62 785 1000; Web: products on the Internet.ich.ch Circle 11 on p. 54 or go toShanghai, China November 10–13 adlinks.che.com/23017-11 Suzanne Shelley www.beumer.com
  12. 12. Circle 12 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23017-12
  13. 13. Edited by Gerald Ondrey August 2009 C2Capacity to double Oil shale (6 mm) C1 Solidsfor an oil-shale process VD ESP Stack Gas VD = Venturi dryer utotec GmbH (Oberursel, Germany), a AshO C = Cyclone bleed ESP = Electrostatic 100% daughter company of Outotec Oy precipitator(Helsinki, Finland; www.outotec.com) has re- BFW = Boiler feedceived a 109-million contract for the design, WHB water Bag house CW = Cooling waterdelivery, construction and commissioning of Air Fly ash CWR = Cooling watera new oil-shale processing plant to be built return C3in Narva, Estonia for Eesti Energia (Tal- CW CWR C4 RC = Recycle cooler WHB = Waste heatlin, Estonia; www.energia.ee). Scheduled for Recycle ash CFB boilercommissioning in early 2012, the facility will CFB = Circulating Air fluidized bedprocess over 2.2-million metric tons (m.t.) of RC Ash bleed Water FBC = Fluidizedoil shale per year, producing approximately BFW Steam bed cooler FBC290,000 m.t./yr of crude oil. The plant will be Retort Ash Coke Ashthe first commercial application of the En- Mixerefit-280 process, a modified Galoter process Oil production Air BFW Air Steamdeveloped by the two companies. plant The solid heat carrier process (Galoter pro- technology (flowsheet), has the advantagescess) was first introduced in 1953, and scaled — besides doubling the unit capacity — of Bioplasticup to 140 m.t./h (Enefit 140 process) in the high thermal efficiency and the complete DSM Engineering Plastics1980s. Currently, two Enefit-140 units, oper- combustion of the spent shale after the oil (Sittard, Netherlands; www.ated by Eesti Energia Oil & Gas in Narva, has been extracted, says Peter Weber, presi- dsm.com) has introducedare converting about 1.5-million m.t./yr of oil dent metals processing, Outotec GmbH. Most EcoPaXX, a biobased, high-shale into about 160,000 m.t./yr of oil. In the of the heat is recovered to produce steam for performance engineeringEnefit 140 process, oil shale is first ground to electric power generation. The ash from the plastic that is said to have a zero carbon footprint (100%a size of less than 20 mm, dried in a lift-pipe, process is free of organic carbon and can be carbon neutral from cradle tothen mixed with hot (800°C) ash produced by landfilled, and the offgas from the process grave). Approximately 70%combustion of spent oil shale in a separate meets European regulations, he adds. Al- of EcoPaXX is made fromfurnace. The mixture is then pyrolyzed in a though production costs are not disclosed, building blocks derived fromretort at 520°C. The pyrolysis gas is then sep- Weber says the process is economical for an Castor oil. Based on the long-arated from the spent shale in a cyclone, and oil price of $65/bbl (Brent). The two firms chain polyamide (PA), PA 410,the ash and semi-coke transported to the sep- established a joint venture to commercial- the new plastic features lowarate furnace to make hot ash for pyrolysis. ize and market Enefit, targeting the large moisture absorption and high Enefit, which combines the Galoter pro- oil-shale deposits found in the U.S., Brazil, (250°C) melting point — thecess with Outotec’s circulating fluidized-bed China, Jordan, Russia and Estonia. highest of all bioplastics — and a high crystallization rate. Such properties make the ma-A silver-based antimicrobial terial suitable for automotive and electrical applications. ure Bioscience (El Cajon, Calif.; www.pure- silver in a solution of organic acid that is theP bio.com) has developed silver dihydrogencitrate (SDC), the first antimicrobial approved product of an electrolytic process. The stable bond of the silver ion in SDC allows the Ag+ Weed-based biodiesel Biofuels Manufacturers of Il-by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to remain in solution while still making it linois (BMI; Peoria, Ill.; www.(EPA; Washington, D.C.) in 30 years, with ap- bio-available. Microorganisms view the acid bmibiodiesel.com) will de-plications in the pharmaceutical, personal solution as a food source, allowing the pico- velop, construct and operate acare, household, food and textile markets. scale SDC molecule to enter as well. The Ag+ 45-MM gal/yr (expandable toPure produces both a pre-formulated, ready- then denatures the microbe’s DNA, stopping 60-MM gal/yr) biodiesel plant,to-use product, and an SDC concentrate for its ability to replicate and killing it. beginning construction asaddition to other products. It is highly effec- Aqueous SDC is colorless, odorless, taste- early as this month. In additiontive as a hard-surface cleaner, killing the No- less and non-caustic, and it formulates well to using traditional crops, BMIrovirus, MRSA, VRE, E. coli, some influenza with other compounds. It is highly toxic to is working on the developmentviruses, as well as other dangerous bacteria bacteria, fungi and viruses, but it is non- of pennycress as biodiesel feedstock. As a weed, penny-and viruses. It kills bacteria within 30 s and toxic to humans and animals, having the cress is unconnected to thehas a residual killing capability of up to 24 h lowest EPA toxicity category rating of IV. issue of growing food for fuel.after application, unlike other antimicrobials This safe technology was approved by the It grows in the winter, allowingthat disappear upon evaporation. EPA in June as an active ingredient in the (Continues on p. 13) The technology consists of stabilized ionic sanitation of food-contact surfaces.Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit numberon p. 54, or use the website designation. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM AUGUST 2009 11
  14. 14. C HEMENTATO R Regenerated catalyst containing towerScaleup for a ‘downer’ FCC process Raw oil n October, Nippon Oil Corp. (Tokyo, general manager of the Techni-I Japan; www.eneos.co.jp) will startconstructing a high-severity fluidized- cal Service Department, com- mented expectings to start roy- Downflow reactor Catalyst flow Catalyst upflow tubecatalytic cracking (HS-FCC) unit, the alty business through licensingfirst in the world that can produce large this technology. In 2009, theamounts of propylene from heavy fuel Ministry of Economy, Trade and Productsoils. The unit, located at Mizushima Re- Industry (METI) will supply Catalystfinery (Kurashiki-City), will start up in two thirds of the approximately washing tower Catalystearly 2011. The 3,000 bbl/d facility is 100 $46 million for the project. regeneration towertimes larger than the 30 bbl/d HS-FCC In the HS-FCC process, heavy Steamdemonstration unit that was developed oil is injected into a downflow Air for regenerationin collaboration with Japan Coopera- reactor with powdered catalyst,tion Center, Petroleum (JCCP), Petro- where the oil is decomposed within 0.5 s yield is low compared to FCC but ratherleum Energy Center (PEC), and Saudi at 600°C. (A conventional FCC typically high compared to other processes. TheAramco (CE, December 2001, p. 21), and operates at about 500°C, with a contact process can produce 34% gasoline andthe company says it will scale up by an- time of 1–4 s.) The propylene yield is 20% propylene, compared to about 50%other factor of 10 in a few years. best among all propylene production gasoline and 5% propylene achieved in Hiroji Adachi, executive officer and processes, and high-octane gasoline conventional FCC risers.Diamond lubricant cuts friction and increases equipment life he lifetime of steel bearings can be tact and spalling, and reduces friction. In side-by-side tests of bearings runT extended by up to eight times by anew synthetic diamond “lubricant,” ac- The only contact is between the smooth diamond coatings, says Christopher Ar- by identical motors, bearings treated by the NanoLube product ran cool atcording to its developer, NanoLube, nold, president of NanoLube. 15,700 rpm, while bearings using a con-Inc. (Lombard, Ill.; www.diamondlube. The key to the technology is the com- ventional lubricant overheated, as didcom). The lubricant consists of 0.1–4-nm pany’s low-energy plasma process, which the motor, at 6,400 rpm. Arnold says thediamond spheres that are dispersed in produces the tiny spheres from vapor- treatment cost depends on the applica-a light carrier oil (about 5 wt.%) and ized carbon in an electrical field. This tion. He estimates, for example, that itcoated onto the bearings and other fric- provides advantages over other syn- would cost about $150 to treat a $20,000tion-prone surfaces of a machine. When thetic diamond processes, says Arnold. compressor, but the reduction in frictionthe machine is activated, the spheres For example, conventional synthetic dia- would increase the life of the movingbecome embedded in the surface of the monds, produced from graphite at high parts eight-fold. He adds that the coat-metal, forming a smooth, protective bar- temperature and pressure, are crystal- ing can operate in temperatures fromrier that prevents metal-to-metal con- line with abrasive edges, not spherical. –100 to 2,000°F.Making fine particles of inhalable drugs team from the School of Chemical ergized rapid release of organic solutions ized with nitrogen and sealed. By rap-A Sciences and Engineering, at theUniversity of New South Wales (Sydney, and the anti-solvent capability of super- critical CO2 for the precipitation of phar- idly depressurizing the vessel through a tube (about 1-mm inner dia.), the solu-Australia; www.unsw.edu.au), has devel- maceutical compounds from organic sol- tion is atomized into another vessel con-oped a process for the micronization of vents. It exploits a pressure differential taining supercritical CO2 under near-insulin called Arise (Atomized Rapid In- and rapid injection to atomize organic isothermal conditions. The extraction ofjection for Solvent Extraction). Accord- solutions into a vessel containing super- organic solution and the precipitationing to BioParticle Technologies Pty. Ltd. critical CO2 without using capillary noz- of previously dissolved pharmaceutical(BPT; Sydney; www. bioparticletech- zles. This results in a more homogeneous compound occur at this stage.nologies.com), the company marketing distribution of organic solution for pre- The process was successfully imple-Arise, the technology offers several ad- cipitation to occur within the entire ves- mented to generate dry powders of bo-vantages over other existing supercriti- sel containing the supercritical CO2. The vine insulin with properties that werecal fluid technologies. The team leader, absence of capillary nozzles also avoids highly tunable as a function of anti-professor Neil Foster who invented the the problems associated with them, such solvent pressure. With a pre-injectionArise process, says “this technology al- as the tendency to block and clog during pressure of 120 bar CO2 at 40°C, Ariselows us to shrink the particle size of processing of viscous or concentrated so- processing of bovine insulin yielded aexisting drugs and make them better lutions, says Foster. product with geometrical particle-sizesuited for pulmonary delivery.” In the Arise process, a vessel con- distribution almost completely within Arise is a supercritical fluid (SCF) taining organic solution with dissolved the prescribed inhalation range of lessprecipitation process employing the en- pharmaceutical compounds is pressur- than 5 μm. 12 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM AUGUST 2009
  15. 15. 15) (Continued from p. 11)C HEMENTATO R farmers to double crop yields.STORY NAME (Continued from p. 15) Pennycress contains 36% oil, twice that of soybeans, while an acre of pennycress can produce 115 gal of biodieselCellulose-to-aromatics process simplifies BTX production — more than twice that of soybeans. Growmark (Bloom- single-step method to convert cellulosic ing. Process benefits also derive from the factA biomass into aromatic compounds offers asimpler and more environmentally friendly that no hydrogen or water is required, which eliminates a major waste stream present in ington, Ill.), a farmer-owned cooperative operating in the midwest U.S. and Canada, willroute to the petrochemical feedstocks ben- biofuel processes like ethanol production. In purchase and market the biod-zene, toluene and xylenes (BTX), according addition, cellulosic starting material requires iesel produced by BMI.to a Massachusetts bioenergy startup com- no pre-treatment, Sudolsky adds.pany seeking to scale up the technique. The one-step catalytic fast-pyrolysis Mimicing moth eyes Based on a catalytic fast pyrolysis pro- process involves rapidly heating wood Researchers at the Savannahcess developed by University of Massachu- trimmings or other biomass to 600ºC in a River National Laboratorysetts (Amherst, Mass.; www.umass.edu) re- fluidized bed reactor to form oxygenated (SRNL; Aiken, S.C.; www.searcher George Huber, the technique will compounds. Proprietary zeolite catalysts srnl.gov) are examining howgenerate BTX at costs lower than petroleum- convert the compounds into industrial special coatings that imitatederived BTX, says Anellotech (www.anello- chemical-grade BTX. structures found in nature can improve the performance oftech.com), the startup company formed by Anellotech is currently raising capital for solar cells, which typically loseHuber to commercialize the process. a pilot project to demonstrate the technol- about one third of the energy “It’s a more economical process” than petro- ogy beyond bench-scale. The pilot plant will due to reflection. Engineeredleum-based aromatics preparation, explains process 1–3 ton/d of biomass. The company nanostructured coatings thatAnellotech CEO David Sudolsky, in part be- expects to have a small-scale production fa- mimic the way moths’ eyes ab-cause the products need no further process- cility online in 2014. sorb light have been shown to reduce undesirable reflection from 30% to less than 2% on aBiobased succinic acid pilot effort underway typical solar cell, says SRNL. for polymer, solvent, food, pigment and phar- Durability testing of the coat- ilot-scale production of biobased suc-P cinic acid from dextrose has been dem-onstrated by Myriant Technologies (Quincy, maceutical applications. “We are not counting on any green premium to be competitive,” ings is underway to determine the feasibility of use in harsh environments, including heat,Mass., www.myriant.com). The firm expects says Sam McConnell, Myriant senior vice humidity and radiation.commercial production by mid-2010. president for Corporate Development. The succinic-acid process follows Myri- Biobased succinic acid is thought to avoid Electro-active polymersant’s successful commercialization with some of the price volatility associated with Solvay Solexis SA (Bollate,partner Purac (Blair, Neb.; www.purac.com) petroleum-derived alternatives. The Myri- Italy; www.solvaysolexis.com)of a biobased D(–) lactic acid, which began ant process offers significant environmental has launched solvene, a rangecommercial production in June 2008. Suc- benefits, including lower greenhouse-gas of electro-active polymers forcinic acid process relies on an engineered E. emissions, McConnell explains, because the applications in printed elec-coli strain with deleted genes, and on off-the- process consumes carbon dioxide. tronics. The polymer exhibitsshelf technologies for isolating products. Myriant Technologies is working to pro- a number of electro-active be- Myriant says its succinic acid production duce ton-sized samples that will be evalu- haviors, including: piezo elec-will be cost competitive relative to petroleum- ated by customers for purity and other (Continues on p. 14)derived alternatives such as maleic anhydride product specifications.Green honors acids and organic solvents, and re- quires less energy n June, the U.S. Environmental Pro- Atomic Transfer Radical Polymeriza-I tection Agancy (EPA; Washington,D.C.; www.epa.gov) announced the win- tion, for manufacturing polymers. The process uses sustainable reducing Corp. (Matthews, N.C.; www.cem. com), for a fast, automated process toners of the 2009 Presidential Green agents, such as ascorbic acid, and re- analyze for proteins in food samples.Chemistry Challenge Awards. Winners quires less catalyst than alternatives The system can eliminate 5.5-millionof the Challenge, which promotes R&D pounds of hazardous waste gener-of less hazardous alternatives to exist- Systems, Inc. (Madison, Wisc.; www. ated by traditional tesing in the U.S.ing technologies that reduce or elimi- virent.com), for its water-based Bio- each yearnate waste in industrial production, are Forming process that catalytically -selected by an independent panel con- converts sugar, starch or cellulose into tor & Gamble Co. (Cincinnati, Ohio;vened by the American Chemical Soc. gasoline, biodiesel or jet fuel www.pg.com) and Cook CompositesThis year’s honorees include the follow- -ing (source, EPA): Mo.; www.ccponline.com), for Chempol www.eastman.com), for a solvent-free, MPS paint formulations, which use Matyjaszewski, Carnegie Mellon Uni- biocatalytic process for making esters biobased Sefose oils — made from versity (Pittsburgh, Pa.; www.cmu. (cosmetic and personal-care ingredi- sugar and vegetable oil — to replace (Continues on p. 19) edu), for an alternative process, called ents). The process avoids both strong petroleum-based solvents CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM AUGUST 2009 13
  16. 16. (Continued from p. 13)C HEMENTATO R tricity, converting a mechanical stress into electricity or revers- ibly deforming in an electric field; pyro electricity, converting thermal energy into electrical energy; and ferro electricity, theMaking SunCatchers instead of cars ability to switch its polarization. The polymer also has an intrin- tirling Energy Systems (SES; Phoenix, Compared to its predecessor, the new Sun-S Ariz.; www.stirlingenergy.com) and Tes-sera Solar (Houston; www.tesserasolar. Catcher: is about 5,000 lb lighter; is round instead of rectangular, which allows more sic high K constant, which is ad- vantageous for use in transistors and capacitors, says the firm.com) recently unveiled four, newly designed efficient use of steel; has improved optics;solar-power collection dishes at Sandia Na- consists of 60% fewer engine parts; and has HT heat-transfer fluidtional Laboratories’ National Solar Thermal fewer mirrors (40 instead of 80). The mir- Solvay Solexis (see story above)Test Facility (Albuquerque, N.M.). The re- rors are formed into parabolic shape using has also launched a new fam-fined design of SunCatchers will be used in stamped sheet metal, similar to the hood of ily of heat-transfer fluids — thecommercial-scale deployment of the units in a car. “By utilizing the automotive supply Galden Ultra High Boilers. The2010 (see also Solar’s Second Coming, CE, chain to manufacture the SunCatcher, we’re new fluid is said to feature theMarch, pp. 18–21). leveraging the talents of an industry that has highest boiling points among SunCatchers use mirrors attached to a refined high-volume production through an fluorinated fluids and a very low evaporation tendency. Applica-parabolic dish to focus sunlight onto a re- assembly line process,” says SES CEO Steve tion targets (in the temperatureceiver, which transmits the heat to a Stirling Cowman. More than 90% of the components range from 150 to 270°C) includeEngine — a sealed system filled with hydro- will be manufactured in North America. photovoltaic-cell manufacturing,gen. As the H2 heats or cools, its pressure SES is planning the construction of a com- the solar-thermal industry, heat-rises and falls, driving a piston inside the mercial-scale reference plant later this year, ing fluids, and the metallurgicalengine; this mechanical energy is used to and has a goal of producing 1,000 MW by and energy sectors.drive a generator for making electricity. the end of 2012. Printable batteries Printable batteries that can beAn alternative to chlor-alkali produced cost effectively on a large scale have been developed arlier this year, NSR Technologies (Deca- branes and an electrical driving force to effectE tur, Ill.; www.nsr-tech.com) commercial-ized its patented process for producing po- the separation and rearrangement of the raw material into the acid and alkali products. by researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Sys- tems (ENAS; www.enas.fraun-tassium hydroxide (45–50 wt.%) and dilute The requisite membranes are assembled in hofer.de), the Technical Univer-hydrochloric acid via a membrane separa- NSR’s proprietary IonSel cell stacks. sity of Chemnitz, and Menippostions technology. The company’s flagship Additional processing steps, such as ion GmbH (all Chemnitz, Germany;production facility in Decatur, Ill. is the first exchange, chromatography and evaporative www.menippos.de). The batterycommercial application of this process says concentration, are used as required to obtain is composed of different layers —Dr. Kris Mani, NSR’s president and CEO. products of commercial strength and purity. a zinc anode and a manganese NSR’s production process is more energy cathode, among others — and Current producers of commercial strength produced by a silk-screen print-KOH manufacture it via the chlor-alkali route. efficient than the chlor-alkali route, con- ing process. The non-recharge-NSR uses a membrane electrodialysis (ED) suming 40% fewer kilowatt-hours per ton of able batteries deliver 1.5 V, areprocess to convert salt to value-added chemi- caustic produced, says Mani. It does not in- less than 1-mm thick and weighcals. Sodium chloride and potassium chloride volve the production or combustion of chlo- less than 1 g. Prototypes haveare converted to the corresponding acid and rine gas, and allows production to occur from been made in the laboratory, andalkalis: HCl; and sodium hydroxide and KOH more compact plants located near end users. first commercial products could(caustic potash). The process, which occurs in NSR’s products are also free of oxidizing spe- be ready by year’s end.an aqueous medium, uses ion exchange mem- cies (hypochlorite and chlorate). Cleaner coalA replacement for Cr+6 Last month, Foster Wheeler AG (FW; Zug, Switzerland; www.fwc.com) commissioned culon, Inc. (San Diego, Calif.; www.acu- stainless steel, Ti and Al, says the firm.A lon.com) has developed a formulationof its proprietary SAMP technology (Self- SAMP technology can coat surfaces to im- part hydrophobicity, adhesion or corrosion the world’s largest circulating fluidized-bed steam generator, which is also the world’s firstAssembled Monolayer of Phosphate) that inhibition. Such properties are achieved to incorporate the Benson ver-can be used as an alternative to hexavalent through covalent bonding between the SAMP tical-tube supercritical steamchromium used in primers and conversion and the material to which it is applied. The technology. Owned by Polishcoatings to increase the adhesion of coatings phosphonate is a phosphorous acid that com- utility company Południowyto surfaces. The new SAMP formulation bines a reactive phosphonic acid “head” and Koncern Energetyczny SA, thecan immediately benefit industries using a carbon-based “tail” connected by a stable CFB at Lagisza power plantCr+6 as a spray-driven primer, with applica- C–P bond. The heads react with the surface produces 460 MWe of electric power at an efficiency that istions such as golf club heads, electric circuit through metal-phosphorous bonds, and the “well above” that of typical coalboards and beverage cans — anywhere that tails stick out from the surface to provide plants, says FW.paint needs to adhere to and be durable on the desired chemical functionality. 14 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM AUGUST 2009
  17. 17. Circle 13 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23017-13
  18. 18. Technology ShowcaseMONITORINGAIR EMISSIONS New requirements are spurring strong demand in air pollution monitoring Robert McIlvaine, McIlvaine Co. ubstantial technological ad- the measuring instruments.S vances to meet the growing regulatory scrutiny of a wide variety of pollutants have takenplace over the past 50 years. In the lastfew years, the increased complexity One approach is to measure discrete particles and sulfur tri- oxide and then aggregate the two measurements. Another involves condensing the gas prior to mea-in regulations in developed countries surement. The one certainty ishas been even more accelerated, chal- that the costs of both periodic and con- control, whereas instrument-basedlenging the chemical process indus- tinuous measurements will increase. CEMS are used to control the amounttries (CPI) and their suppliers of air- of activated carbon injected into themonitoring equipment to reach new Mercury gas stream in order to maintain theheights. In addition, developing coun- Mercury now needs to be continuously required removal efficiency.tries are implementing their programs measured at U.S. power plants, which As mentioned, cement kilns in thefor continuous air monitoring. Another have already spent $400 million in U.S. will also need to be equippedsubstantial trend is the monitoring of new continuous-emissions-monitor- with mercury monitors under pro-air pollutants as part of the optimi- ing systems (CEMS). However, the posed rules. In most developed coun-zation of the manufacturing process. vacature of the Clean Air Mercury tries, mercury needs to be measuredThis trio of developments will result Rule has eliminated the immediate at waste incineration plants. In Eu-in double-digit growth in the need for requirement for continuous measure- rope, waste incinerators and coal-firedair pollution monitoring in the next ment, except for local regulations that plants co-firing sewage sludge are re-several years. Some of the specifics of have their own rules. A new federal quired to limit mercury and to installthese trends are outlined here. rule will be promulgated in the next mercury monitors. China has a mer- year or two in the U.S. It is anticipated cury program that is presently in theFine particles that each plant will have to reduce research stage.It has been determined that fine par- mercury to a level below a stipulatedticles are more damaging to human weight per unit of flue gas. This will Air toxinshealth than larger ones. New regula- require continuous mercury monitors The U.S. now considers power plantstions in the U.S. require states to re- on all power plant stacks. Cement to be emitters of hazardous air pol-duce the quantity of fine particles in kilns and gold-mining operations will lutants, which will result in require-ambient air. The rule addresses par- also need to install monitors. ments to utilize maximum-achievable-ticles smaller in diameter than 2.5 mi- Two approaches to measurement control technology. The concern is thecrons (PM2.5). The measurement for are considered acceptable. One is an large number of toxic pollutants emit-the regulation is made very difficult by instrument method. The other is with ted from coal-fired plants.the inclusion of condensable (vapors sorbent traps. These traps capture Table 1 shows the environmentalthat condense to droplets at ambient the mercury for a period of up to two burden from existing coal-fired plants.temperature) as well as discrete par- weeks and then are replaced by fresh The combination of nickel, selenium,ticles. Periodic measurement methods traps. The removed trap is then ana- barium, zinc, vanadium, hydrochloricare still under review. The fact that lyzed in a laboratory to determine the acid, sulfuric acid mist, hydrogen fluo-continuous measurement methods are weight of mercury captured during ride and ammonia is much higher innot clearly established creates both an the period. weight and equal in toxicity to the mer-opportunity and a problem for those The advantage of the trap method cury. In addition there are other metaltrying to make the measurements, as is lower cost. The disadvantage is that toxins, such as arsenic, beryllium, lead,well as for the industry that supplies the trap cannot be used for process and cadmium, that are present in coal-16 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM AUGUST 2009

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