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Propagation Of Grapevines

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A lecture on how to graft vines to improve performance and give resistance to phylloxera

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Propagation Of Grapevines

  1. 1. of Grapevines
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Types of propagation </li></ul><ul><li>Why bother grafting </li></ul><ul><li>Grapevine material </li></ul><ul><li>Types of grafting </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed look at bench grafting </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Propagation <ul><li>Sexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeds </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Types of Propagation <ul><li>Asexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissue culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuttings </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Tissue Culture <ul><li>Cultures are axenic </li></ul><ul><li>The plant tissue is maintained on the culture medium for a specified period of time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may be transferred to fresh medium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or to a different medium to alter the path of development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are it uses? </li></ul>
  6. 7. Tissue Culture <ul><li>This technology is based on the concept of Totipotency – </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;the ability of a single cell to express the full genome in the cells to which it gives rise by cell division.&quot; </li></ul>
  7. 11. Terminology <ul><li>Cambium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A single layer of green unspecialized meristemic cells between the woody part of the tree and the bark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Division of these cells result in diameter growth of the tree through formation of wood cells (xylem) and inner bark (phloem) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 13. Cambium
  9. 14. Terminology <ul><li>Callus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A mass of thin-walled, undifferentiated plant cells, developed as the result of wounding or culture on nutrient media </li></ul></ul>
  10. 16. Terminology <ul><li>Scion and rootstock </li></ul>
  11. 18. Terminology <ul><li>Rootlings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cutting with roots formed that is a season old and is ready to plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Callused cutting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a cutting that has callusing either grafted or not only and can be planted in the vineyard </li></ul></ul>
  12. 19. Terminology <ul><li>Grafted vines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two species usually a V. vinifera as the scion and a rootstock from American origin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potted vine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A newly grafted vine that goes into a pot instead of the nursery, and then is planted into the vineyard once it has established roots and leaves </li></ul></ul>
  13. 20. Why is grafting necessary? <ul><li>Phylloxera ( Daktulosphira vitifolia ) </li></ul><ul><li>Soil living aphid that feeds of the roots of only vitis varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Did not evolve with vitis vinifera </li></ul><ul><li>There is no way of controlling this pest other than grafting a resistant rootstock to vitis vinifera </li></ul>
  14. 23. Grafting Material <ul><li>Genotype </li></ul><ul><li>Correctly named – true to type </li></ul><ul><li>How can you tell what your buying is what it actually is? </li></ul><ul><li>Ampelography </li></ul>
  15. 24. Cabernet Sauvignon Riparia Gloire
  16. 26. High health <ul><li>Disease recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul>
  17. 29. Good Grafting <ul><li>Successful grafting uses wood that is: </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh and clean </li></ul><ul><li>Straight and round </li></ul><ul><li>Mature - brown to the tip </li></ul><ul><li>Not to pithy </li></ul><ul><li>Treated with fungicide </li></ul>
  18. 30. Types of Grafting <ul><li>Cleft grafting </li></ul><ul><li>Chip budding </li></ul><ul><li>Side grafting </li></ul><ul><li>Bench grafting </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of different types! </li></ul><ul><li>All methods of grafting rely on the cambium of the the scion and rootstock making contact </li></ul>
  19. 31. The Biology of Grafting <ul><ul><li>A new formed meristematic area must develop between scion and rootstock for a successful graft union </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) adhesion of the rootstock & scion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) proliferation of callus at the graft interface = callus bridge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) vascular differentiation across the graft interface </li></ul></ul>
  20. 32. The Biology of Grafting <ul><li>Steps in graft union formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wound response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Necrotic layer 1 cell deep forms on both scion and stock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Undifferentiated callus tissue is produced from uninjured parenchyma cells below the necrotic layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Callus forms a wound periderm which becomes suberized to prevent entry of pathogens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Necrotic layer dissolves </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 33. The Biology of Grafting <ul><ul><li>Wound-repair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First the xylem and then the phloem is repaired </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs through differentiation of vascular cambium across the callus bridge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process takes 2 - 3 weeks in woody plants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 34. Conditions <ul><li>Environmental conditions following grafting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects callus production. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideal for grapes is 24 to 28 degrees C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to control in a greenhouse but difficult in the field </li></ul></ul>
  23. 35. Conditions <ul><ul><li>Moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>needed for cell enlargement in the callus bridge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain using plastic bags over scion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrap with grafting tape, Parafilm, grafting rubbers and wax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place union in damp peat moss or wood shavings or perlite for callusing </li></ul></ul>
  24. 36. Types of Grafting Weaver 1976
  25. 37. Weaver 1976
  26. 48. Top working
  27. 49. Problems <ul><li>Vine death or breakage due to incomplete callusing </li></ul><ul><li>Infection from botrytis and powdery mildew </li></ul><ul><li>Some varieties are more difficult than others </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses and disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Suckering </li></ul><ul><li>Crowngall </li></ul><ul><li>Bad grafting shed practice </li></ul>
  28. 50. Crowngall
  29. 53. Rogue Vines
  30. 55. Process <ul><li>Prepare rootstock </li></ul><ul><li>Remove all the buds </li></ul>
  31. 59. Process <ul><li>Prepare scion wood </li></ul><ul><li>Cut the V using the bench grafting machine </li></ul>
  32. 64. <ul><li>Match the Pieces </li></ul><ul><li>Tape Together </li></ul><ul><li>Dip in the Wax </li></ul><ul><li>Dip in the Water </li></ul>
  33. 71. <ul><li>Stack in Callus Boxes </li></ul><ul><li>Store in Heat Room </li></ul>
  34. 78. Process <ul><li>Remove from the callus boxes </li></ul><ul><li>Grade and prepare </li></ul><ul><li>Plant in the nursery </li></ul>
  35. 83. Dispatching plants
  36. 84. Dispatching plants

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