MANJAPPA S G
M. Sc. Scholar
Dept. of Genetics and Plant
Breeding
 Widely cultivated in India, Pakistan,
Bangladesh, Sri lanka, Philippines
Thiwan
 In India cultivated throughout the
pla...
 Indian subcontinent (De Candol,Vavilov
& Zukovskij)
 Maximum diversity is limited to upper
western Ghats & Deccan hills...
 Yadav et.al.(1986): developed amphidiploids of
Mungbean X Black gram
 The early generation hybrids were vigorous in gro...
 Dried & green stalks & leaves
as fodder
 Green pods as vegetable
 Seeds- eaten after being
boiled & also as sprouts
 ...
Nutritional component Range (%) of total seed
wt.
Protein 20-26
Fiber 3-8
Starch 46-54
Sugar 4-10
Ash 3-4
K, Na, Mg, P, Ca...
 International: AVRDC( International
vegetable research & development
centre),Thiwan
 National: IIPR (Indian institute o...
 Ronburgh (1832): Phaseolus mungo
 Wilczek : Vigna radiata
8
Phaseolus Vigna References
Stipule tunicate Stipule cordate &
prolonged
Wilczech(1954)
Keel spirally
twisted
Keel erect & ...
 Kingdom: Plantae
 Division : Spermatophyta
 Sub division: Angiosperm
 Class: Dicotyledon
 Family: Leguminaceae
 Sub...
Characters V. radiata V. mungo
Stem Mostly erect / sub
erect
Mostly spreading /
prostrate
Leaves Mostly green / dark
green...
 A large conc. of protein(hence N) in
seeds may require early mobilization of
protein of leaves, thus impairing their
cap...
 Habit: annual, herbaceous, erect/semi
erect
 Root: tap root system, provided with
nodules for atm. N2 fixation
 Stem: ...
 Inflorescence:
axillary or
terminal
raceme with
10-20 flowers
crowded on
long
peduncle
14
 Flower: hermaphrodite, zygomorphic, either lighter
yellowish olive/olive yellow
15
16
17
 Floral diagram:
 Floral formula:
18
 Pods: immature pods are
usually green, mature pods
are iron gray/olive gray/snuff
brown color, round slander
with short ...
 Seeds: globular, green,
surface has fine wavy
ridges. Hilum is white, more
or less flat
 Germination is epigeal
20
 Anthesis: self pollinated, sometime cleistogamy is
prevalent
 Cross pollination is 0.5-3%
 Flower open between 6.00-8....
 Emasculation -4.00-6.00pm
 For emasculation the young bud is
keep between thumb & forefinger
 Point of dissecting need...
 Pollination done in
morning (8-11am) collect
mature anthers from
open flowers & gently
pressing the ripe anthers
against...
 Collection & evaluation of variability: Chandel &
Pant (1982) were conducted evaluation on large
number of lines at NBPG...
 Selection
 Hybridization
 Wide hybridization:
Black gram X green gram
 F1: hybrid seeds were small, shrunken,
plants ...
 Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus
(MYMV)
 Cercospora leaf spot (colletotrichum
canescens)
 Powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygon...
 White fly: Bemisia tabaci
(vector for 25 different
diseases)
 Hairy catterpillar
 Semilooper
 pulse beetle
27
 Kopergaon, BR 2, CO 1, CO 2, CO 3, G 65, Pusa
baisaki, Pusa 105, PS 16, P 37,T 44,T 51, China
mung, Selection 4, Pant mu...
29
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Floral biology and crossing techniques in greengram

  1. 1. MANJAPPA S G M. Sc. Scholar Dept. of Genetics and Plant Breeding
  2. 2.  Widely cultivated in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri lanka, Philippines Thiwan  In India cultivated throughout the plains & up to elevation of 1820m  Cultivated in all three seasons- kharif, rabi & zaid. 2
  3. 3.  Indian subcontinent (De Candol,Vavilov & Zukovskij)  Maximum diversity is limited to upper western Ghats & Deccan hills  Secondary centers of diversity exist in the Bihar(India)  Vigna radiata var.sublobata is the probable progenitor of mungbean 3
  4. 4.  Yadav et.al.(1986): developed amphidiploids of Mungbean X Black gram  The early generation hybrids were vigorous in growth & development, vegetative parts are bigger than in the parents.  But as segregation advances amphidiploids lost their initial vigour & revert back to parental types gradually in morphological appearance & chromosome number 4
  5. 5.  Dried & green stalks & leaves as fodder  Green pods as vegetable  Seeds- eaten after being boiled & also as sprouts  Rich in vitamin B ( regarded as a remedy for Beriberi) 5
  6. 6. Nutritional component Range (%) of total seed wt. Protein 20-26 Fiber 3-8 Starch 46-54 Sugar 4-10 Ash 3-4 K, Na, Mg, P, Ca Trace 6
  7. 7.  International: AVRDC( International vegetable research & development centre),Thiwan  National: IIPR (Indian institute of pulse research),Khanpur 7
  8. 8.  Ronburgh (1832): Phaseolus mungo  Wilczek : Vigna radiata 8
  9. 9. Phaseolus Vigna References Stipule tunicate Stipule cordate & prolonged Wilczech(1954) Keel spirally twisted Keel erect & in curved Hepper (1956) Style without apical appendages Style with distinct appendages Hepper (1956) Fruit not septet Septet Hepper (1956) 9
  10. 10.  Kingdom: Plantae  Division : Spermatophyta  Sub division: Angiosperm  Class: Dicotyledon  Family: Leguminaceae  Sub family Papilionaceae  Genus: Vigna  Sub genus: Ceratotropis  Species: radiata 10
  11. 11. Characters V. radiata V. mungo Stem Mostly erect / sub erect Mostly spreading / prostrate Leaves Mostly green / dark green Mostly yellowish green Stipules Broad & ovate Narrow & falcate Pubescence Plant sparsely pubescent Densely pubescent Pods Spreading, long with short hairs & shatter readily Sub erect, short with long hairs & don’t shatter much Seeds Medium & globose Large & oblong Hilum Flat Concave Cotyledon Dirty yellow White 11
  12. 12.  A large conc. of protein(hence N) in seeds may require early mobilization of protein of leaves, thus impairing their capacity for prolonged photosynthesis.  The maintenance of symbiotic N2fixation in root nodules requires prolonged use photosynthate & thus may reduce energy available for storage in seeds. 12
  13. 13.  Habit: annual, herbaceous, erect/semi erect  Root: tap root system, provided with nodules for atm. N2 fixation  Stem: erect /sub erect, sometime twinning in upper branches, furrowed & branches moderately/sparsely haired  Leaves: trifoliate, entire ovate & rarely lobed with long petiole 13
  14. 14.  Inflorescence: axillary or terminal raceme with 10-20 flowers crowded on long peduncle 14
  15. 15.  Flower: hermaphrodite, zygomorphic, either lighter yellowish olive/olive yellow 15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18.  Floral diagram:  Floral formula: 18
  19. 19.  Pods: immature pods are usually green, mature pods are iron gray/olive gray/snuff brown color, round slander with short & moderate pubescence.  Dehisces by both (dorsal & ventral) sutures into two halves.  It contains 9-16 seeds 19
  20. 20.  Seeds: globular, green, surface has fine wavy ridges. Hilum is white, more or less flat  Germination is epigeal 20
  21. 21.  Anthesis: self pollinated, sometime cleistogamy is prevalent  Cross pollination is 0.5-3%  Flower open between 6.00-8.00am, remain till about 11.00am. Close between 2.00-4.00pm 21
  22. 22.  Emasculation -4.00-6.00pm  For emasculation the young bud is keep between thumb & forefinger  Point of dissecting needle is inserted just under the standard in an oblique position along the top of the bud  The left side of standard & wing petal are pushed outwards & held with thumb  The left hand of keel is removed in pieces with forceps  Pistil & stigma are then exposed & removed with forceps 22
  23. 23.  Pollination done in morning (8-11am) collect mature anthers from open flowers & gently pressing the ripe anthers against stigma  Flower may be bagged after pollination until pods are matured  % of flower shed is very high -69% 23
  24. 24.  Collection & evaluation of variability: Chandel & Pant (1982) were conducted evaluation on large number of lines at NBPGR New Dehli  Breeding for-  Increased variation  Higher yield  Different maturity duration  Resistance to pest & diseases  Resistance to shattering  Better quality (protein, Methionin content)  Screening of germplasm for resistance to pest & diseases 24
  25. 25.  Selection  Hybridization  Wide hybridization: Black gram X green gram  F1: hybrid seeds were small, shrunken, plants were weak & semi sterile  Reasons for break down of hybrids in seedling stage is due to- 1. Lethality of hybrids at various stages of devt. 2. A high degree of pollen sterility 25
  26. 26.  Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMV)  Cercospora leaf spot (colletotrichum canescens)  Powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni)  Root & stem rots (Rhizoctonia bataticola & R.solani)  Bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas phaseoli)  rust 26
  27. 27.  White fly: Bemisia tabaci (vector for 25 different diseases)  Hairy catterpillar  Semilooper  pulse beetle 27
  28. 28.  Kopergaon, BR 2, CO 1, CO 2, CO 3, G 65, Pusa baisaki, Pusa 105, PS 16, P 37,T 44,T 51, China mung, Selection 4, Pant mung 2 & 3 28
  29. 29. 29

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