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current scenario and future prospects.with production of hybrids

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  2. 2. • Castor is an often cross- pollinated crop. Ricinus communis Family : Euphorbiaceae Cromosome number:2n=20 Origin: tropical belt of India and Africa Kharif season Rainfed as well as irrigated conditions
  3. 3. State Area(2013- 14) ’000 ha 2013-14 (Lakh Tonnes) 2012-13 (Lakh Tonnes) % Change Gujarat 666 9.3 8.06 15.4 Rajasthan 157 1.9 1.65 15.2 Andhra Pradesh 222 0.65 1.5 -56.7 Maharashtra 51 0.2 0.22 -9.1 Total 1096 12.05 11.43 5.4 -India : largest producer of castor seed in the world (65-70 %). -other major producers-China and Brazil. -largest supplier of castor seed oil and cake.
  4. 4. 2n=202n=20
  5. 5.  Castor is a cross pollinated crop, protogynous and wind pollinated.  Leaves are large palmately lobed.  Inflorescences are borne terminally on the main and lateral branches. INFLORESCENCE
  6. 6.  The main stem ends in raceme, which is the first or primary raceme. After the first raceme appears, 2 or 3 branches arise at the nodes immediately below it.  Each of these branches terminates in racemes after 4 or more nodes have formed which are known as secondary racemes.  Branches arise from the nodes just beneath secondary racemes, ultimately terminating in tertiary racemes. This sequence of development (indeterminate growth habit) continues.
  7. 7.  Female tendency is highest in winter, while male tendency predominates in summer and rainy seasons.  Also, the femaleness in young plants with high levels of nutrition is stronger than in old plants with low levels of nutrition.  The racemes of castor are monoecious with the pistillate flowers on the upper 30-50% and staminate flowers on the lower part of the inflorescence.  The proportion of pistillate and staminate flowers among the racemes varies a great deal both within and among genotypes. It is influenced by the environment of the plant, genotypes & nutrition.
  9. 9.  The spiny, globose seed capsule (left) dries and splits into 3 sections called carpels (centre). Each carpel (right) splits open and forcibly ejects a large seed.  The shiny seeds of castor plants are of intricate designs. At one end is a small, spongy structure called the caruncle, which aids in the absorption of water when the seeds are planted.
  10. 10.  Male flowers senesce shortly after shedding their pollen. The opening is between 4.30 and 5.00 A.M.  Pollen grains are viable for 2 days & stigma is receptive for 3 days.  The best environmental conditions for pollen dispersal are at a temperature between 26 °C to 29 °C and relative humidity of 60%, which may vary according to the cultivar.  Each candle takes 10-12 days to complete flowering.  Pollination is generally by wind and insects.  Stigma remain receptive after anthesis, for a period of 5- 10 days. POLLINATION MECHANISMPOLLINATION MECHANISM
  11. 11. CrossingCrossing Emasculation: It can be achieved by removing or rubbing off the staminate flowers by finger and thumb. Crossing: Pollen grains are collected from the desired male parent and are dusted on the stigma of the female parent. Again the inflorescence is covered.
  12. 12. Unripend Copsuls FULLY MATURED COPSULS DRY SEEDS
  13. 13. MALE STERILITYMALE STERILITY absence or non-function of pollen grain in plant or incapability of plants to produce or release functional pollen grains. Genetic Male Sterility: pollen sterility, which is caused by nuclear genes, is termed as genic or genetic male sterility. It is usually governed by a single recessive gene ms or ‘s’ with monogenic inheritance,
  14. 14. Progeny from crosses ( msms X Msms) are used as a female and are inter planted with homozygous male fertile ( MsMs) pollinator. The female line would contain both male sterile and male fertile and male fertile plants, the later must be identified and removed before pollen shedding. This is done by identifying the male fertile plants in seeding stage either due to the pleiotrophic effect of ms gene or due to phenotypic effect of closely lined genes. In USA used in castor PROS: In this rouguing of male fertile plant from the female is costly operation and due to this cost of hybrid seed is higher.
  15. 15. 1. N Type Pistillate Lines(CONVENTIONAL) -Pistillate condition governed by a single recessive gene (n), -produce only pistillate flowers. In the production of F1 hybrid seed, the producer is required to rogue out normal monoecious plants before anthesis to obtain 100% production of pistillate plants in the female rows PISTILLATE MECHANISM:PISTILLATE MECHANISM:
  16. 16. Maintenance of Pistillate line nn Nn (pistillate line) (heterozygous) pistillate (nn) : monoecious(Nn) 1 : 1 first castor hybrid,GCH-3 (TSP-10-R x JI-15) developed.
  17. 17. S Pistillate LinesS Pistillate Lines oDeveloped in Israel by continued selection for the increased expression of pistillate condition within sex reversal variants. oGoverned by polygenes. oVC1 developed by this system. oCharacteristic features: - only up to 50-70% of the plants in a pistillate line are pistillate. - pistillate plants revert to monoecious state at different stages of development ,e.g., second order reversion, third order reversion.
  18. 18. - Among late reversals, 90% are pistillate, thus suitable for hybrid production. - The female parent VP1 of castor hybrid GAUCH 1 is based on this mechanism. Others, Geeta, LRES17. Maintenance of S Pistillate lines : pollinating pistillate plants with such sib plants that have less than 20 % male flowers in their inflorescence. Line is planted in isolation (100 m) and all monoecious are removed.
  19. 19. -Primary inflorescence of pistillate plants wither in absence of pollination. Late of inflorescences of such plants develop interspersed male flowers (ISP), if ambient temp. is above 35 °C. The improved S type pistillate lines are, therefore, temp. sensitive. These pistillate lines are pistillate lines are propagated during hot season, above 35°C.
  20. 20. NES PISTILLATE LINE : -temperature sensitive N lines. Plants 100% pistillate when the temperature during flowering is below 35°C , but they produce male flowers a well if the temperature is above 35°C . These lines are multiplied during hot seasons or at hot places where temperature during flowering is 35°C . requires rouging only for off – types, and is the most suited for hybrid seed production., e.g., GCH6, GCH 7, Aruna. Pistillate condition is produced by blocking the development of androecium in male flowers, so that the inflorescence has only pistillate flowers.
  21. 21. HYBRID SEED DEVELOPMENT :HYBRID SEED DEVELOPMENT : 1st hybrid in India GCH 3. After the introduction of female line, TSP-10-R from USA, it was utilized extensively in hybridization programme. As a result of which, in 1968,first castor hybrid,GCH-3 (TSP-10-R x JI-15) was found to give 88 per cent higher yield than local variety. However, shattering in habit. Indigenous pistillate line VP 1 was developed at Vijapur and using this GAUCH 1 in 1973. But it is susceptible to wilt and root rot diseases. Hybrid GCH 2 was released in 1985 ; GCH 4 in 1986.
  22. 22. Hybrids Female Male GCH 3 TSP 10 R JI 15 GAUCH 1 VP 1 V 19 GCH 2 VP 1 JI 35 GCH 4 VP 1 48-1 TMVCH 1 LRES 17 TMV 5
  23. 23. Seed Production Techniques-Seed Production Techniques- Land Requirement: Isolation Requirements: Brief Cultural Practices: 1) Preparation of Land: 2) Time of Sowing: 3) Source of Seed: 4) Method of Sowing: 5) Spacing: 6) Seed Rate: 7) Fertilization: 8) Irrigation: 9) Interculture: 10) Nipping: 11) Plant Protection: Roguing: Harvesting ad Threshing:
  24. 24. TRAITS FOR EXPLOITATION :TRAITS FOR EXPLOITATION : stem color,  epicuticular wax(bloom wax), plant height, presence of spines on capsules, Branching pattern, leaf shape, sex expression , seed color, response to environmental conditions Also for quantitative traits
  25. 25. GENETIC RESOURCESGENETIC RESOURCES Germplasm banks. However, the resources available in castor germplasm worldwide have been barely tapped for castor genetic improvement and the majority of them have been poorly characterized. Use of genetic resources by the global castor community could be increased if there were characterization of accessions, consolidated reports on available resources, free accession to information on banks, and uniform data collection standards among repositories
  26. 26. Production of Hybrid Castor Seed:Production of Hybrid Castor Seed: For production of single cross hybrid seed, lines giving a 1:1 ratio of pistil late and heterozygous monoecious plants are used. In the crossing plot the latter are rogued out one to five days before flowering begins. Female plants are then cross-pollinated by a selected male pollinator line, planted in every sixth or eighth row. Proper synchronization of male and female flowering.
  27. 27. Once 5-6 racemes per bush have set and ripened, those of pollen parent harvested separately first, for further propogation. Racemes borned by female line parent harvested, and considered all as F1 seed. As many as six roguings may be necessary to keep self- pollination to a minimum. The hybrid seed can also be protected by the use of 90 to 100 percent pistillate lines, this estimates Roguing but hybrid seed so produced would not be entirely uniform.
  28. 28. Heterosis for yield and yield attributing traits in Castor Y.M. Barad, A.R. Pathak and B.N. Patel o Heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis in 40 hybrids developed through line x tester mating design (5 pistillate lines and 8 pollen parents). o 5 pistillate lines- VP 1, Geeta, JP 65, SKP 4 and ACP 1 8 male parents- I 21, EC 38538, Jl 35, GC 2, EB 16, VI9, SKI 283 and SPS 44-1. o Line*tester mating design and resulting 40 hybrids along with 13 parents and commercial hybrid GCH 4 evaluated in RBD with 3 replication.
  29. 29. o 90 cm (R-R)and 60 cm (P-P). o Earliness in emergence of primary raceme is highly desirable traits for the crop like castor. CONCLUSION : The cross combinations ACP 1 x JI-35 (17.10) and JP 65 x Vl.9 (13.82) exhibited significant positive standard heterosis over GCH 4 for seed yield/plant. Parents vs. hybrids comparisons were significant for all the characters except for 100-seed weight. This indicated presence of overall heterosis for all the characters studied.
  30. 30. ISSUES THAT NEED RESEARCH ATTENTION TO SUSTAIN HYBRID TECHNOLOGY:  not every hybrid combination exhibits strong heterosis. This can occur when few heterotic loci, or low genetic diversity, exist in parent lines, emphasizing the need to select diverse lines enriched with heterotic loci.  Although the degree of heterosis tends to increase with increasing genetic diversity of the parents, this also increases the meiosis abnormalities, such as poor chromosome pairing.  aberrant chromosomal rearrangements and transposon activations detected following wide hybridization
  31. 31.  Gain of hybrid impressive under irrigated conditions only, yet to seek for drought prone rainfed areas.  Pistillate line multiplication and hybrid seed production have serious problem of proper seed set.  Serious research is warranted to perfect the pollination system.
  32. 32. THRUST AREAS :THRUST AREAS : (castor oil cake) have a high calorific value, efficient solid biomass fuel can be produced from the castor oil cake. Castor oil is also crude material of Sebacic Acid. The demand of Sebacic Acid is anticipated to increase for the production of bio-synthetic fabric such as Nylon and Polyester. After the development of VP-1, an S type stable pistillate line derived from TSP 10R (Texas Stable Pistillate) introduced from US, several pistillate lines were developed using VP1 as source. reduction of the toxicity of castor seeds(Ricin )
  33. 33. Future Possible End-uses •Medical Uses •Biopolymers and Castor Oil • Building Blocks for Polymer-based on natural Oils • Biopolymers in Durables • Castor Oil Polyurethane •Nylon • Castor Oil Derivatives for Other Plastics In future economy of castor bean can be changed, if hybrids are used through out . This can be done with the intensive collaboration between breeder and and seed producer.
  34. 34. Need ToNeed To: (1)identify and manipulate additional wide-compatibility genes to support stable genome compatibility between distant species; (2) identify and functionally characterize positive heterotic loci; (3) pyramid wide compatibility genes and positive heterotic loci into a common genetic background; (4) deepen our understanding of the mechanisms involved in genomic structural instability in the F1, and (5) develop high efficient pollination control technologies on a species specific basis.