CURRENT SCENARIO AND FUTURECURRENT SCENARIO AND FUTURE
PROSPECTS IN CASTORPROSPECTS IN CASTOR
• Dr. RajendraDr. Rajendra
• Castor is an often cross- pollinated crop.
Family : Euphorbiaceae
Origin: tropical belt of India and Africa
Rainfed as well as irrigated conditions
Gujarat 666 9.3 8.06 15.4
Rajasthan 157 1.9 1.65 15.2
Andhra Pradesh 222 0.65 1.5 -56.7
Maharashtra 51 0.2 0.22 -9.1
Total 1096 12.05 11.43 5.4
-India : largest producer of castor seed in the world (65-70 %).
-other major producers-China and Brazil.
-largest supplier of castor seed oil and cake.
Castor is a cross pollinated crop, protogynous and wind
Leaves are large palmately lobed.
Inflorescences are borne terminally on the main and
The main stem ends in raceme, which is the first or
primary raceme. After the first raceme appears, 2 or 3
branches arise at the nodes immediately below it.
Each of these branches terminates in racemes after 4 or
more nodes have formed which are known as secondary
Branches arise from the nodes just beneath secondary
racemes, ultimately terminating in tertiary racemes. This
sequence of development (indeterminate growth habit)
Female tendency is highest in winter, while male tendency
predominates in summer and rainy seasons.
Also, the femaleness in young plants with high levels of nutrition
is stronger than in old plants with low levels of nutrition.
The racemes of castor are monoecious with the pistillate
flowers on the upper 30-50% and staminate flowers on the lower
part of the inflorescence.
The proportion of pistillate and staminate flowers among the
racemes varies a great deal both within and among genotypes.
It is influenced by the environment of the plant, genotypes &
The spiny, globose seed capsule (left) dries and
splits into 3 sections called carpels (centre). Each
carpel (right) splits open and forcibly ejects a large
The shiny seeds of castor plants are of intricate
designs. At one end is a small, spongy structure
called the caruncle, which aids in the absorption of
water when the seeds are planted.
Male flowers senesce shortly after shedding their pollen.
The opening is between 4.30 and 5.00 A.M.
Pollen grains are viable for 2 days & stigma is receptive for 3
The best environmental conditions for pollen dispersal are at a
temperature between 26 °C to 29 °C and relative humidity of 60%,
which may vary according to the cultivar.
Each candle takes 10-12 days to complete flowering.
Pollination is generally by wind and insects.
Stigma remain receptive after anthesis, for a period of 5- 10
POLLINATION MECHANISMPOLLINATION MECHANISM
Emasculation: It can be achieved by removing or rubbing off the staminate
flowers by finger and thumb.
Crossing: Pollen grains are collected from the desired male parent and are
dusted on the stigma of the female parent. Again the inflorescence is
MALE STERILITYMALE STERILITY
absence or non-function of pollen grain in plant or
incapability of plants to produce or release functional pollen
Genetic Male Sterility:
pollen sterility, which is caused by nuclear
genes, is termed as genic or genetic male
sterility. It is usually governed by a single
recessive gene ms or ‘s’ with monogenic
Progeny from crosses ( msms X Msms) are used as a female and
are inter planted with homozygous male fertile ( MsMs)
The female line would contain both male sterile and male
fertile and male fertile plants, the later must be identified and
removed before pollen shedding. This is done by identifying the
male fertile plants in seeding stage either due to the
pleiotrophic effect of ms gene or due to phenotypic effect of
closely lined genes.
In USA used in castor
In this rouguing of male fertile plant from the female is costly
operation and due to this cost of hybrid seed is higher.
1. N Type Pistillate Lines(CONVENTIONAL)
-Pistillate condition governed by a single
recessive gene (n),
-produce only pistillate flowers.
In the production of F1 hybrid seed, the
producer is required to rogue out normal
monoecious plants before anthesis to obtain
100% production of pistillate plants in the
PISTILLATE MECHANISM:PISTILLATE MECHANISM:
Maintenance of Pistillate line
(pistillate line) (heterozygous)
pistillate (nn) : monoecious(Nn)
1 : 1
first castor hybrid,GCH-3 (TSP-10-R x JI-15) developed.
S Pistillate LinesS Pistillate Lines
oDeveloped in Israel by continued selection for the increased
expression of pistillate condition within sex reversal variants.
oGoverned by polygenes.
oVC1 developed by this system.
- only up to 50-70% of the plants in a pistillate line are
- pistillate plants revert to monoecious state at different stages
of development ,e.g., second order reversion, third order
- Among late reversals, 90% are pistillate, thus suitable for
- The female parent VP1 of castor hybrid GAUCH 1 is based
on this mechanism. Others, Geeta, LRES17.
Maintenance of S Pistillate lines :
pollinating pistillate plants with such sib plants that have less than 20 %
male flowers in their inflorescence.
Line is planted in isolation (100 m) and all monoecious are
-Primary inflorescence of pistillate plants wither in absence
of pollination. Late of inflorescences of such plants develop
interspersed male flowers (ISP), if ambient temp. is above
The improved S type pistillate lines are, therefore, temp.
sensitive. These pistillate lines are pistillate lines are
propagated during hot season, above 35°C.
NES PISTILLATE LINE :
-temperature sensitive N lines.
Plants 100% pistillate when the temperature during flowering is below 35°C , but
they produce male flowers a well if the temperature is above 35°C .
These lines are multiplied during hot seasons or at hot places where temperature
during flowering is 35°C .
requires rouging only for off – types, and is the most suited for hybrid seed
production., e.g., GCH6, GCH 7, Aruna.
Pistillate condition is produced by blocking the development of androecium in male flowers,
so that the inflorescence has only pistillate flowers.
HYBRID SEED DEVELOPMENT :HYBRID SEED DEVELOPMENT :
hybrid in India GCH 3.
After the introduction of female line, TSP-10-R from USA, it was utilized
extensively in hybridization programme. As a result of which, in 1968,first castor
hybrid,GCH-3 (TSP-10-R x JI-15) was found to give 88 per cent higher yield than
local variety. However, shattering in habit.
Indigenous pistillate line VP 1 was developed at Vijapur and using this GAUCH 1
in 1973. But it is susceptible to wilt and root rot diseases.
Hybrid GCH 2 was released in 1985 ; GCH 4 in 1986.
Hybrids Female Male
GCH 3 TSP 10 R JI 15
GAUCH 1 VP 1 V 19
GCH 2 VP 1 JI 35
GCH 4 VP 1 48-1
TMVCH 1 LRES 17 TMV 5
Seed Production Techniques-Seed Production Techniques-
Brief Cultural Practices:
1) Preparation of Land: 2) Time of Sowing:
3) Source of Seed: 4) Method of Sowing:
5) Spacing: 6) Seed Rate:
7) Fertilization: 8) Irrigation:
9) Interculture: 10) Nipping:
11) Plant Protection:
Harvesting ad Threshing:
TRAITS FOR EXPLOITATION :TRAITS FOR EXPLOITATION :
epicuticular wax(bloom wax),
presence of spines on capsules,
sex expression ,
response to environmental conditions
Also for quantitative traits
GENETIC RESOURCESGENETIC RESOURCES
However, the resources available in castor germplasm worldwide
have been barely tapped for castor genetic improvement and
the majority of them have been poorly characterized.
Use of genetic resources by the global castor community could be increased
if there were characterization of accessions, consolidated reports on
available resources, free accession to information on banks, and uniform
data collection standards among repositories
Production of Hybrid Castor Seed:Production of Hybrid Castor Seed:
For production of single cross hybrid seed, lines giving a 1:1 ratio
of pistil late and heterozygous monoecious plants are used.
In the crossing plot the latter are rogued out one to five days
before flowering begins.
Female plants are then cross-pollinated by a selected male
pollinator line, planted in every sixth or eighth row.
Proper synchronization of male and female flowering.
Once 5-6 racemes per bush have set and ripened, those
of pollen parent harvested separately first, for further
Racemes borned by female line parent harvested, and
considered all as F1 seed.
As many as six roguings may be necessary to keep self-
pollination to a minimum.
The hybrid seed can also be protected by the use of 90 to
100 percent pistillate lines, this estimates Roguing but
hybrid seed so produced would not be entirely uniform.
Heterosis for yield and yield attributing traits in Castor
Y.M. Barad, A.R. Pathak and B.N. Patel
o Heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis in 40 hybrids developed through
line x tester mating design
(5 pistillate lines and 8 pollen parents).
o 5 pistillate lines- VP 1, Geeta, JP 65, SKP 4 and ACP 1
8 male parents- I 21, EC 38538, Jl 35, GC 2, EB 16, VI9, SKI 283 and SPS 44-1.
o Line*tester mating design and resulting 40 hybrids along with 13 parents
and commercial hybrid GCH 4 evaluated in RBD with 3 replication.
o 90 cm (R-R)and 60 cm (P-P).
o Earliness in emergence of primary raceme is highly desirable traits for the
crop like castor.
The cross combinations ACP 1 x JI-35 (17.10) and JP 65 x Vl.9 (13.82)
exhibited significant positive standard heterosis over GCH 4 for seed
Parents vs. hybrids comparisons were significant for all the characters
except for 100-seed weight. This indicated presence of overall heterosis
for all the characters studied.
ISSUES THAT NEED RESEARCH ATTENTION TO SUSTAIN HYBRID
not every hybrid combination exhibits strong heterosis.
This can occur when few heterotic loci, or low genetic diversity, exist in
parent lines, emphasizing the need to select diverse lines enriched with
Although the degree of heterosis tends to increase with increasing
genetic diversity of the parents, this also increases the meiosis
abnormalities, such as poor chromosome pairing.
aberrant chromosomal rearrangements and transposon activations
detected following wide hybridization
Gain of hybrid impressive under irrigated conditions only, yet to
seek for drought prone rainfed areas.
Pistillate line multiplication and hybrid seed production have
serious problem of proper seed set.
Serious research is warranted to perfect the pollination system.
THRUST AREAS :THRUST AREAS :
(castor oil cake) have a high calorific value, efficient solid biomass fuel can be
produced from the castor oil cake.
Castor oil is also crude material of Sebacic Acid. The demand of Sebacic Acid is
anticipated to increase for the production of bio-synthetic fabric such as Nylon
After the development of VP-1, an S type stable pistillate line derived from TSP
10R (Texas Stable Pistillate) introduced from US, several pistillate lines were
developed using VP1 as source.
reduction of the toxicity of castor seeds(Ricin )
Future Possible End-uses
•Biopolymers and Castor Oil
• Building Blocks for Polymer-based on natural Oils
• Biopolymers in Durables
• Castor Oil Polyurethane
• Castor Oil Derivatives for Other Plastics
In future economy of castor bean can be changed, if hybrids are used through out .
This can be done with the intensive collaboration between breeder and and seed
Need ToNeed To:
(1)identify and manipulate additional wide-compatibility genes to support
stable genome compatibility between distant species;
(2) identify and functionally characterize positive heterotic loci;
(3) pyramid wide compatibility genes and positive heterotic loci into a
common genetic background;
(4) deepen our understanding of the mechanisms involved in genomic
structural instability in the F1, and
(5) develop high efficient pollination control technologies on a species