In-Vitro Breadfruit Propagation by FARC (Mauritius)


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In-Vitro Breadfruit Propagation by FARC (Mauritius)

  1. 1. IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF BREADFRUIT ( Artocarpus altilis)
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>In Vitro propagation (tissue culture) offers prospects for rapid bulking up of Breadfruit planting material </li></ul><ul><li>Usually vegetatively propagated using shoot or root cuttings and is essential for multiplication of seedless varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds: are rarely planted because of genetic variability and viability </li></ul><ul><li>Research is being conducted at the FARC Tissue Culture Section, Réduit on Breadfruit “ In Vitro Mass Propagation” </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Aims: Development of a commercially efficient Micropropagation Protocol for Breadfruit </li></ul><ul><li>Expected to contribute to Local Sustainable Resources for Agriculture, Backyard Planting, Agro-forestry, Reforestation and ultimately Food Security </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility for safe trans-boundary movement towards other countries interested in Breadfruit farming. </li></ul>
  4. 4. BENEFITS OF IN VITRO PROPAGATION <ul><li>FAST: More plants produced in a given period </li></ul><ul><li>Plantlets produced are genetically identical </li></ul><ul><li>Plants are produced under sterile conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Year round production of plantlets and not dependent on external environment </li></ul><ul><li>Little space requirement for multiplication </li></ul><ul><li>Propagated material can be stored for a long time </li></ul><ul><li>Little attention required for In Vitro cultures between subcultures </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Requirement for specialised production facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Propagation Protocol development is time consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Plantlets obtained are small and juvenile </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Variability can occur upon excessive sub-culturing </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional phase required for adaptation of plantlets to In Vivo conditions </li></ul>CONSTRAINTS
  6. 6. GENERALISED METHODOLOGY <ul><li>The General steps undertaken for the In Vitro Mass Propagation protocol development were: </li></ul><ul><li>Explant Collection and Surface Sterilisation </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of Aseptic Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Shoot multiplication </li></ul><ul><li>Rooting of shoots </li></ul><ul><li>Acclimatisation of Rooted TC Plantlets </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Three Culture media have been Successfully formulated at the FARC Tissue Culture Section based on Literature Leads available </li></ul><ul><li>These media are referred to as: </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment Media (EM) </li></ul><ul><li>Shoot Multiplication Media (SM) </li></ul><ul><li>Rooting Media (RM) </li></ul>TISSUE CULTURE MEDIA
  8. 8. INITIATION OF STERILE CULTURES <ul><li>In vitro cultures were initiated from shoot buds collected from Réduit </li></ul><ul><li>The buds were thoroughly cleaned and surface sterilised </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Cultures were then inoculated on Establishment Media </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Four trials were undertaken for development of an efficient Surface Sterilisation Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Success rate of the Selected Sterilisation Protocol was 85 % after modifications brought </li></ul><ul><li>Contamination was mainly of bacterial origin </li></ul>RESULTS and OBSERVATIONS
  11. 11. MORTALITY <ul><li>Despite successful initiation of Aseptic Cultures death of explants was a major drawback during trials </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality from trials due to explant necrosis were principally because of: </li></ul><ul><li>Unsuitable Establishment Media </li></ul><ul><li>Too Severe Surface Sterilisation Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Release of Phenolics by explants </li></ul>
  12. 12. MICROPROPAGATION <ul><li>Mass production of Breadfruit plantlets was achieved by transferring explants to Shoot Multiplication Media </li></ul>
  13. 13. SUBCULTURE <ul><li>Sub-culturing of plantlets was done every 5-7 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Axillary branches and buds were excised from main shoots and inoculated on fresh media </li></ul><ul><li>An overall multiplication rate of 2.5-3 was observed </li></ul>
  14. 14. Growth Room Conditions <ul><li>Cultures were kept in Growth Room at a temperature of 25 o C and a 16 hrs photoperiod </li></ul>
  15. 15. ROOTING OF PLANTLETS <ul><li>Rooted plantlets were obtained 5-6 weeks after inoculation on Rooting Media </li></ul><ul><li>However, Root development on Rooting Media was observed for only about 60% of plantlets. </li></ul>
  16. 16. HARDENING <ul><li>Rooted plantlets of about 5cm in height were selected for hardening </li></ul><ul><li>Trials have been performed on different hardening media ( Soil, Rocksand and Perlite) </li></ul><ul><li>Plantlets were kept in the ECU for adaptation to In Vivo conditions </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Hardening is expected to last between 5-8 mths </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf Margins were smooth in In Vitro cultures compared to the typical Lobed leaf morphology under In Vivo conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Hardening could be considered successful as soon as plantlets develop the typical lobed leaves characteristic </li></ul>
  18. 18. FUTURE WORKS <ul><li>Fine tuning and Optimisation of protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing production time and cost of plantlets production </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of genetic fidelity of plantlets after successive sub-culturing </li></ul><ul><li>Optimisation of conditioning & hardening for higher % survival </li></ul><ul><li>In Vitro conservation of Breadfruit Varieties </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION </li></ul>