Sampling Methods ForDifferent Diseases       Dr. Tariq Mustafa Mohamed Ali            Al Ain Veterinary lab            Ani...
‫طرق جمع العينات للتشخيص‬                  ‫المرضى‬     ‫د. طارق مصطفى محمد على‬‫المختبر البيطرى- قسم الثروة الحيوانية‬‫قط...
APPROACH TODIAGNOSISSuccess of diagnostic veterinarylaboratory depends on submissionsamples of good quality which willprov...
Sampling standards :   Provide epidemiological and clinical details with the    samples.   Always sample several animals...
Accession or submissionforms1. Provide the requested information on the Lab   form.2. Brief, concise, complete histories a...
Submission of Serum andBlood samples   Blood samples should be collected in sterile tubes    containing no anticoagulants...
Submission of Serum andBlood samples.   Blood submitted for culture should be    submitted in blood culture bottles or st...
Submission of Serum andBlood samples   Be careful that writing will be legible   Avoid using animal names to avoid    du...
Submission of swabs   Swab material from the more advanced    lesions.   Collect swabs from acutely ill animals .   Col...
Submission of swabs   Swabs for virus isolation should placed in    viral transport medium .   Most of these virus trans...
Feces   Feces should be collected from acutely ill    animals and placed in leak proof containers.   Well-saturated swab...
Fecal swab
Tears Cotton buds or swabs of absorbent cotton wool are inserted into the conjunctival sac and swirled around to collect t...
Pus   Collect samples aseptically and submit    in culturette swab.   When abscess material is available    submit the e...
Tissues   It is recommended that the following tissues be    collected during post mortem examination: lymph    nodes fou...
Gum debris   This material can be collected by a    spatula or finger rubbed across the gum    and inside the upper and l...
NECROPSY SUBMISSIONSTANDARDS   Dead animals should be cooled as soon    as possible after death.   Large animals should ...
SPECIMENS FROM NECROPSIEDANIMALS1.   Collect all specimens as aseptically as     possible. Liberal portions of each     or...
SPECIMENS FROM NECROPSIEDANIMALS ( cont.)3. Collect observable lesions or  suspected target organs4. For neonatal diarrhea...
SPECIMENS FROM NECROPSIEDANIMALS ( cont.)5. Tissue specimens should be placed in  individual leak-proof plastic bags and  ...
MASTITIS MILK SPECIMENS1. Wash udder to remove dirt and allow to dry.2. Scrub teat end with alcohol soaked cotton  and let...
Diarrhea/Enteritis   Feces   Blood samples   Serum samples   Food material   Affected intestine , Liver, Intestinal LN
ABORTIONS   Diagnosis cause of abortion is difficult    and complex.   Fetus, placenta, fetal stomach contents,    uteri...
ABORTIONS (cont.)   Rinse the fetus and placenta with clean tap    water and place them in a plastic bag. Force    the ai...
ABORTIONS (cont.)   Collect and submit the first of paired    serum samples from the suspected    aborting animal. The se...
SPECIMENS for ANAEROBIC ANDMICROAEROPHILIC culture.   The success of culture for anaerobic and    microaerophilic organis...
MYCOLOGY1.   Submit skin scrapings from the outer edges     of a lesion and submit plucked (not cut)     hairs.2.   Skin, ...
Surveillance   Continuous investigation of a given    population to detect the occurrence of    disease for control purpose
Active surveillance   Advantage of Active surveillance     Better information quality     Reflect the true situation   ...
Passive surveillance   Compulsory notification   Laboratory submission data   Disadvantages of Passive surveillance    ...
Monitoring   Constitutes on going programmes directed at    the detection of changes in the prevalence of    a disease in...
Prevalence   The proportion of number of sick    animals at a single point in time to the    total population at risk at ...
Incidence rate   It is a measure of average speed at    which the disease is spreading   Incidence rate    = Total new c...
Example :A small animal farm consists of 2000 goat suffer from an outbreak of PPR. The first animal start to get sick on t...
Calculation of Prevalence percent.   Prevalence at 6th March             = 56 / (2000-143 ”DEAD”)             = 56 / 1857...
Calculation of Incidence rate   New cases =(143 + 28 +56) =227   Av.Population at risk in the 4 Days     =(2000 – 227) +...
Sample size   The sample size is independent of the    total number of animals in the    population   It depends on 3 fa...
Approximate sample size table
Sample size in infinite population   Suppose the true prevalence is thought    to be about 40% and the desired    estimat...
Sample size in infinite population   Suppose we have 900 animals at the    same prevalence ,precision of 5% and    confid...
Sampling frame ( StratifiedRandom sampling)Prepare a list of camel owner for each    clinic , avoid repletion of names . e...
Sampling frame (Cont.)Determine the proportion allocation of owners belonging    to each clinic ( Considering that the num...
Sampling frame (Cont.)Calculate the total no of owners that will be   sampled , in our example it will be as   follows:   ...
Sampling frame (Cont.)   Clinic # 1:    17% X 36 = 6 owners will be selected on random basis   Clinic # 2 :    47 % X 36...
Sampling frame (Cont.)   If we get less number of animals than that    required we should go back to re-select    randoml...
Avian Influenza   SPECIMEN    Serum , cloacal, tracheal, oropharyngeal     Swabs   TYPE OF TEST      AGID , Imunochromat...
Avian Chlamydia infection   SPECIMEN       Spleen, liver, lung,       Air sac, conjunctival swab   TYPE OF TEST      ...
Avian Mycoplasma Spp.   SPECIMEN       Serum   TYPE OF TEST       HI       Plate agglutination test
Salmonella pullorum   SPECIMEN       Serum   TYPE OF TEST       Micro agglutination
Canine Corona virus   SPECIMEN       Serum       Feces / small intestine   TYPE OF TEST       Imunochromatography    ...
Canine Distemper Virus   SPECIMEN    Lung, kidney, spleen, urinary bladder, brain,     stomach, liver, blood smear    Ser...
Canine Parvovirus (CPV)   SPECIMEN       Intestine (jejunum, ileum), spleen,        mesenteric lymph node       Serum ...
Bluetongue disease in a sheep                     Note the bluish                      discoloration of the              ...
Blue tongue   SPECIMENS       Serum   TYPE OF TEST       AGID , ELISA
Bovine Leucosis (BLV)   SPECIMEN       Serum   TYPE OF TEST       AGID
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus(BRSV)   SPECIMEN       Lung, bronchial       lymph node       Serum   TYPE OF TEST...
Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD)   SPECIMEN       Lung, intestine, turbinate, trachea, swabs        from lesions, fetal organ...
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis(IBR) .   SPECIMENS       Lung, trachea, turbinate, aborted fetal        tissues      ...
Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis(CAE) / Ovine Progressive Pneumonia(OPP)   SPECIMENS       Serum   TYPE OF TEST       AGID
Chlamydia   SPECIMENS       Lymph node,       tissues of aborted fetus, joint fluid ,   TYPE OF TEST       IF , ELISA
Clostridium   SPECIMENS       Intestinal content       Affected lesions (Liver , Int., Muscles)       Serum   TYPE OF...
Bovine Corona virus , Rotavirus,Cryptosporidium Infection   SPECIMENS       Intestinal content , Feces   TYPE OF TEST  ...
Salmonellosis   SPECIMENS       Feces,       Feed,       Water,       Environmental samples   TYPE OF TEST       Cu...
E.coli Pilus (K 99 ,F 5Serotype)   SPECIMENS       Intestinal content       Feces   TYPE OF TEST       ELISA
Johne’s Disease (MycobacteriumPara tuberculosis).   SPECIMENS       Fecal swabs, mucosal scrapings, intestinal lymph    ...
Typical lesions of contagiouscaprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP)in a goat                   Note the yellowish,               ...
Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia(CCPP)   SPECIMENS       Lung       Serum   TYPE OF TEST       IF , L Agglutination
Leptospirosis   SPECIMENS       Kidney       Serum   TYPE OF TEST       IF , Micro agglutination       Test for 6 se...
Listeria   SPECIMENS       Cerebellum, pons, medulla, fetus, uterine        secretions       Serum   TYPE OF TEST    ...
Ruminant Anaplasmosis   SPECIMENS       Serum   TYPE OF TEST       Card Agglutination , CFT , ELISA
Toxoplasmosis   SPECIMENS       Serum   TYPE OF TEST       Latex agglutination , IHA       A titer > 1:64 is consider...
Specimens for FMD   The preferred sample for virus isolation is the    epithelium (at least 1-2 cm square) from    unrupt...
Foot And Mouth Disease
Foot And Mouth Disease
Foot And Mouth Disease
PPR in a goat            purulent eye and nose              discharges              Discharges from the              nose ...
PPR in a goat            Inflamed (reddened)              eye membranes              Reddening of the              mucous ...
PPR in a goat                Early mouth                 lesions showing                 areas of dead                 cel...
PPR in a goat                later mouth                 lesions                 The membrane                 lining the m...
Specimens for RFV   Blood in anticoagulant from any animals    with a fever of 40.5-42°C   Liver and spleen from any fre...
RFV         Sheep, fetus. Both          the pleural and          peritoneal cavities          contain excessive          ...
RFV         Sheep, fetus,          kidney. There is          severe perirenal          edema.
RFV         Sheep, liver. The cut          surface of the          swollen liver is pale          and contains many      ...
RVF         Sheep, colon.          Severe hemorrhagic          colitis.
RVF         Sheep, colon. There          is severe locally          extensive mucosal          hemorrhage.
RVF         Sheep, liver. Section          reveals that the liver          is pale, swollen and          contains multipl...
RFV         Sheep, liver. Liver is          pale and swollen          and contains many          areas of severe         ...
Sampling
Sampling
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An approache for different kinds of sampling for diagnosis of animal diseases
( Scientific activity done at Al Ain , UAE . Under the supervesion of Department of Agriculture and livestock

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Sampling

  1. 1. Sampling Methods ForDifferent Diseases Dr. Tariq Mustafa Mohamed Ali Al Ain Veterinary lab Animal Health section Agriculture Sector Department of Municipalities and Agriculture
  2. 2. ‫طرق جمع العينات للتشخيص‬ ‫المرضى‬ ‫د. طارق مصطفى محمد على‬‫المختبر البيطرى- قسم الثروة الحيوانية‬‫قطاع الزراعة – دائرة البلديات والزراعة‬
  3. 3. APPROACH TODIAGNOSISSuccess of diagnostic veterinarylaboratory depends on submissionsamples of good quality which willprovide optimal opportunity for thediagnosis of disease.
  4. 4. Sampling standards : Provide epidemiological and clinical details with the samples. Always sample several animals in an outbreak. Collect samples from live animals in acute stage of the disease. Keep samples cool during transfer to the laboratory (preferably on melting ice) and reduce the time in transit to the minimum. Mark sample bottles carefully with an indelible pen and record details of each samples origin for submission to the laboratory.
  5. 5. Accession or submissionforms1. Provide the requested information on the Lab form.2. Brief, concise, complete histories are required and aid in providing diagnoses and pertinent advice.3. Please use black ink and write or print legibly.4. List the tissues submitted, also the number of tumors. This will help insure that all submitted specimens are identified
  6. 6. Submission of Serum andBlood samples Blood samples should be collected in sterile tubes containing no anticoagulants. These should be submitted to the laboratory in specially designed Styrofoam holders to avoid breakage. Blood samples should not be frozen or allowed to overheat. If samples cannot be delivered to the laboratory within a reasonable time, serum should be removed and refrigerated or frozen.
  7. 7. Submission of Serum andBlood samples. Blood submitted for culture should be submitted in blood culture bottles or sterile vacutainer. Serum must be fresh, clear, unhemolyzed, and uncontaminated. Submit at least 1.0 ml of serum for each test requested. Refrigerate the serum until shipment. Identify specimen in a way that will avoid confusion when results are reported.
  8. 8. Submission of Serum andBlood samples Be careful that writing will be legible Avoid using animal names to avoid duplication and confusion. Label each tube with tube number and vet code.
  9. 9. Submission of swabs Swab material from the more advanced lesions. Collect swabs from acutely ill animals . Collect swabs from several animals in different stages of the illness . Two swabs should be collected each time
  10. 10. Submission of swabs Swabs for virus isolation should placed in viral transport medium . Most of these virus transport media are balanced salt solutions containing high protein content and antibiotics to prevent bacterial overgrowth. Swab for electron microscopy should be placed in a screw-capped tube containing one or two drops of distilled water.
  11. 11. Feces Feces should be collected from acutely ill animals and placed in leak proof containers. Well-saturated swabs are adequate for many individual examinations. Several milliliters or grams of feces permit a more complete diagnostic work-up including bacteriologic and parasitological examinations. Samples should submitted to the laboratory using cold packs as coolant.
  12. 12. Fecal swab
  13. 13. Tears Cotton buds or swabs of absorbent cotton wool are inserted into the conjunctival sac and swirled around to collect tears. The bud/swab is broken off into a container and about 150 microlitres of sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS pH 7.2 to 7.6) are added (if available).
  14. 14. Pus Collect samples aseptically and submit in culturette swab. When abscess material is available submit the exudates in a sterile container. Exudates should be collected from non- draining lesion
  15. 15. Tissues It is recommended that the following tissues be collected during post mortem examination: lymph nodes found around the lungs (mediastinal) and alimentary tract (mesenteric); portions of the spleen and the lungs. Two sets of each tissue are required; one set is chilled but not frozen, and the other is put in 10 percent formalin solution to preserve the samples.
  16. 16. Gum debris This material can be collected by a spatula or finger rubbed across the gum and inside the upper and lower lips. The material collected is then scraped into a container and 150 microlitres of PBS are added (if available).
  17. 17. NECROPSY SUBMISSIONSTANDARDS Dead animals should be cooled as soon as possible after death. Large animals should be thoroughly hosed down with cold water. Birds, rabbits, and other fur bearing animals should be soaked in cold, soapy water, placed in a plastic bag, and refrigerated.
  18. 18. SPECIMENS FROM NECROPSIEDANIMALS1. Collect all specimens as aseptically as possible. Liberal portions of each organ should be collected. If the outside of the specimen is accidentally contaminated, wash the specimen with clean tap water.2. Refrigerate (wet ice packs) all specimens to prevent saprophytic growth.
  19. 19. SPECIMENS FROM NECROPSIEDANIMALS ( cont.)3. Collect observable lesions or suspected target organs4. For neonatal diarrhea, submit a tied off 4-5 cm segment of jejunum, ileum, and colon with the accompanying lymph nodes for culture of pathogenic bacteria.
  20. 20. SPECIMENS FROM NECROPSIEDANIMALS ( cont.)5. Tissue specimens should be placed in individual leak-proof plastic bags and identified (use water-proof ink on bags)
  21. 21. MASTITIS MILK SPECIMENS1. Wash udder to remove dirt and allow to dry.2. Scrub teat end with alcohol soaked cotton and let dry.3. Samples should be collected in a sterile container immediately prior to regular milking without discarding any streams of milk (since the foremilk usually contains the greatest number of the infecting micro-organisms.
  22. 22. Diarrhea/Enteritis Feces Blood samples Serum samples Food material Affected intestine , Liver, Intestinal LN
  23. 23. ABORTIONS Diagnosis cause of abortion is difficult and complex. Fetus, placenta, fetal stomach contents, uterine contents and serum are the favorite specimens. Submit multiple specimens to increase the probability of diagnosis.
  24. 24. ABORTIONS (cont.) Rinse the fetus and placenta with clean tap water and place them in a plastic bag. Force the air out of the bag before sealing it. All specimens should be refrigerated . If a toxic condition is suspected, submit samples of the aborting animal’s feed and water. If you suspect nitrate toxicity send Eye or aqueous humor.
  25. 25. ABORTIONS (cont.) Collect and submit the first of paired serum samples from the suspected aborting animal. The second serum sample should be collected and submitted in 2-3 weeks.
  26. 26. SPECIMENS for ANAEROBIC ANDMICROAEROPHILIC culture. The success of culture for anaerobic and microaerophilic organisms is heavily dependent on sample selection and shipment. Sample should be taken from a living animal or a fresh carcass. Specimens for Campylobacter isolation should be submitted in a transport media that limits or excludes air from the sample such as Amies media, containing Cary-Blair or thioglycolate broth.
  27. 27. MYCOLOGY1. Submit skin scrapings from the outer edges of a lesion and submit plucked (not cut) hairs.2. Skin, hair, and nails should by shipped to the laboratory without refrigeration.3. Submit internal organs or internal lesions suspected of fungal infection.4. Internal specimens should be sent refrigerated (wet ice packs) and not frozen.
  28. 28. Surveillance Continuous investigation of a given population to detect the occurrence of disease for control purpose
  29. 29. Active surveillance Advantage of Active surveillance  Better information quality  Reflect the true situation  Faster  Cheaper
  30. 30. Passive surveillance Compulsory notification Laboratory submission data Disadvantages of Passive surveillance  Under reporting system  Expense  Non representative report
  31. 31. Monitoring Constitutes on going programmes directed at the detection of changes in the prevalence of a disease in a given population What you are looking for??????  Estimate disease prevalence  Estimate disease incidence  Detect disease or demonstrate freedom from disease
  32. 32. Prevalence The proportion of number of sick animals at a single point in time to the total population at risk at the same point of time In the previous example, Prevalence is 50%
  33. 33. Incidence rate It is a measure of average speed at which the disease is spreading Incidence rate = Total new cases during a period of time av. No. of animals at risk X time period
  34. 34. Example :A small animal farm consists of 2000 goat suffer from an outbreak of PPR. The first animal start to get sick on the 3rd of March. By 5th of march many animal are dying. The owner contact the veterinarian on the 6th of march . The veterinarian count 56 sick animals and the owner said that 143 animal have already died and 28 animals had been sick but recovered. A number of 1801 apparently healthy .
  35. 35. Calculation of Prevalence percent. Prevalence at 6th March = 56 / (2000-143 ”DEAD”) = 56 / 1857 = 3%
  36. 36. Calculation of Incidence rate New cases =(143 + 28 +56) =227 Av.Population at risk in the 4 Days =(2000 – 227) + 2000/2=1886.5 Incidence rate : = 227/1886.5 X 4 “Period of time” = 0.03 animal /day = 21 animal /100 animals/ week
  37. 37. Sample size The sample size is independent of the total number of animals in the population It depends on 3 factors : 1. Expected prevalence. 2. Level of confidence wanted (90 0r 95 or 99%). 3. Desired absolute precision.
  38. 38. Approximate sample size table
  39. 39. Sample size in infinite population Suppose the true prevalence is thought to be about 40% and the desired estimate at precision of 5% at 95% level of confidence. From the table, the sample size will be 369 animals.
  40. 40. Sample size in infinite population Suppose we have 900 animals at the same prevalence ,precision of 5% and confidence level . The sample size (1/n)=1/n∞ + 1/N =1/369 +1/900 =1/262
  41. 41. Sampling frame ( StratifiedRandom sampling)Prepare a list of camel owner for each clinic , avoid repletion of names . e.g. Clinic # 1 : 37 Clinic # 2 : 101 Clinic # 3 : 76 .Calculate the total No of owners e.g. 214
  42. 42. Sampling frame (Cont.)Determine the proportion allocation of owners belonging to each clinic ( Considering that the number of owners reflect the animal population density in each clinic ) i.e. Clinic # 1 37 / 214 = 17% Clinic # 2 101/214 = 47% Clinic # 3 76/214 = 36%As far as we determine the sample size as 15000 animal from total true animal population 95000 i.e. we select 15000/95000 = 1/6 i.e. one owner from every 6 owner randomly .
  43. 43. Sampling frame (Cont.)Calculate the total no of owners that will be sampled , in our example it will be as follows: 214 / 6 = 36 ownersCalculate how many owners will be sampled from each clinic by multiplying the obtained proportion allocation of each clinic by the total No of owners that should be sampling
  44. 44. Sampling frame (Cont.) Clinic # 1: 17% X 36 = 6 owners will be selected on random basis Clinic # 2 : 47 % X 36= 47 owners will be selected on random basis Clinic # 3 : 36% X 76 = 13 owners will be selected on random basis
  45. 45. Sampling frame (Cont.) If we get less number of animals than that required we should go back to re-select randomly another ? This will depend mainly on the animal density exists for each clinic .
  46. 46. Avian Influenza SPECIMEN Serum , cloacal, tracheal, oropharyngeal Swabs TYPE OF TEST AGID , Imunochromatography, PCR ,HI
  47. 47. Avian Chlamydia infection SPECIMEN  Spleen, liver, lung,  Air sac, conjunctival swab TYPE OF TEST  FA  ELISA
  48. 48. Avian Mycoplasma Spp. SPECIMEN  Serum TYPE OF TEST  HI  Plate agglutination test
  49. 49. Salmonella pullorum SPECIMEN  Serum TYPE OF TEST  Micro agglutination
  50. 50. Canine Corona virus SPECIMEN  Serum  Feces / small intestine TYPE OF TEST  Imunochromatography  ELISA  IF
  51. 51. Canine Distemper Virus SPECIMEN Lung, kidney, spleen, urinary bladder, brain, stomach, liver, blood smear Serum TYPE OF TEST IF, IIF ,chromatography
  52. 52. Canine Parvovirus (CPV) SPECIMEN  Intestine (jejunum, ileum), spleen, mesenteric lymph node  Serum TYPE OF TEST  IF , IIF , chromatography
  53. 53. Bluetongue disease in a sheep  Note the bluish discoloration of the coronary bands of the hoof. The lips will usually be found to be swollen and discolored blue at the same time
  54. 54. Blue tongue SPECIMENS  Serum TYPE OF TEST  AGID , ELISA
  55. 55. Bovine Leucosis (BLV) SPECIMEN  Serum TYPE OF TEST  AGID
  56. 56. Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus(BRSV) SPECIMEN  Lung, bronchial  lymph node  Serum TYPE OF TEST  IF ,IIF , ELISA  Serum Samples are tested at 1:50 dilution
  57. 57. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) SPECIMEN  Lung, intestine, turbinate, trachea, swabs from lesions, fetal organs  Ear notches are the samples of choice in case of persistent infection  Serum TYPE OF TEST  IF , SNT , ELISA
  58. 58. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis(IBR) . SPECIMENS  Lung, trachea, turbinate, aborted fetal tissues  Serum TYPE OF TEST  IF , SNT , ELISA
  59. 59. Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis(CAE) / Ovine Progressive Pneumonia(OPP) SPECIMENS  Serum TYPE OF TEST  AGID
  60. 60. Chlamydia SPECIMENS  Lymph node,  tissues of aborted fetus, joint fluid , TYPE OF TEST  IF , ELISA
  61. 61. Clostridium SPECIMENS  Intestinal content  Affected lesions (Liver , Int., Muscles)  Serum TYPE OF TEST  IF , ELISA
  62. 62. Bovine Corona virus , Rotavirus,Cryptosporidium Infection SPECIMENS  Intestinal content , Feces TYPE OF TEST  IF , ELISA , Immuno chromatography
  63. 63. Salmonellosis SPECIMENS  Feces,  Feed,  Water,  Environmental samples TYPE OF TEST  Culturing  Agglutination test
  64. 64. E.coli Pilus (K 99 ,F 5Serotype) SPECIMENS  Intestinal content  Feces TYPE OF TEST  ELISA
  65. 65. Johne’s Disease (MycobacteriumPara tuberculosis). SPECIMENS  Fecal swabs, mucosal scrapings, intestinal lymph nodes  Serum TYPE OF TEST ELISA , CFT, PCR Titers:  1:8 – Negative,  1:16 – Suspicious,  1:32 – Positive
  66. 66. Typical lesions of contagiouscaprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP)in a goat  Note the yellowish, fibrinous deposit on the surface of the lungs and adhesions to the inside of the rib cage.
  67. 67. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia(CCPP) SPECIMENS  Lung  Serum TYPE OF TEST  IF , L Agglutination
  68. 68. Leptospirosis SPECIMENS  Kidney  Serum TYPE OF TEST  IF , Micro agglutination  Test for 6 serovars - canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohemorrhagiae, pomona, and bratislava. Samples are tested at an initial dilution 1:100.
  69. 69. Listeria SPECIMENS  Cerebellum, pons, medulla, fetus, uterine secretions  Serum TYPE OF TEST  Card Agglutination  Test for Type 1 and Type 4 serotypes.  Serum is screened at an initial dilution 1:20.
  70. 70. Ruminant Anaplasmosis SPECIMENS  Serum TYPE OF TEST  Card Agglutination , CFT , ELISA
  71. 71. Toxoplasmosis SPECIMENS  Serum TYPE OF TEST  Latex agglutination , IHA  A titer > 1:64 is considered positive.
  72. 72. Specimens for FMD The preferred sample for virus isolation is the epithelium (at least 1-2 cm square) from unruptured or freshly ruptured vesicles. Vesicular fluid should be added if available. Samples should be collected into a transport medium consisting of equal amounts of phosphate buffer and glycerol at pH 7.2-7.6 (with added antibiotics).
  73. 73. Foot And Mouth Disease
  74. 74. Foot And Mouth Disease
  75. 75. Foot And Mouth Disease
  76. 76. PPR in a goat purulent eye and nose discharges Discharges from the nose and eyes in advanced PPR infection; the hair below the eyes is wet and there is matting together of the eyelids as well as partial blockage of the nostrils by dried-up purulent discharges
  77. 77. PPR in a goat Inflamed (reddened) eye membranes Reddening of the mucous membranes of the eye (the conjunctiva) in the early stages of infection. Note the purulent eye discharges
  78. 78. PPR in a goat Early mouth lesions showing areas of dead cells Early pale, grey areas of dead cells on the gums
  79. 79. PPR in a goat later mouth lesions The membrane lining the mouth is completely obscured by a thick cheesy material; shallow erosions are found underneath the dead surface cells.
  80. 80. Specimens for RFV Blood in anticoagulant from any animals with a fever of 40.5-42°C Liver and spleen from any freshly dead animals, on ice, in glycerol buffered saline and/or in buffered formalin Liver, spleen and brain from fresh fetuses
  81. 81. RFV  Sheep, fetus. Both the pleural and peritoneal cavities contain excessive clear, straw-colored fluid.
  82. 82. RFV  Sheep, fetus, kidney. There is severe perirenal edema.
  83. 83. RFV  Sheep, liver. The cut surface of the swollen liver is pale and contains many petechiae.
  84. 84. RVF  Sheep, colon. Severe hemorrhagic colitis.
  85. 85. RVF  Sheep, colon. There is severe locally extensive mucosal hemorrhage.
  86. 86. RVF  Sheep, liver. Section reveals that the liver is pale, swollen and contains multiple foci of hemorrhage.
  87. 87. RFV  Sheep, liver. Liver is pale and swollen and contains many areas of severe congestion.

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