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JIS COLLEGE OF
ENGINEERING
Submitted by
subhasish karmakar
Artificial Heart
Valves
HISTORY
 1952- The first ever invented artificial heart valve
was designed by Charles A. Hufnagel which was
the caged-ball design
 1960- On September 21, the first human was
implanted with the ball and cage design
 Binet and associates, started using porcine aortic
valves for humans
 1969- The Bjork-Shiley valves was the first tilting-
disc design to come out
 1979-the bileaflet design was introduced which
was composed of two semicircular leaflets that
shifted open and closed
HEART VALVES
Right Atrioventricular Valve: Tricuspid Valve
Left Atrioventricular Valve: Bicuspid Valve
Right Semi-Lunar Valve:
Pulmonary Valve
Left Semi-Lunar Valve:
Aortic Valve
Purpose of Valves: Prevent backflow,
or flow of blood back into
chamber from which it came.
HOW HEART VALVE WORKS ?
When Ventricle expands: atrioventricular valve allows blood to flow
forward to the atrium into the ventricle while the semilunar valve
prevents blood from flowing back in heart.
When Ventricle contracts: atrioventricular valve closes to prevent
backflow while semilunar valve allows blood to body or lungs.
Prevention of backflow: ensures the proper direction of flow and
reduces amount of work heart must do to pump blood.
PROBLEMS WITH THE HEART VALVE
 Heart Valve diseases fall into two categories:
stenosis- hardening of the valve.
incompetence- permittence of backflow
“ARTIFICIAL HEART VALVE”
 An artificial heart valve is a mechanism that mimics the
function of a human heart valve
 It’s used for patients with a heart valvular disease or have a
damaged valve
 Heart valves are used to provide the heart with a
unidirectional blood flow
 They act as pumps
TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL HEART VALVES
 Mechanical- There are three types. The caged ball,
tilting disk, and bileaflet heart valve.
 Tissue(biological)- valves that are used from
animals to implant them back into humans
“AN IDEAL PROSTHETIC VALVE “
 Unidirectional.
 Durable.
 Bloodcompatible,non-thrombogenic.
 Central flow,laminar flow.
 Closing,not damaging the blood cells.
Biomaterial used.
 Pyrolytic carbon is the material used for its strength and
its ability to prevent clotting.
 Polyester for sewing rings.
INTRODUCTION TO MECHANICAL HEART VALVES
 The first mechanical prosthetic heart valve was
implanted in 1952.
 Over the years ,30 different mechanical heart valve
have been originated worldwide.These valves have
progressed from simple caged ball design to modern
bileaflet valves.
CAGED BALL HEART VALVE
WORKING PRINCIPLE
 Ball valve operates on the principle that the ball will be forced
to one side of the valve or the other depending on which way
blood is flowing.
 It prevents back flow of blood.
 But it completely blocks central flow .
 In caged ball design ,the heart must work harder to push the
blood around the ball.
 Ball valves are known to damage or kill blood cells due to
colliding with the ball.
TILTING DISC HEART VALVE
BILEAFLET HEART VALVE
 This type of heart valve design consists of two semicircular
leaflets ,which pivots on hinges.
 Bileaflet heart valve provides central flow as like natural
valve .
 The leaflet opens completely ,allowing very little resistance to
blood flow.
 They does not cause any type of blood cell damage.
 But the leaflet does not close completely ,which allows some
backflow of blood.
BILEAFLET HEART VALVE
PORCINE VALVE
 It has good durability and good hemodynamics.
PERICARDIAL (COW) VALVES
 Lasts as long as standard porcine valves at 10
years
 The pericardial valve has excellent hemodynamics.
 It has gained a large market share (about 40% of
US tissue valves) in this group of patients.
ANIMAL TISSUE VALVES VS. MECHANICAL VALVES
 With the animal tissue, patients do not need
lifelong anticoagulant therapy required with
mechanical valves
 Animal tissue is also inexpensive and mass-
produced
 However, animal tissue has uncertain durability
(5-15 years )that will inevitably require a risky
re-operation
 Mechanical valves can also fail suddenly and
catastrophically
 Have serious problem with thromboembolism
ADVANTAGE
 Mechanical heart valves: The biggest advantage is the
durability. While the tissue heart valves are estimated to
last about 10-15 years, a mechanical heart valve can last
30 year
 Tissue heart valves: There is minimal blood regurgitation,
minimal transvalvular pressure gradient, self repairing.
 Does not require and anti-
coagulant drug.
DISADVANTAGE
 Mechanical heart valves – In order to decrease
the risk of blood clotting, the patient must take
blood thinners. Some patients can hear their
mechanical heart valve open and close.
 Tissue heart valves – Wear, there is a small
possibility that the body will reject the valve,
inability to implant them into infants and
children.
HEART VALVE

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HEART VALVE

  • 1. JIS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Submitted by subhasish karmakar Artificial Heart Valves
  • 2. HISTORY  1952- The first ever invented artificial heart valve was designed by Charles A. Hufnagel which was the caged-ball design  1960- On September 21, the first human was implanted with the ball and cage design  Binet and associates, started using porcine aortic valves for humans  1969- The Bjork-Shiley valves was the first tilting- disc design to come out  1979-the bileaflet design was introduced which was composed of two semicircular leaflets that shifted open and closed
  • 3.
  • 4. HEART VALVES Right Atrioventricular Valve: Tricuspid Valve Left Atrioventricular Valve: Bicuspid Valve Right Semi-Lunar Valve: Pulmonary Valve Left Semi-Lunar Valve: Aortic Valve Purpose of Valves: Prevent backflow, or flow of blood back into chamber from which it came.
  • 5. HOW HEART VALVE WORKS ? When Ventricle expands: atrioventricular valve allows blood to flow forward to the atrium into the ventricle while the semilunar valve prevents blood from flowing back in heart. When Ventricle contracts: atrioventricular valve closes to prevent backflow while semilunar valve allows blood to body or lungs. Prevention of backflow: ensures the proper direction of flow and reduces amount of work heart must do to pump blood.
  • 6. PROBLEMS WITH THE HEART VALVE  Heart Valve diseases fall into two categories: stenosis- hardening of the valve. incompetence- permittence of backflow
  • 7. “ARTIFICIAL HEART VALVE”  An artificial heart valve is a mechanism that mimics the function of a human heart valve  It’s used for patients with a heart valvular disease or have a damaged valve  Heart valves are used to provide the heart with a unidirectional blood flow  They act as pumps
  • 8. TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL HEART VALVES  Mechanical- There are three types. The caged ball, tilting disk, and bileaflet heart valve.  Tissue(biological)- valves that are used from animals to implant them back into humans
  • 9. “AN IDEAL PROSTHETIC VALVE “  Unidirectional.  Durable.  Bloodcompatible,non-thrombogenic.  Central flow,laminar flow.  Closing,not damaging the blood cells. Biomaterial used.  Pyrolytic carbon is the material used for its strength and its ability to prevent clotting.  Polyester for sewing rings.
  • 10. INTRODUCTION TO MECHANICAL HEART VALVES  The first mechanical prosthetic heart valve was implanted in 1952.  Over the years ,30 different mechanical heart valve have been originated worldwide.These valves have progressed from simple caged ball design to modern bileaflet valves.
  • 11.
  • 13. WORKING PRINCIPLE  Ball valve operates on the principle that the ball will be forced to one side of the valve or the other depending on which way blood is flowing.  It prevents back flow of blood.  But it completely blocks central flow .  In caged ball design ,the heart must work harder to push the blood around the ball.  Ball valves are known to damage or kill blood cells due to colliding with the ball.
  • 14.
  • 16.
  • 17. BILEAFLET HEART VALVE  This type of heart valve design consists of two semicircular leaflets ,which pivots on hinges.  Bileaflet heart valve provides central flow as like natural valve .  The leaflet opens completely ,allowing very little resistance to blood flow.  They does not cause any type of blood cell damage.  But the leaflet does not close completely ,which allows some backflow of blood.
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21. PORCINE VALVE  It has good durability and good hemodynamics.
  • 22. PERICARDIAL (COW) VALVES  Lasts as long as standard porcine valves at 10 years  The pericardial valve has excellent hemodynamics.  It has gained a large market share (about 40% of US tissue valves) in this group of patients.
  • 23. ANIMAL TISSUE VALVES VS. MECHANICAL VALVES  With the animal tissue, patients do not need lifelong anticoagulant therapy required with mechanical valves  Animal tissue is also inexpensive and mass- produced  However, animal tissue has uncertain durability (5-15 years )that will inevitably require a risky re-operation  Mechanical valves can also fail suddenly and catastrophically  Have serious problem with thromboembolism
  • 24. ADVANTAGE  Mechanical heart valves: The biggest advantage is the durability. While the tissue heart valves are estimated to last about 10-15 years, a mechanical heart valve can last 30 year  Tissue heart valves: There is minimal blood regurgitation, minimal transvalvular pressure gradient, self repairing.  Does not require and anti- coagulant drug.
  • 25. DISADVANTAGE  Mechanical heart valves – In order to decrease the risk of blood clotting, the patient must take blood thinners. Some patients can hear their mechanical heart valve open and close.  Tissue heart valves – Wear, there is a small possibility that the body will reject the valve, inability to implant them into infants and children.