Matsumoto juangchapter4


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Matsumoto juangchapter4

  1. 1. Culture and Developmental Processes Chapter 4
  2. 2. Outline Culture and Temperament Culture and Attachment Cognitive Development Moral Reasoning Other Developmental Processes Conclusion
  4. 4. Traditional Knowledge Temperament: Biologically based style of interacting with world  Easy: regular, adaptable, mildly intense style  Difficult: intense, irregular, withdrawing style  Slow to warm up: need time to make transition  Goodness of fit: interaction of child’s temperament with that of parents
  5. 5. Cross-cultural differences in temperament Temperament: Biologically based style of interacting with world  Easy: regular, adaptable, mildly intense style  Difficult: intense, irregular, withdrawing style  Slow to warm up: need time to make transition  Goodness of fit: interaction of child’s temperament with that of parents
  6. 6. Cross-Cultural Studies on temperament Differences in temperament  Chinese American babies  Japanese and Navajo babies Cross-cultural studies using the Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale  Differences due to cultural practices of caregiving, cultural goals for appropriate behavior, cultural ideas on capabilities of babies
  7. 7. Cross-Cultural Studies on temperament Temperament and learning culture  Differences in temperament may reflect cultural values on appropriate ways of acting and being The goodness of fit between temperament and culture  “Difficult” temperament may be adaptive in one culture  Need to interpret infant disposition and behavior in cultural context
  8. 8. Cross-Cultural Studies on temperament Sources behind temperamental differences  Cultural values, environmental demands, cultural experiences (diet and culture-related practices), physiological aspect of mother
  10. 10.  Attachment: Special bond between infant and caregiver  Provides child with emotional security
  11. 11. Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment Infants must have preprogrammed, biological basis for becoming attached to caregivers Attachment is survival strategy
  12. 12. Ainsworth’s Classification System of Attachment Ainsworth’s study in Uganda  Three attachment styles: secure, ambivalent, avoidant Replicated in Baltimore Similar distribution of attachment styles in other cultures But, in Dogon of Mali, no avoidant infants; in Israel,more ambivalent babies
  13. 13. Cross-Cultural Studies on Attachment Hundreds of studies on attachment conducted in cultures all over the world  Weak association between parent sensitivity and security of attachment  Cultures differ in conceptualization of sensitive parenting
  14. 14. Cross-Cultural Validity of Assessing Attachment Meaning of Strange Situation  Meaning of separation different across different cultures ex) Japanese babies Avoidant attachment as an indicator of insecure attachment  Reliance on nonparental caregivers for Chinese may account for avoidant attachment behavior  Subtle attachment behaviors difficult for coders from different cultures
  15. 15. Is secure attachment a universal ideal? In United States, secure attachment ideal Some cultures differ in what is considered ideal Ex) German mothers, Israeli children, Japanese children Nonetheless, many cultures consider secure attachment ideal
  16. 16. Attachment and Child Development Attachment predicts child competence and health Relationship between temperament and attachment More research needed in this area
  18. 18. Piaget’s Theory Cognitive Development: How thinking skills develop over time Piaget’s theory based on observations of Swiss children  Sensorimotor stage: birth to 2 years  Preoperational stage: 2 to 6-7 years  Conservation, centration, irreversibility, egocentris m, animism  Concrete operations stage: 6-7 to 11 years  Formal operations stage: 11 years to adulthood
  19. 19. Piaget’s Theory Mechanisms for moving from one stage to next  Assimilation: fitting new ideas into preexisting understanding of world  Accommodation: changing one’s understanding of world to accommodate ideas that conflict with existing concepts Piaget believed these stages are universal
  20. 20. Piaget’s Theory in Cross-Cultural Perspective Do Piaget’s stages occur in the same order in different cultures?  Yes Are the ages that Piaget associated with each stage of development the same in all cultures?  No, cultural variations exist (but children may have potential to solve tasks sooner)
  21. 21. Piaget’s Theory in Cross-Cultural Perspective Are there variations within, rather than between, Piaget’s stages?  Yes, cultural variations in order in which acquire skills within one stage Do non-Western cultures regard scientific reasoning as the ultimate developmental end point? No Ex) Islamic educational systems
  22. 22. Piaget’s Theory: Summary and Discussion In some cultures, very few complete fourth- stage Piagetian task  Cultural appropriateness of tasks  Skills being tested  Role of previous knowledge and cultural values Universality of fourth stage has not been demonstrated
  23. 23. Other Theories of Cognitive Development Great divide theory  Separates Westerners from those in primitive societies  Non-Westerners’ development seen as inferior  Justification of colonial imperialism, ethnocentric Non-westerners also have ethnocentric assumptions
  25. 25. Kohlberg’s Theory of Morality Kohlberg’s theory of moral development  Preconventional morality: compliance with rules to avoid punishment and gain rewards  Conventional morality: conformity to rules defined by others’ approval or society’s rules  Postconventional morality: moral reasoning on basis of individual principles and conscience
  26. 26. Cross-Cultural Studies of Moral Reasoning Cross-cultural studies suggest many aspects of Kohlberg’s theory of morality are universal  Snarey (1985), Ma (1988) Cross-cultural studies also raise questions about universal generalizability of Kohlberg’s higher stages  Cultural biases  Moral reasoning at higher stages is culture- specific
  27. 27. Cross-Cultural Studies of Moral Reasoning Miller  Moralities of community  Moralities of divinity
  29. 29.  Developmental research offer insights into causes and contexts of ontogenesis of cultural differences Cross-cultural developmental research in many areas such as future-oriented goals and commitments, social expectations, affective and romantic relationships in adolescence, etc.
  30. 30.  Universal:  Order of stages Culture-specific:  Age of 3rd and 4th stage Ex) Children who constantly move were better accomplished spatial task sooner than conservation task whereas children who had to fetch water and store grain, they accomplished grain task sooner
  31. 31.  Culture-specific:  Importance of scientific reasoning Ex) Islamic educational system: transmit faith, general knowledge and appreciation for poetry and literature  Reaching 4th stage