The River Ganga: Retrospect & ProspectNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AGONY OF THE GANGA (14th & 15th July 2012) India International Centre, New Delhi Presented by: Rakesh Mishra Based on The Holy Ganga 1 1
Descent of Goddess Ganga on the Holy Land The story is told for generations that describe the Kapila, Sagar, his grand son Anshuman, Dileep and Bhagiratha, one after other performed austerity to bring the Ganga on the holy land. The Mahabharata, the Ramayana along with Srimad BhagwatPurana, Padam Purana, Shiva Purana, Vayu Purana, Agni Purana, Skanda Purana, MatsyaPurana, Brahmanda Purana, etc. mention the story of the Bhagiratha. The story is shared by generations to inspire the younger one so that children learn the importanceof sacrifice. It teaches us the tradition of warfare, peace, non-violence and how to achieve greatcauses. Many of the changes prevailed in the Indian society as a consequence of infiltrations fromforeign forces, but still the our heritage preserved till now. The Ganga interlude inspires us tocontinue this this tradition in future. Geomorphology The authentic study of geomorphology and the stories of Indian scriptures of the Treta may lead us to a conclusion that satisfies all major aspects associated with the issue. The orogeny of the great Himalayas is the result of tectonic uplift, when the Indian Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate more than 50 million years ago. Then glacial ice began to accumulate in the regions elevated above the snowline. As thus, huge body of ice formed on the hills by the compaction and re-crystallization of snow. The volcanic eruption is one of the theories for the formation of the Ganges. aciers One of the reason.
The Ganga: the River Goddess The rivers are globally established as a divine identitysince ancient times. In the course of history, water hasinspired mankind both as mighty rivers and as a lifegivingforce, its spiritual importance is still prevalent all over theworld. The Marne river of France takes its name from Matrona, it isassociated with the divine mother, Dea Matrona. The ancientname of the Thames river in England is Tamsea or Tamesis,denoting a river deity. Traditional spiritual worship of water waswiped out with the rise of Christianity since the council of Arlesheld around AD 452, The river worship is a common ancient practice in India thatcontinues with great fervour. The Ganga is considered to be anincarnation of Goddess Ganga. As thus the tradition of ritual andworship emerged. Everyday you can see the sacred performanceon the banks of the river in Rishikesh, Hardwar, Kashi, Prayag,Ganga Sagar, etc. It was said: The land where the Ganges doesnot flow is likened in a hymn to the sky without the sun, a homewithout a lamp, a Brahmin without the Vedas. 1 3 1 3
The Ganga: Importance of the Holy RiverShe appeared to Arjuna when Lord Krishna said: I am thewind among things that purify; I amRama among all warriors. I am shark amongall fishes and among all rivers I am Jahnavi.It may be difficult to understand.The Ganga and Ganga Putra are present in theMahabharataStill there are pincushion for the Ganga Putra. It wasduring the time of the Mahabharata. Our generation seesSwami Sanand and Ganga Putra Nigamananda. We canhope with the Panibaba & Ganga Putra Anand.
The Ganga and the Himalayan Shrines There are three main streams of the Ganga in theHimalayas, which are known as Bhagirathi,Alakananda and Mandakini. The headwaters of allthese rivers are the most sacred shrines of the Hindus. The holy shrine of Gangotri near the Indo-Tibetborder across a few villages—Nelong and Jadung—inthe Jadh watershed.Among the shrubs of Jujube (Badri) the shrine ofBadrinath is cradled between the twin mountain rangesof Nara and Narayana in the shadow of theNeelakantha Peak.The three major mountains—Bharatekunta, KedarDome and Kedarnath forms an outstanding massifcalled Kedar Massif. The holy shrine of Kedarnath isby the banks of the Mandakini.
The Ganga: Sacred Names The 1000 names are mentioned in 152 Puranic verses Every name is meaningful that signify one or theother quality Ganga. Etymologically, the Sanskrit word ‘Ganga’ derivedfrom the etymological root ‘gam’ that means ‘to go’ thatrefers to ‘swift-goer’. Alakananda, combination of ‘Alaka’ and ‘Ananda’refers to ‘hair’ and ‘bliss’, respectively. It denotes thatthe holy river enjoys flowing through the dreadlocks ofLord Shiva. One that gives pleasure to those living inAlkapuri is yet another meaning. Bhagirathi and Jahnavi refer to the daughter of theking Bhagiratha and the sage Jahnu. In adition to thatthere are many other names—Jagatmata, Mandakini,Vishnupadi, Chhandgamini, Girimandalagamini,Bahuksira, Ratnarchi, etc. Ratnarchi refers to wealth.
OIL TO WARS & TO AGRICULTURE & RIVERS RR F&AHow 150 Years of Greed, War, Bad Science (Dams, fertilizers and chemicals) & arrogance destroying the Human Civilization in world and in India.
Why Free market orGlobalisation? There are two ways to conquer and enslave a nation. One is by sword… The other is by debt.……. John Adams 1826, United States President, Freedom Fighter who fought British for American Independence “Trade is nerve center of economy and war is necessary to protect the trade” Louis XVI, The French King who laid the policy of trade for west. We are nearly level of 3300000 Crores. Media Sources
We, before surrender to East friends may consider the following facts a beautiful Some of our India Company!! hypothesis… India was a FOOD BOWL of world with Diverse and balanced organically grown crops. No chemical fertilizers, no pesticides, no genetically modified organisms (GMOs) Rich Soil, soil fertility self replenishing Rivers were usual flowing with no dams, none occupied catchment area. Rains coming properly and seasonally (no climate disturbance) Self sufficient, environmentally intellegent, eco-friendly river delta management of uncivilised barbarians aka Indians (as Winston Churchill say)
Some “gentlemen” say “we were better under British control?” We progressed steadily In destruction of Agriculture and our rivers since the occupation of British (lump-sum 150 -200 years) but with great speed when British left into such eco- disastrous, river damaging community wiping agriculture practises in just 60 years? Did we do this to ourselves deliberately consciously or under pressure from world bank agri MNCs or public going mad?
Slavery to “Neo colonialism” After British gained a foot hold in India steadily started to disturb, undermine and destroy the strength of India, its people, their values, their cultural bonds and most important the source of all the above Rivers. Agri (culture) & Cultural Anthropology & Behavioral (Alluvial) Sociology The science of understanding flow of Rivers, Societies and Conflicts. Both of these fields of knowledge study how the river flow affects culture and wealth of communities thus sociological relations among various sections of society. By understanding this thoroughly, the river flow can be disturbed which directly effects changes among the social order.
Alluvial Sociology as basis of Ethno Genesis conflictsBy understanding this thoroughly, the river flow can be disturbed which directly effects changes among the social order.Stage I The civilization its development reaction response pattern basically depends on the connectivity established with the river banks over which they evolved. If the River Flow is congenial to the commercial traffic all the way from the beginning of the river to the merging with the sea homogeneous cultures and food habits develop. Nile, US River based Indians, Western and Eastern Indian Civilizations are all examples of the fact. If the river flow is violent and passes through mountain areas or thick jungles then totally isolated communities develop with little interaction. Tribal societies along Euphrates, Amazon. Brahmaputra etc are examples of this. It is imperative to understand these differences before conquering the territories-resources and people. For example British bombed tribal resistance in Somalia or Iraq during 1900-1945, with No nation wide response of larger mobilizations.
Agenda of Greed based Bad science and Geopolitics First disturb deface and destroy (DDD) The science of blocking the flow of the rivers- Community destruction, massive fertilizer pesticide consumption, poverty creation, water wars, national state conflicts and food dependency became a norm in liberalized and privatized world. This became a official hidden doctrinal basis of the redrawing the geography and re colonization of the territories of Asia and Africa and of course India post WW 2 in the form of Liberalization and Privatization.
Stage II - Engineering socialshifts. By blocking or damming uninterrupted river flow the homogeneity and continuity of populations can be broken, thus inducing mobility or changing the occupational habits and cultural values including food habits vertically urbanization. Alluvial flow of the rivers is the one that grinds the minerals soils medicinal curst layers by rain waters that fall on forests and mountain tops and nourishes soil when river flow comes down stream. These fertile lands does not need any other artificial fertilizers. But once they are dammed or course is altered then the fertile sediments will get struck at the base of dams and year by year thus reduce the available flow of water and rich mineralization of and rejuvenation of soil and alters moisture contents in the down stream. The low lands will starve of nourishments and the cynical cycle of artificial Fertilizer utilization increases but will definitely fail crops in the long run as the farmers will loose for the corporate game of ever increasing fertilizer costs and will be forced to abandon and move in to urbanization. This reduces Land cultivated and makes groups and nations depend on MNCs for food production and in the last decade on seeds for cultivation. This loss of soil fertility and reduced water flow happened when Aswan high dam was built. Finally Egypt has created Nile Dredging Corporation to transport the sediment to the low lands as fertilizer and now many third world countries thinking to un dam the rivers like Brazil.
Second dangerous process ofdamming rivers disease generation at the dam sites where with stored stagnant water mosquito colonies increase. Also during the entire course of river down stream to dams (which now with dams looks like disconnected ponds or lakes or pools of muddy water) the same phenomenon occurs increasing the mosquito prone diseases in the entire populations along the river. These are like dengue, malaria, swine flu, encephalitis. It is reported about 50% people are suffering water born desease along the river Ganga. The land starves with out fertilizers and placer minerals making the farming community depend on artificial fertilizers pesticides controlled by war MNCs graduation in to post war scenario –alternate use of chemicals of war as fertilizers. In Hyderabad alone the mosquito containment costs are close to Rs 100 crores diverting valuable public funds for uncalled for diseases benefitting again medical MNCs.
Stage III Minionism or Re- constructionism Minionism or Re-constructionism is a process by which, within an ethnic group, using either sub-ethnicity (in case of India caste and sub cast) religion or language homogeneity (or all of them) to achieve political ends that suits either local national political ends or International players resource strategies. This is more applicable in post world war scenario where the colonies became independent and want to pursue their own economic political goals. If Language is used as basis of minionism it is Linguistic Re- constructionism – 2 Languages 2 Religions ONE country LTTE Sinhala rift here religion is used as catalyst 1 Language ONE country Different religions- Iraq- Shia Sunni Kurd all speak Arabic but religion is used as catalyst East Timor, Indonesia-Same language Christian Muslim rift was used as catalyst. 1 Language One Country One Religion-Korea North and South Divide here economic ideology was used as catalyst
Re-constructionism in India If Religion is used as basis of minionism then it is called Religious Re- constructionism Shia Sunny fights in Iraq (Islamic Re- constructionism) If ethnicity is used as basis it is Ethno Linguist Re-constructionism Somali Sudan Ehiopia Tribal Fights Ethno Religious-Linguistic Re- constructionism If Economic Ideology is used as basis of minionism it is called ideological Re – Constructionism. Bolshivik, Communist, Soviet, Mao Thought, Naxalism, Marxism, Leninism. The weakest in all the above major re-constructionisms is the process based on Economic Ideology. The post-independence basis of the various re-constructionisms in India might have stemmed from either genuine or assumed concerns. But the wrong labeling or wrong handling them lead to a greater danger of Disintegration and political instability.
RIVERS the SOURCE OF WEALTH Interestingly people are what they eat daily ? What they eat daily is the realm of agriculture. The extent of the agriculture depends on the un obstructed river flows and that is why all civilizations developed along with flow of the rivers. Rivers are used for three purposes water (drinking and agrarian) transportation (upstream to down stream travel) river eco-system commerce and of lately for electricity generation. Commerce is two types what is produced in the river (fish, shrimp algae etc) what is brought by the river (rare earth metals, gold, diamonds, sedimentation containing trace or placer deposits of every known mineral useful as natural fertilizer for crops. These above three are the common bonds for all those living along the river side from the beginning of the rivers to the delta where they merge with the sea.
Rivers : Source of gold anddiamonds Only those rivers bring diamonds or gold which are formed on the sedimentation of volcanic eruptions lava flows. The soil they haul is called alluvial soil. Rivers in North South America Africa and India are capable of such things. Europeans first observed this rivers as carriers of rare metals and diamonds after their contact with Africa. This was the beginning of the Great Gold Rush (read as Gold Loot) that resulted in the destruction of Africa. The same Rush was exhibited in Americas, Spanish Gold Rush to south America, California Gold Rush, Texas Gold Rush, Great Canadian Gold rush all resulted in the large Human Depopulation ecological disasters for Gold and other metals that rivers bring.
Rivers : Source of diamondsand rare earth materials Till this point all knew gold is gold and diamonds are diamonds-ornamental significance. So who ever found them were the keepers of them or sellers of them. The rivers were bringing fresh diamonds gold particles along with water and fish and all are happy. In fact the rivers need to flow properly otherwise the gold and diamonds cannot be mined. All this situation changed with the discoveries of uses of Diamonds and Gold. Along with jewellary and ornamental applications Diamond are a very important in warfare and other strategic application!!
Inter War Years 1919- 1939 and 1945 – 1965 Winners USA has war time profits and losers Germans produced Eminent scientists chemists etc. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT MODEL OIL CHEMICALS PESTICIDES EXPLOSIVES GUNS War Time Profits – Free Money to BAN K S Loan to P RO F IT SChemical Companies AgriculturalPesticide Companies Mechanization Companies HU G EOffered Credit Facilities offered credit facilitiesGovernment Subsidies Government SubsidiesTo Farmers to Farmers Increased Consumption of Pests Fertilizers Exponentially
Inter War Years 1919- 1939 and 1945 – 1965Plants WeakenedAttracted More Bugs and Pests and Pesticide Resistant BugsMore Chemicals Needed with CHLORINE DERIVATIVESChlodaneHeptachlorDieldrinAldrinENDRINE - The leading Cause of Suicide in IndiaOrganic PhosphatesParathion & Malathion
1945 – 19681945 Post war 18 American Ammonia Making Giant Chemical Companies were forced to find alternative Uses of Ammonia Flourine etc Leading among them areDu Pont, Dow Chemicals, Monsanto, American Cyanamide, IG Farben etc All Chemicals dumped on Farms and Flourine in water cleaning Europe USA Dumped on AFRICA LATIN AMERICA & USA
Resistance mounted from 1919 for chemical usage in Agriculture in USA and EuropeAfter comprehensive study from 1948 to 1968 Italian Scientist Amerigo Mosca winner ofChemistry Prize in Brussels world Science fairProved beyond doubt in 1975 in his report to ITALIAN GOVERNMENT thatFarm Chemicals are Radiomimetic (imitates radio active materials) Effects are similar toRadiation. (these include fungicides of organic synthesis like Zineb, Captan, Phaltan etc.)All Chemicals dumped on Africa are equivalent to 29 H Bombs of 14 M.Tons 14500 A Bombs of Hiroshima TypeBy 1970 USA produced 453 000 Tons of Chemicals equivalent to 145 H Bombs of 14 M.Tons 72 000 A Bombs of Hiroshima TypeFrom 1945 to 1975 Mentally Retarded Children in Live Births increased 15% 30% sperm count down in productive males (because of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticidies like RCB DDT) 25% of the male college students SterileThis report was classified by Italian and US governments at the request ofITALIAN CHEMIAL FERTILIZER GIANT MONTEDISONGlossed off and forgotten.
RESISTENCE &COUNTER RESEARCH INDIA 1914 – 1945 SIR ALBERT HOWARD Imperial Chemist Botanist, Government of British Raj, Pusa Agri Facility Author of The Soil and Health Conducted Research in to the comparison of Chemical Fertilizer Farms versus Organic Bio Fertilizer Vermi compost Farms Organic Food Vs Chemical Fertilizer FoodCattle fed on are resistant for Hoof and Mouth Disease & Mad Cow & other infections Cattle fed on Ammonia/Sulphate break out of disease (Even today Ongole Bull Semen is smuggled to US Brazil) Organic Food brings Immunity to Parasitic Activity Degenerative Disease Immunity Preventive of occurring diseases Creative of New energies Chemicals leave imperfectly synthesized protein in leaver causing all diseases. CONCLUDED IN 1945 CHEMICALS WERE WASTE OF MONEY.
All Chemicals Fertilizers Fungicides 1948-1968 Europe USA Dumped on AFRICA LATIN AMERICA & USAWhen Awareness raised and Latin America and Africa Resisted Then They Dumped Every thing on INDIA Between 1968 - 1975 (Green Revolution)
Indian Scenario 1900 – 1968 Chemical Fertilizer Consumption until 1968 1978-793.5 kilos per hectare (1 ½ Acres) 50 kilos per hectareCountry Consumption 1.1 Million tons 50 MillionTons REASONS World Bank applied pressure to allow STANDARD OIL OF CALIFORNIA its subsidiary INTERNATIONAL MINERALS AND CHEMICALSForced Government to back farm credit, give loans to farmers, subsidize chemicals Rather than war Profits Public Tax Money Was siphoned for paying International fertilizer companies. From then no turning back. What was rejected in Europe USA and Africa was Dumped on unsuspecting Indians.
Dams: Economics of borrowingand technology purchase Big dams are prone to cost overruns: as much as 30% on average, calculates Mc Cully. The costs of resettling people are not fully accounted for. Because dams do not last that long, say greens, it is wrong to treat such energy as renewable. By design, dams alter the natural flow regime, and with it virtually every aspect of a river ecosystem, including water quality, sediment transport and deposition, fish migrations and reproduction, and riparian and floodplain habitat and the organisms that rely on this habitat. Dams also require ongoing maintenance. For example, reservoirs in sediment-laden streams lose storage capacity as silt accumulates in the reservoir. In arid climates reservoirs also experience a high rate of water loss to evaporation. significant economic impacts on dam owners (private owners of governments, In India we have to borrow from world bank to maintain dams) the surrounding community and society in general. As dams age, maintenance costs and safety hazards often increase, resulting in an increasing financial burden and liability on the dam owner. Depending on the river and the fisheries being impacted by the dam, an owner may also be required to retrofit the structure with fish passage facilities or make other upgrades to comply with water quality standards.
Dams: Economics of borrowing and technology purchase When dams diminish fisheries, communities can lose jobs and sustenance, or the source of their cultural or spiritual life. This is the greatest realization on the part of Americans that Rivers and agri (Culture) goes hand in hand. However, as society has come to understand, dams can cause significant social and environmental impacts that outweigh the benefits they provide “The consensus among river ecologists is that dams are the single greatest cause of the decline of river ecosystems” World Commission on Dams. Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making. Cape Town, 2000. Because of these and other concerns, some dam owners and managers or governments are finding that it makes more sense to remove certain dams, often benefiting the community ecologically and socially, rather than make costly repairs or upgrades. Also it was documented the River will come to life within 6 months removing all pollutants in it that were done by humans taking them in to sea thus stabilizing them and the entire river eco system will revert back to its original levels of before damming. Americans are the first to revert to Organic farming. Though their MNCs are pumping the world with deadly industrial chemicals inside their country they created so much regulatory and activist mechanism that prevented use of harm full chemicals in many areas that could end up in human or agricultural consumption. (The politics of bottling companies MNCs to dominate control of water in
Dams: Economics of borrowing and technology purchase Power Generation Dams are built for power generation. US alone demonstrated by increasing end user efficiency and using emerging technologies they can substitute 75% of their hydro electrical power. Flood Plain management As floodplain managers, state resource agencies and local communities wrestle with the problems associated with flood-control dams; cities around the country are implementing innovative techniques for managing floods without new dams. While many of these alternatives are not quick fixes, they are real solutions that can be implemented with long-term planning. The following are some alternative approaches to dams for flood management: • Reducing runoff • Riparian & in-river flood management • Separating the people & the threat
Dams: Economics of borrowing and technology purchase Water Diversion - the Primary purpose of Dams (human agricultural purposes) A primary purpose of many dams, both large and small, is to facilitate water diversions. Although existing water supplies can be stretched much further and new water infrastructure can be delayed using water conservation and efficiency strategies described below, people will continue to divert water from rivers and other surface sources for various purposes. Nearly 80 percent of water consumed in the United States comes from surface supplies—rivers, creeks and lakes.1 In California alone, there are more than 25,000 points of diversion from streams.2 Thus, there are at least 25,000 locations in the state at which fish and other river organisms can be harmed in the process of meeting our need for water. In many dam investigations, the question comes down to: could we still divert water if the dam is removed or modified, or not built at all? In many cases, the answer is yes.
What to do….?Several, more river-friendly alternatives to traditional permanent dam diversion methods are discussed below, including: • Infiltration galleries and wells • Screened pipe intakes • Seasonal dams • Consolidated diversions Nigerian activist Nnimmo Basse, winner of the prestigious Right Livelihood Award launched a movie production series documenting the effects of dams all across the world. The production was launched today at the COP17 climate meeting in Durban. The video and tour allow viewers to explore why dams are not the answer to climate change, by learning about topics such as reservoir emissions, dam safety, and adaptation while visiting real case studies in the Amazon, Africa, and the Indian and Pakistani Himalayas. Between 1939-1969, Louis Bloomfield, author of Rains Came, came to India learned about Humus, Plant Nutrition, Soil Management, Came to Pleasant Valley, OHIO, USA, and Started Malabar Farm. Lady Eve Balfour, Published The Living Soil. Despite resistance from giant Agri Multinationals Americans steadily progressed in replacing at least in their country the food with organic produce components.
Dams: USA In perspective They rapidly expanded in to agriculture taming the greatest rivers like Missisipi Missouri etc. Thousands of earth works and dams are built all across the country from the beginning of 19th century. Precisely 79 000 dams (small medium and big). They more than 100 years to observe and learn the damage or benefits caused by dams. Finally with advances of technologies in hydrology river management ecology and environmental science and high pressure physics the US decided to take a new path of water management. Since 1945 post war US took the lead in demolishing already constructed dams. They dismantled thousands of dams. In the last decade (2001-2012) they de commissioned more than 975 dams at a pace of 100 dams per year. They realized that the operative costs of maintaining dams is more than cheap alternatives available in the erstwhile benefits of dams.
CHINA in perspective In the year 1936, J I Rodate founder of magazine Organic Gardening and Farming reported after studying the Chinese farming practices that CHINA only with Organic Farming feeding 100 Million Cattle, 300 Million Hogs, 600 Million People during that period. The only reason China building three Gorges dam was to loot Gangotri basin water reserves and store that for future purposes.
EU in perspective From the beginning there were no huge dams in EU for electricity. France gets 80% of its energy needs from nuclear energy. Rivers are managed more on the lines of Americans. In the field of organic farming and feeding they are forefront in research and development.
BRAZIL in perspective Brazil is the first country to create an environmental police to protect Amazon river from being dammed. Brazil is the country that pushed bio fuels and organic farming as alternate to chemicals.
India in perspective postliberalization On the front of Dams we want to borrow from world bank to maintain our dams or repair our dams. English companies are consultants for this and Australian companies will teach us how to manage dams and the ecology and remove pollution of our rivers at a whopping cost of Rs 35 000 crores only for Ganaga River alone. There are two similar attempts done by Indians under Ganga Action Plan 1 (Rs 1000 crores) and Gap 2 (with Rs 10000 crores). Now this time it is Rs 35 000 crores for Ganga alone. That too IIT are romped in for authenticity by foreign MNCs. Now IIT rarely teach a combined curriculum of River Ecology, Fisheries, Alluvial Sociology, Agricultural development together.
We present our views on Water Privatization as the solution offered to manage the growth in water consumption and the severe water scarcity is not viable and we offer alternatives solutions with their proven success.
Water, Water… Privatization of water systems: Increasing concern: In developing countries Triggered by: The growth of the for-profit private sector management Attention: Who owns, who operates, who pays, how much, who decides, on what basis?
Defining Water Privatization India “Disinvestment” Bolivia “Capitalization” Vietnam “Equitization” Sri Lanka “Peoplization” China “Ownership reform” Mexico “Disincorporation” In Essence : Commoditization of Water Shifting Power to Corporations Manage/Control water viz. Ownership, Collection, Purification, Distribution, Pricing
Multipurpose Projects Municipal and Industrial Irrigation Flood control Hydroelectric power Navigation Water quality Recreation Fisheries Drainage & sediment control Preservation and enhancement of natural water areas, ecological diversity, archeology, etc
Models Service Contracts Short term (1-3 years) System Component-wise Contracts Usually non-transparent D(BOOT) Long term (10-20 years) Infrastructure development Requires large investments Divestiture Long term (10-20 years) Complete transfer of power to private companies
Big Promises… Private sector is better, more efficient manager Improve water/sanitation services, including to poor No more water leakages and careful consumption No major water rate increases in next 5-10 years Private sector infuses capital to finance needed investments (e.g., water pipes, sewerage treatment plants) No more government subsidies or outlays No more political interference, no more corruption
Case study: Shivanath River The 1998 project, the first case of water privatization in India, a 22-year renewable contract, with total expected cost of Rs 256 crore The Project Supply water to the Borai industrial area along a 23-km stretch of Shivanath river Players Radius Water (Kailash Soni ) Chhattisgarh State Industrial Development Corporation Outcome Radius Water supplies 4 million litres daily of water at the rate of Rs 12.60 per litre to industries, the railway station and a railway colony The river, they say, has become inaccessible theres water but they are not allowed to fish and bathe. News: A River Gone Private is Drying Up a monopoly on the water supply in an 18-km radius Government announced that the scheme is constitutionally illegal Contract revoked Governments contact was unembarrassedly catering to corporate interests.
Bolivia: Cochabamba 1999, A 40 year concession in Cochabamba Players World Bank Bachtel and another Italy based International Water Company Water User fees in dollars Outcome Fees went to $20 per month (Household income $65). Permits requirement for collecting rain water on roofs. Mass local protests organized into a coalition in defense of water and life. After weeks of intense protests, the government cancelled the contract. Bechtel is suing Bolivia for $25 million dollars for canceling the contract.
Visible Threats Water Price hikes Forgotten promises Water Mining and Bulk Export Environmentally unsustainable Profit oriented Monopolistic Water Market Elimination of public control on water while it remains crucial to humanity Substandard Water Quality Reduce cost increase profit Corruption and lack of transparency Absence of strong regulatory authority and delays in legal processing