SlideShare a Scribd company logo

المقاربة بالكفايات تسهم في تشكيل المجتمع محمد بركات متفقد مدارس ابتدائية.pdf

دراسة نقدية للمقاربة بالكفايات

1 of 21
Download to read offline
‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬
‫اﺑﺘﺪاﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪارس‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻔﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻜﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬ ‫ﻣﻔﮭﻮم‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺸﺎر‬
)
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬
: (
‫ﻣﻔﮭﻮم‬
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪد‬
‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻧﻲ‬
.
‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫أن‬
‫ﯾﺄﺧﺬ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻧﻤﻮذج‬
‫إﻟﻰ‬
‫آﺧﺮ‬
،
‫وﻗﺪ‬
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﮭﻮم‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺸﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﺪأ‬
)
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬
(
Compétence
‫اﻟﻠﻐﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ،‫ﺗﺸﻮﻣﺴﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻮال‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺘﯿﻨﺎت‬ ‫أواﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻓطرﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻗدرة‬
‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺄي‬ ‫ﻧﺣوﯾﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺻﺣﯾﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻣل‬ ‫وإﻧﺗﺎج‬ ،‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻛﺗﺳﺎب‬ ‫ﻟﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﺳﻣﺢ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺳﺎن‬ ‫ﻟدى‬
،
‫اﻟﻣﺳﺗﺑطن‬ ‫اﻟﻧظﺎم‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﺣﯾث‬
‫اﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬ ‫ھذه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺗﺣﻛﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘواﻋد‬
,
‫ﯾﺟﻌل‬
‫وﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﮭﻣﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎدرا‬ ‫اﻟﻔرد‬
‫إﻧﺗﺎج‬
‫اﻟﺟﻣل‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﻧﮭﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻋدد‬
،
‫اﻷداء‬ ‫و‬
Performance
‫أﺧطﺎء‬ ‫ﯾﺣﺗوي‬ ‫وﻗد‬ ‫ﻛﻼم‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻼ‬ ‫اﻟﻔرد‬ ‫ﯾﻧﺗﺟﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ھو‬
.
‫ﻟﻺدراك‬ ‫اﻟرﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻔﺎھﯾم‬ ‫أﺣد‬ ‫اﻟﻛﻔﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺻطﻠﺢ‬ ‫أﺻﺑﺢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻧﻔس‬ ‫ﻋﻠم‬ ‫ﻣﺟﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺟﺎﺣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻔﮭوم‬ ‫ھذا‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﻗد‬ ‫و‬
‫أن‬ ‫ﯾرى‬ ‫اﻟذي‬ ،‫اﻟرادﯾﻛﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ا‬ ‫ﺟﻣﯾﻊ‬
‫اﻟﻌﻠﯾﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻧﻔﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟوظﺎﺋف‬
)
‫اﻻﻧﺗﺑﺎه‬
،
‫واﻹدراك‬
،
‫واﻟذاﻛرة‬
،
‫ذﻟك‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫وﻣﺎ‬
(
‫ﻣدﻋوﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻓطري‬ ‫ﺑﺟﮭﺎز‬
)
‫ﺑواﺳطﺔ‬ ‫ﺗدار‬ ‫أو‬
"
‫وﺣدة‬
"
‫اﻟدﻣﺎغ‬ ‫ﻣن‬
(
،
‫اﻟﻛﻔﺎءة‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻧﺎطق‬ ‫ھذه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣوﺿوع‬ ‫ﻟﻛل‬ ‫ﯾﻛون‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻠﻐوﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻛﻔﺎءة‬ ‫رﺗﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻔس‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺛﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬
.
‫اﻟﻤﺆھﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﮭﻮم‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎوز‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬ ‫ﻣﻔﮭﻮم‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬ ، ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬
Qualifications
‫ﺑ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻮى‬
‫اﻟﻌﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺺ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬
.
‫اﻟﻤﻘﻨﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﻔﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎط‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ، ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺚ‬ ‫ﻓﺒﻤﻔﻌﻮل‬
‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﯾﻨﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎر‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮد‬ ‫ﺧﺒﺮة‬ ‫ﺗﺜﻤﻦ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄھﯿﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻌﻤﺎل‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺪاب‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯿﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻌﻠﻣﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺗﻌﺎﻧﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻧﻔس‬
.
‫إن‬
‫ﺗﻄﻮر‬
‫اﻟ‬
،‫ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬
‫وﺗﻌﻘﯿﺪ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻒ‬
‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨﯿﺔ‬
،
‫وﺗﻄﻮ‬
‫ر‬
‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬
‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬
،
‫واﻟﺘﻘﺪم‬
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﯿﺎ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬
‫واﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻت‬
)
ICT
(
‫ﺟﺰءا‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﯿﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬ‬ ‫أﺻﺒﺢ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫واﻗﻊ‬
‫أي‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬
‫أو‬
‫ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬
.
‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ھﺬه‬
‫اﻟﺘﻐ‬
‫ﯿﺮات‬
‫اﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﯿﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻮاﻓﻖ‬
‫ﻣﻊ‬
‫اﻷﺳﺎﻟﯿﺐ‬
‫اﻟﻘﺪﯾﻤﺔ‬
‫وھﺰت‬
‫اﻟﮭﯿﺎﻛﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬
.
‫إن‬
‫ﺗﺠﺰﺋﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺻﺐ‬
،
‫واﻻﻓﺘﻘﺎر‬
‫إﻟﻰ‬
‫اﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﯿﺔ‬
،
‫واﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ‬
‫اﻟﮭﺮﻣﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻮاﺿﺢ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻐﺎﯾﺔ‬
،
‫وﻋﺪم‬
‫ﻣﺮوﻧﺔ‬
‫اﻟﮭﯿﺎﻛﻞ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫وﻟﺪت‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮﯾﺎت‬
‫اﻟﻘﺪﯾﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻘﺒﺎت‬
‫أﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﻓﺄﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫أﻣﺎم‬
‫ﺗﺤﺴﯿﻦ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎت‬
.
‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫ھﻜﺬا‬ ‫و‬
‫ﻋﺪد‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬
‫واﻟﺪواﺋﺮ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬
‫واﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎت‬
‫ﺗﺤﺎول‬
‫ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮ‬
‫اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﯿﺠﯿﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬
‫وﺗﺒﺤﺚ‬
‫ﻋﻦ‬
‫أﺷﻜﺎل‬
‫ﺟﺪﯾﺪة‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻨﻈﯿﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ‬
‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬
‫ﻟﯿﺲ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﯿﻒ‬
‫ﻣﻊ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻐﯿﯿﺮ‬
‫وﻟﺠﻌﻞ‬
‫ھﯿﺎﻛﻠﮭﺎ‬
‫أﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺮوﻧﺔ‬
،
‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬
‫ًﺎ‬‫ﻀ‬‫أﯾ‬
‫ﻹﺷﺮاك‬
‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬
‫اﻟﺒﺸﺮﯾﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺬﻛﺎء‬
‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬
.
‫أﺻﺒﺤﺖ‬ ‫و‬
‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻹﻧﺠﺎز‬ ‫ﺿﺮورﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫اﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﺎت‬ ‫طﻠﺐ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯿﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫إﻋﺎدة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬
‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫و‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮظﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫وإﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﺮاﻓﯿﺔ‬
)
‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬
:
‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎط‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻘﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﻓﻌﯿﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺎدرة‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒﺮة‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺬاﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮن‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮاﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺪرة‬
‫ﺟﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎھﻮ‬
(...
‫اﻟﻔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻮاﺟﺪ‬
‫ﻀﺎء‬
‫اﻟﻌﻮﻟﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺿﺘﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻲ‬
.
‫ﺑﺤﯿﺚ‬
َ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻋﺎ‬ ‫أﺻﺒﺢ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫ﻢ‬
‫ﻣ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺠﺪات‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎدرﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺮﻧﯿﻦ‬
،
‫ﺣﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫و‬
‫واﻻﺑﺘﻜﺎر‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺎدرة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬
،
‫و‬
‫إﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻮظﻔﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﻌﻞ‬
.
‫ﻧﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ﺑﺪا‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫و‬
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺔ‬
،
‫ﻣﺘﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬ ‫أﻧﮫ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮره‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬
‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫واﻟﻨﻔﺴﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﮭﺪف‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮﻛﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﺠﻌﻞ‬
،
‫اﻻﻧﺘﻈﺎرات‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺬه‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﺠﯿﺐ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻨﯿﺔ‬
،
‫وﺗﻘﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺰﯾﺰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫وأرﺑﺎب‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪواﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬
،
‫إدا‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫وﻗﺪ‬
‫رة‬
‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬
.
‫أن‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫و‬
‫ا‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻐﻞ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺰﻣﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻘﻮد‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬
،‫ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺸﺎﻏﻞ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﮫ‬
‫ًا‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻧﻈ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮا‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﻘﯿﺪ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫وﺗﻄﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻒ‬
‫اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻻﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ،
.
‫و‬
‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬
‫واﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎدل‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺰز‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺌﺎت‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬
،
‫اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫واﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬
،
‫واﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎت‬
‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪدة‬
،
‫واﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎت‬
،
‫اﻟﻤﻤﺎرﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎت‬ ‫وإﻧﺸﺎء‬
)
‫اﻟﺠﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻨﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻋﻤﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬
.(
‫ﺳﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫اﻟﺘ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬
‫طﻼﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻜﯿﻦ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻌﻠﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺪرة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫ّﻢ‬‫ﻠ‬‫اﻟﺘﻌ‬
‫اﻟﺤﯿﺎة‬ ‫ﻣﺪى‬
‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻓﺮص‬ ‫ﻟﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﯿﺢ‬
ّ‫ﻮ‬‫اﻟﺘﻜ‬
‫اﻟﺸﻐﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻮق‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎ‬ ّ‫ﻲ‬‫اﻟﺬاﺗ‬ ‫ن‬
‫وﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺗﮫ‬
.
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوراﻟﺠﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ّ ‫ﺑﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺧﺘﯿﺎر‬
‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎرف‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫واﻟﻄﺮاﺋﻖ‬ ‫اﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ّﺔ‬‫ﯿ‬‫ﻧﻮﻋ‬
ّ‫ﺪ‬‫ﺣ‬
،‫أھﻤﯿﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫رﻏﻢ‬ ‫ذاﺗﮭﺎ‬
‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻣﺘﻼك‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﻛﯿﺰ‬ ‫ّﻤﺎ‬‫ﻧ‬‫وإ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮا‬ ‫ھﺎﻣﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﯿﺢ‬
‫واﻟﺘﺠﺮﯾﺐ‬ ‫واﻟﺨﻄﺈ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺎوﻟﺔ‬
،‫واﻟﻤﺴﺆول‬ ‫ّﻞ‬‫ﻘ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘ‬ ‫واﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ّﺔ‬‫ﯿ‬‫أﺳﺎﺳ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬ ‫وھﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎدة‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫وﺗﻮظﯿﻔﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎر‬
‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺠﺎح‬ ‫ّﺔ‬‫ﯿ‬‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺎﺗﮫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﯾﻔﺘﺄ‬ ‫ﻢ‬
‫ّﺮ‬‫ﯿ‬‫ﯾﺘﻐ‬
‫وﯾ‬
‫ﺘﻌﻘﺪ‬
.
‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫وﻣﻦ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮرات‬ ‫ھﺬه‬
:

‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬
:
‫اﻟﻤﺆھﻼت‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺒﺪال‬
Qualifications
‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﯿﻦ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ًا‬‫ﺪ‬‫ﺳﺎﺋ‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺪاﺧﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﮭﺎﺋﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬ ‫وأﺻﺒﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﮭﺎدات‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫أدوات‬ ‫وﺣﺪت‬
‫ﺿﺒﻄﺖ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻت‬
‫أﺧﺮى‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﮭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﻗﺘﺪارات‬
.
‫أﺻﺒﺢ‬ ‫و‬
‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻮﯾﻊ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫وﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻛﺘﺴﺎﺑﮫ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﯿﺮه‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺆوﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬
.
‫ﻣﮭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻤﺎرﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪد‬ ‫وﺛﯿﻘﺔ‬ ‫وھﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ُﺣﺪﺛﺖ‬‫أ‬ ‫و‬
،
‫ُﺼﻨﻒ‬‫ﯾ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻢ‬ ‫إذ‬
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎب‬ ‫ًﺎ‬‫ﻘ‬‫وﻓ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻮظﯿﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮظﻔﻮن‬
‫اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺼﻮص‬ ‫ت‬
‫وﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ،
‫واﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺘﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻮظﻒ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﯿﺎري‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻘﯿﺎس‬
‫ﻣﮭﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎر‬ ‫إطﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﮭﻨﺘﮫ‬
.
‫اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫أﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫أﻋﻤﺎﻟﮫ‬ ‫اﺣﺘﺮاﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮات‬
.
‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬
‫اﻷﺟﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء‬ ‫أوﻟﺘﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ ‫أﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫ًﺎ‬‫ﻀ‬‫أﯾ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﮭﺎ‬
..
.
،‫إﻟﺦ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫و‬
‫وﻻﻧﺘﺪاب‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﻄﯿﻂ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺟﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺒﻌﻀﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬
‫و‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺗﮭﻢ‬ ‫وﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮظﻔﯿﻦ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮظﻔﯿﻦ‬ ‫أداء‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬
.
‫و‬
‫ھﺬا‬
‫ﻣﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻮظﺎﺋﻒ‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎل‬
‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻮاﺟﺰ‬ ‫إزاﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺠﺎﻻ‬ ‫أزواج‬ ‫إدﻣﺎج‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫ت‬
‫ﺑﻌﻀﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﯿﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪو‬ ‫إدارﯾﺔ‬
:
‫اﻟﺒﺸﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ھﯿﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫إدارة‬
،
،‫اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻹدارة‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬
‫واﻹد‬ ‫اﻷﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺼﯿﺮة‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬
‫اﻟﻨﻮﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻹدارة‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ،‫اﻷﺟﻞ‬ ‫طﻮﯾﻠﺔ‬ ‫ارة‬
.
‫ﻟﻠﺸ‬ ‫ﺿﺮورة‬ ‫أﺻﺒﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫إن‬
،‫اﻟﺘﻐﯿﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﯿﻒ‬ ‫أﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺮﻛﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪة‬ ‫و‬
‫اﻟﺘﻮظﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬
.
‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫وﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﻛﺰ‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫وھﻜﺬا‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬
،
‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﻘﯿﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﻲ‬
.
‫واﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫واﻟﺪﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻮظﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻺدارة‬ ‫اﻷدوات‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﺗﻈﮭﺮ‬ ‫و‬
‫ﻟﻠﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻮظﻔﺔ‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂت‬ ‫إﺳﺪاء‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮو‬
.

‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬
:
‫ﻟﯿﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫وﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮه‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻹﺻﻼح‬ ‫ﻛﺄداة‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬
‫اﻟﻮطﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻮﻻت‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﻛﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎدرا‬
‫ﺑ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫واﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﯾﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬
‫ﺈ‬
‫ﻛ‬
‫اﻟﻄﻼب‬ ‫ﺴﺎب‬
‫واﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﯿﺎة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﮭﺎﻣﮭﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯿﺎم‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎدرﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻌﻠﮭﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮار‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺠﺪدة‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫و‬
‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺣﯿﺎﺗﮭﻢ‬ ‫طﻮال‬
.
‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﺠﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮا‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫َﺣﺪﺛﺖ‬‫أ‬ ‫وﻗﺪ‬
:
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫دور‬
‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﯿﻄﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬
،
‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫أھﺪاف‬
‫ﺑ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬
،
‫اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫ھﯿﻜﻠﺔ‬
‫وﻣﺤﺘﻮﯾﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫ا‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺿﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻔﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ ،
‫ا‬ ‫دور‬ ،‫ﻟﺒﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﯾﻨﮫ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺪرس‬
.
‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺼﻮغ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﺳﯿﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﯾﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮدة‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺴﯿﻦ‬ ‫أدوات‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻐﯿﺮھﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ھﻲ‬ ‫و‬
‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮر‬ ‫أﻋﺎدت‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﻮﺻﯿﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺮز‬ ‫و‬ ،‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻮد‬ ‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬
‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻮاء‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﯿﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺄداة‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫أﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫اﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻷھﺪاف‬ ‫ﺿﺒﻂ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أو‬ ،‫ﺗﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫إطﺎر‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻮظﻔﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫طﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬
.
‫ﺑﺎﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮر‬

50

80
‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮرات‬
‫اﻹطﺎر‬
‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬
‫داﺧﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫وطﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯾﺎت‬
‫و‬ ‫اﻷﺳﻮاق‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎل‬ ‫رأس‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺮر‬
‫ﺗﻨﻘﻞ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎت‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮراﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ،‫اﻟﺒﻀﺎﺋﻊ‬
‫وطﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺮ‬
‫رﺑﺤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ظﮭﻮر‬
‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﯿﺔ‬
‫و‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬
‫اﻟﺘﻤﻮﯾﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫إدارة‬
‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫إدارة‬
‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﺣﺘﻜﺎر‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻠﻲ‬
‫اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻮاص‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﻮﯾﺾ‬
‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻠﯿﺔ‬
‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎت‬
‫اﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫إﻋﺪاد‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻤﻮﯾﻞ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫و‬
‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬
‫اﻟﺨﺎص‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎزج‬
‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻮﯾﻞ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮر‬
‫ﻣﺤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﻖ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻖ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﻮدة‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬
‫ﺗﺠﻮﯾﺪ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫دﻋﻮة‬
‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺻﺼﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﯾﺞ‬
‫و‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﯿﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﯿﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﻷداء‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺠﻮدة‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫وإﺟﺮاءات‬ ‫وﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪد‬
‫اﻟﺨﺎرج‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬
:
‫ﻗﯿﺎس‬
‫اﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
،
‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﻮدة‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ‬ ،‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫وﺗﺼﻨﯿﻔﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬
‫ﻧﮭﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫داﺧﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰﯾﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬
‫ﺑﯿﺮوﻗﺮاطﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﻗﺒﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺒﯿﺮوﻗﺮاطﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺪ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺨﻄﯿﻂ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬
‫ﻛﯿﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺎﯾﺔ‬
‫دور‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮر‬
‫اﻟﻌﻤﺎل‬
>
‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﻛﺰ‬
‫اﻟﻌﻤﺎل‬
<
‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﻛﺰ‬
-
‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮﺟﮫ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬
:
‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺂﺧﺬ‬
:
‫اﻟﻌﺸﺮﯾﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺮن‬ ‫ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫و‬ ‫اﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫رﺟﺎل‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎدات‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫وﺟﮭﺖ‬
‫ﺣﺎﺟﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺪرة‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاطﻨﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎﺳﯿﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯾﯿﻦ‬
‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎدﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﯾﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺠﺪات‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮرات‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﯿﻒ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬
‫وﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬
:
-
‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎطﻠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬
‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﯾﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺪرة‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬
‫اﻟﺸﻐﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻮق‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬
.
-
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﻛﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻤﯿﺰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﯾﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﻣﺢ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻮﻟﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺨﺮاط‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﯾﻊ‬
.
-
‫اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﺮب‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬
‫ا‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻨﺎﻣﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻠﺪان‬
.
-
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎءﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪودﯾﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪﺧﻼت‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﻛﯿﺰ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﺻﻔﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫أھﺪاف‬ ‫وﺿﻮح‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬
‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﺴﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺬاﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮﺟﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬
.
-
‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬
.
‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺟﯿﺎت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺠﺎﺑﮭﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺪاﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬
‫اﻟﺪول‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪول‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺪرﯾﺠﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻤﺖ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ،‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﯿﻦ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻐﺮب‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﻣﯿﺔ‬
.
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﮭﻮم‬
‫ﯾﺔ‬
)
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬
(
:
‫اﻟﻜﻔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎھﺎن‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬
‫ﺎﯾﺔ‬
:
1
-
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻷول‬ ‫اﻻﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫ﯾﺮى‬
‫ﯾﺔ‬
‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻮاﻗﻒ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﮭﺎرات‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎرف‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺬاﺗﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﮭﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻄﺎت‬ ‫و‬
...
‫أو‬ ‫ﱠﺄ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ُﻌ‬‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺗﻮظﻒ‬
‫طﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺿﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﺟﮭﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻮﯾﻞ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻤﯿﻢ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﺒﯿﻖ‬
‫اﻹزاﺣﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮر‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ،
،
‫ﺗﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫ًﺎ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﻣﺴﺒ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮدة‬ ‫ﻣﻮارد‬
،
‫اﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﺠﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻠﻤ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﺟﮭﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻮﺳﺔ‬
،
‫ﺗﻮﻗﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫أو‬
.
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺎھﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺺ‬
‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻮدة‬ ‫ﺣﻮل‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎؤل‬
‫و‬
‫اﻟﺤﯿﺎة‬ ‫ﻣﺪى‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬
.
-
‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫إﺻﻼح‬
‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﯾﯿﺮ‬ ‫وظﮭﻮر‬
‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮدة‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎت‬ ‫و‬
‫اﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬
.
‫و‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬
-
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﻛﯿﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻮل‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆھﻞ‬
)
‫دﯾﺒﻠﻮم‬
(
‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪدة‬ ‫ﻣﮭﻨﺔ‬ ‫و‬
‫اﻟﻔﺮدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﻛﯿﺰ‬
‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬
)
‫اﻷﻓﻘﯿﺔ‬
.(
‫اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺮار‬
‫ﺗﻮاﻓﻘ‬ ‫أﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫إﻋﺪاد‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫دﻋﻮة‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺳﻮق‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬
‫اﻟﺸﻐﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺪرﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺆھﻼت‬
‫ﻣﺤﺪدة‬ ‫ﺑﻤﮭﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫و‬
‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎدرة‬ ‫ﻣﻌﯿﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬
‫اﻟﺘﺤﻮﻻت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮرات‬
‫اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮق‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﮭﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﯿﺪ‬
‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮي‬ ‫اﻹطﺎر‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﮭﻮﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻤﯿﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻘﺎء‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻤﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮر‬
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءات‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬
2
-
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫ﯾﺮى‬
‫دﯾﻨﺎﻣﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻨﻔﯿ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻤﻦ‬
‫ﺬ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺚ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أي‬ ،
‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬
،‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻤﮭﺎ‬ ‫إﻋﺎدة‬ ‫و‬
،
‫ﺑﺤﯿﺚ‬
‫أﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﻛﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺠﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫وھﻲ‬ ،‫اﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬
‫ﻧﺸﺎطﺎ‬ ‫َﻔﺘﺮض‬‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻘﻦ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮار‬
‫ﺗﺘﺠﺎوز‬ ‫ﻓﮭﻲ‬ ،‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﺟﺪه‬ ‫أﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ذاﺗﯿﺎ‬
‫اﻟﻘﺪرة‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﺎرة‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬
...
،‫اﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫إطﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫إدﻣﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﮭﻲ‬
‫ﯾﻌﺮﻓﮭﺎ‬
)
‫ﺗﺎردﯾﻒ‬ ‫ﺟﺎك‬
Jacques
Tardif
(
:
"
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬
‫ھﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺮف‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬
savoir agir
‫ﻣﻌﻘﺪة‬
‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻌﺒﺌﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺮﻛﯿﺐ‬ ‫و‬
‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬
‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﯿﺔ‬
)
‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬
،
‫واﻟﺪراﯾﺔ‬
‫أو‬
‫اﻷﺳﺎﻟﯿﺐ‬
،
‫واﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻒ‬
،
‫وﻣﺎ‬
‫إﻟﻰ‬
‫ذﻟﻚ‬
(
‫واﻟﻤﻮارد‬
‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﯿﺔ‬
‫داﺧﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻒ‬
".
‫اﻣﺎ‬
Pierre Gillet
‫ﻓﯿﻌﺮﻓﮭﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫أﻧﮭﺎ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬
،
‫ﻣﻔﺎھﯿﻤﻲ‬
‫وإﺟﺮاﺋﻲ‬
،
‫ﻣﻨﻈﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺨﻄﻄﺎت‬
‫ﺗﺸﻐﯿﻞ‬
‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ‬
،
‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻒ‬
،
‫ﺑﺘﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬
-
َ‫ﻣ‬
‫ﮭﻤﺔ‬
‫وﺣﻠﮭﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼل‬
‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻔﻌﺎل‬
.
‫ﻓﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻔﺼﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻦ‬
‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎط‬
‫اﻟﺬي‬
‫ﺗﺘﺠﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻟﮫ‬
.
‫اﻟﺬاﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎط‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮرات‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻮﻻ‬ ‫اﻷﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫وﯾﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮار‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻐﯿﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺠﺪات‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﯿﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺮد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮاﺻﻞ‬
.
‫أي‬
"
‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ‬
‫دﯾﻨﺎﻣﯿﻜﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺎط‬
،
‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺒﺌﺘﮫ‬
‫وﺗﻨﻈﯿﻤﮫ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺷﺨﺺ‬
‫ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻮاﺟﮭﺔ‬
‫ﻣﮭﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﯿﻨﺔ‬
،
‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻮﻗﻒ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺪد‬
"
،
‫و‬
‫ﯾﻄﻮر‬
‫ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﻓﺮد‬
‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎﺗﮫ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺮﯾﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻓﺮﯾﺪة‬
‫ًﺎ‬‫ﻘ‬‫وﻓ‬
‫ﻟﺪواﻓﻌﮫ‬
‫وإطﺎره‬
‫اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻲ‬
‫واﻟﻤﻮارد‬
‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺳﯿﺤﺸﺪھﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬
.
‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﯾﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻠﻖ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫وﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻮاﺟﮭﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻜﻨﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮد‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺪﻣﺠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺬھﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒﺮات‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎرف‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﯿﺴﺖ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺮورة‬ ‫ﻓﮭﻲ‬ ،‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻠﻮل‬ ‫وإﯾﺠﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺿﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫إﺷﻜﺎﻟﯿﺎت‬
.
‫إﻧﮭ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻟﯿﺴ‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻧﻌﺮﻓﮫ‬
،
‫أو‬
‫ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻮل‬
‫إﻧﻨ‬
‫ﺎ‬
،‫ﻧﻌﺮﻓﮫ‬
‫أو‬
‫ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻧﺮﯾ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫اﻟﻘﯿﺎم‬
‫ﺑﮫ‬
‫؛‬
‫إﻧﮭﺎ‬
،
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻠﻤﻮس‬
،
‫ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺎدرون‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻔﯿﺬه‬
‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﯿﻨﺔ‬
.
‫أﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﻔﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﻨﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫وﻣﻦ‬
:
‫ﺳﯿﺎﻗﯿﺔ‬ ،‫ﻧﺎﻣﯿﺔ‬ ،‫ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺔ‬ ،‫إدﻣﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬
،‫اﻟﻮﺿﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬
،‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻮﯾﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ ،‫ﱢﻤﺔ‬‫ﻈ‬‫ﻣﻨ‬ ،‫دﯾﻨﺎﻣﯿﻜﯿﺔ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻤﺎرﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻤﻮ‬ ،‫ﻣﺘﻄﻮرة‬
‫و‬ ‫ﻋﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺒﺌﺔ‬
،‫ﻓﻜﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻘﺪة‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎرﺳﺘﮭﺎ‬ ،‫اﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫أﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﺪ‬ ،‫وﺧﺎرﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫داﺧﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫اﻷھﺪاف‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ‬
)
‫اﻟﻤﮭﺎم‬ ‫أو‬
(
‫ﺷﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﯿﺰات‬ ‫ذات‬ ،‫ﻣﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬
.
‫ﻋﺪة‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺷﻜﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﻒ‬ ‫و‬
:
‫أو‬ ،‫أﻓﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻨﮭﺠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬
،‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫وﺳﺎﺋﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫أو‬ ،‫ﺳﻠﻮﻛﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬
...
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬ ‫و‬
‫ھﻲ‬
‫ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ‬
‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺪدات‬
:
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺼﺮف‬
)
‫اﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬
(
savoir agir
،
‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬
‫أي‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻨﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎق‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻛﯿﻔﯿﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺠﻤﻊ‬
‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬
‫ذات‬
‫اﻟﺼﻠﺔ‬
‫وﺗﻌﺒﺌﺘﮭﺎ‬
)
‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬
،
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬
،
،‫اﻟﺨﺒﺮة‬
،‫اﻟﺬاﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮن‬
‫اﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎت‬
...
(
‫؛‬
‫إرادة‬
‫اﻟﺘﺼﺮف‬
vouloir agir
‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬
‫ﻛ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻔﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﯿﺎق‬
‫ﺎﻟﺪاﻓﻊ‬
‫واﻻﻟﺘﺰام‬
‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬
‫واﻋﺘﺮاف‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮرات‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﻠﺰﻣﮫ‬ ‫وﻣﺎ‬
...
‫؛‬
‫ﻗﺪرة‬
‫اﻟﺘﺼﺮف‬
pouvoir agir
‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬
‫ﻮﺟﻮد‬
‫ﺳﯿﺎق‬
‫ﻣﯿﺴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ار‬ ‫إط‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫و‬
‫ظﺮوف‬
‫اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫وﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻮارد‬ ‫و‬
...
‫ﺗﺠﻌﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫واﻟ‬
‫ﻤﺸﺮوﻋ‬
‫ﯿﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﺮد‬
‫أن‬
‫ﯾﺘﺤﻤﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺆوﻟﯿﺔ‬
‫وﯾﺘﺤﻤﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺨﺎطﺮ‬
.
‫و‬
‫آﺧﺮون‬ ‫ﯾﺮى‬
‫أن‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻒ‬
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫أﻧﮭﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻛﯿﻔﯿﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺼﺮف‬
‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻮﻗﻒ‬
‫ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﯾﺨﻔﻲ‬
‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺄﻣﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻨﻤﯿﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾ‬
‫ﺎت‬
،
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫اﻟﺮﻏﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫أﻧﮫ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮد‬
‫ًﺎ‬‫ﯿ‬‫ﺿﻤﻨ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼل‬
‫اﺳﺘﺤﻀﺎر‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻛﯿﻔﯿﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺒﺌﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬
.
‫و‬
‫ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﯾﻌﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺷﻲء‬
‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬
‫اﻟﻘﺪرة‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻠﯿﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻒ‬
‫اﻹﺷﻜﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫أﺟﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻛﯿﻔﯿﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺨﯿﻞ‬
‫اﻟﺤﻠﻮل‬
،
‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ذﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻛﯿﻔﯿﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺒﺌﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬
‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬
،
‫ﺑﮭﺪف‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻛﯿﻔﯿﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺼﺮف‬
‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻒ‬
.
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬
‫ﯾﺎت‬
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮدﯾﺔ‬
‫ﯾﺎت‬
‫ﯾﻌﺮﻓﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬
MICHAUX 2003
‫ﺑﺄﻧﮭﺎ‬
"
‫ﻣﻌﺎرف‬
‫وﻣﮭﺎرات‬
‫ﺿﻤﻨﯿﺔ‬
)
‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‬
‫وﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
(
‫وﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬
‫ﺗﺒﺎدل‬
‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬
‫رﺳﻤﯿﺔ‬
‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺪﻋﯿﻤﮭ‬
‫ﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺮﯾﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻀﺎﻣﻨﯿﺔ‬
‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬
‫ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺴﯿﻖ‬
‫أﻋﻤﺎﻟﮭﺎ‬
‫وﺗﺤﻘﯿﻖ‬
‫ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‬
‫أو‬
‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬
‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮك‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﻠﻮل‬
"
‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ،
‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫أداء‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬ ‫إﺛﺮاء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﺒﺮات‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎھﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬
.
‫ﯾﻌﺮﻓ‬ ‫و‬
‫ﮭﺎ‬
(Philippe Zarifian)
"
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬
‫ھﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻘﺪرة‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺣﺸﺪ‬
‫ﺷﺒﻜﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫اﻟﺠﮭﺎت‬
‫اﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺣﻮل‬
‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻒ‬
،
‫ﻟﻤﺸﺎرﻛﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺤﺪﯾﺎت‬
،
‫ﻟﺘﺤﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺠﺎﻻت‬
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺆوﻟﯿﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‬
".
‫ﻧﺸﺎط‬ ‫ﺑﺄي‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﯿﺎم‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺮد‬ ‫اﻟﻀﺮورﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺪرات‬ ‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬ ‫ﻛﺄداة‬ ‫اﻟﺤﯿﺎة‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻔﮭﻮم‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺸﺮ‬ ‫وﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻣﮭﻨﻲ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻋﺎدي‬ ‫ﯾﻮﻣﻲ‬
.
‫ﺣﺎﺟﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪد‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺸﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺜﺮوة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﯿﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻷداة‬ ‫ﯾﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺠﮫ‬ ‫و‬
‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاطﻨﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬
...
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﮭﻮم‬
:
‫اﻣ‬ ‫ھﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻔﮭﻮم‬ ‫ﺘﺪاد‬
)
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬
(
‫و‬ ،
‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬ ‫ھﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺑﻮي‬
‫ﻛ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻛﺴﺎب‬ ‫ﯾﮭﺪف‬
‫ﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬
‫آﻟ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﺒﻄﮭﺎ‬
‫طﺒﯿﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪدھﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺪرﺳﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﯾﻨﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫وﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﺪرﯾﺲ‬ ‫ﯿﺎت‬
)
‫ﻣﻔﮭﻮم‬
(
‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬
.
‫و‬
‫ﺗﺘﻤﯿﺰ‬
‫اﻷﻓﺮاد‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ُﻨﺴﺐ‬‫ﺗ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬
‫و‬
‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻤ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﮭﺎ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫اﻟﻔﺮدي‬
.
‫ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬
APC
‫ھ‬
‫ﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﺬه‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﯿﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬
‫ﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻷﻓﺮاد‬
‫اﻻﻧﺪﻣﺎج‬
‫اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬
‫و‬
‫ﯾﺴﺘﮭﺪف‬
‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﯿﻦ‬
‫واﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻤﯿﻦ‬
‫واﻟﺘﺮﺗﯿﺒﺎت‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ‬
‫وﺑﺮاﻣﺞ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬
‫وﻣﺎ‬
‫إﻟﻰ‬
‫ذﻟﻚ‬
.

Recommended

How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024
How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024
How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024Albert Qian
 
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie Insights
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie InsightsSocial Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie Insights
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie InsightsKurio // The Social Media Age(ncy)
 
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024Search Engine Journal
 
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summarySpeakerHub
 
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd Clark Boyd
 
Getting into the tech field. what next
Getting into the tech field. what next Getting into the tech field. what next
Getting into the tech field. what next Tessa Mero
 
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search Intent
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search IntentGoogle's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search Intent
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search IntentLily Ray
 

More Related Content

Featured

Time Management & Productivity - Best Practices
Time Management & Productivity -  Best PracticesTime Management & Productivity -  Best Practices
Time Management & Productivity - Best PracticesVit Horky
 
The six step guide to practical project management
The six step guide to practical project managementThe six step guide to practical project management
The six step guide to practical project managementMindGenius
 
Beginners Guide to TikTok for Search - Rachel Pearson - We are Tilt __ Bright...
Beginners Guide to TikTok for Search - Rachel Pearson - We are Tilt __ Bright...Beginners Guide to TikTok for Search - Rachel Pearson - We are Tilt __ Bright...
Beginners Guide to TikTok for Search - Rachel Pearson - We are Tilt __ Bright...RachelPearson36
 
Unlocking the Power of ChatGPT and AI in Testing - A Real-World Look, present...
Unlocking the Power of ChatGPT and AI in Testing - A Real-World Look, present...Unlocking the Power of ChatGPT and AI in Testing - A Real-World Look, present...
Unlocking the Power of ChatGPT and AI in Testing - A Real-World Look, present...Applitools
 
12 Ways to Increase Your Influence at Work
12 Ways to Increase Your Influence at Work12 Ways to Increase Your Influence at Work
12 Ways to Increase Your Influence at WorkGetSmarter
 
Ride the Storm: Navigating Through Unstable Periods / Katerina Rudko (Belka G...
Ride the Storm: Navigating Through Unstable Periods / Katerina Rudko (Belka G...Ride the Storm: Navigating Through Unstable Periods / Katerina Rudko (Belka G...
Ride the Storm: Navigating Through Unstable Periods / Katerina Rudko (Belka G...DevGAMM Conference
 
Barbie - Brand Strategy Presentation
Barbie - Brand Strategy PresentationBarbie - Brand Strategy Presentation
Barbie - Brand Strategy PresentationErica Santiago
 
Good Stuff Happens in 1:1 Meetings: Why you need them and how to do them well
Good Stuff Happens in 1:1 Meetings: Why you need them and how to do them wellGood Stuff Happens in 1:1 Meetings: Why you need them and how to do them well
Good Stuff Happens in 1:1 Meetings: Why you need them and how to do them wellSaba Software
 
Introduction to C Programming Language
Introduction to C Programming LanguageIntroduction to C Programming Language
Introduction to C Programming LanguageSimplilearn
 
The Pixar Way: 37 Quotes on Developing and Maintaining a Creative Company (fr...
The Pixar Way: 37 Quotes on Developing and Maintaining a Creative Company (fr...The Pixar Way: 37 Quotes on Developing and Maintaining a Creative Company (fr...
The Pixar Way: 37 Quotes on Developing and Maintaining a Creative Company (fr...Palo Alto Software
 
9 Tips for a Work-free Vacation
9 Tips for a Work-free Vacation9 Tips for a Work-free Vacation
9 Tips for a Work-free VacationWeekdone.com
 
I Rock Therefore I Am. 20 Legendary Quotes from Prince
I Rock Therefore I Am. 20 Legendary Quotes from PrinceI Rock Therefore I Am. 20 Legendary Quotes from Prince
I Rock Therefore I Am. 20 Legendary Quotes from PrinceEmpowered Presentations
 
How to Map Your Future
How to Map Your FutureHow to Map Your Future
How to Map Your FutureSlideShop.com
 
Beyond Pride: Making Digital Marketing & SEO Authentically LGBTQ+ Inclusive -...
Beyond Pride: Making Digital Marketing & SEO Authentically LGBTQ+ Inclusive -...Beyond Pride: Making Digital Marketing & SEO Authentically LGBTQ+ Inclusive -...
Beyond Pride: Making Digital Marketing & SEO Authentically LGBTQ+ Inclusive -...AccuraCast
 
Read with Pride | LGBTQ+ Reads
Read with Pride | LGBTQ+ ReadsRead with Pride | LGBTQ+ Reads
Read with Pride | LGBTQ+ ReadsKayla Martin-Gant
 
Exploring ChatGPT for Effective Teaching and Learning.pptx
Exploring ChatGPT for Effective Teaching and Learning.pptxExploring ChatGPT for Effective Teaching and Learning.pptx
Exploring ChatGPT for Effective Teaching and Learning.pptxStan Skrabut, Ed.D.
 
How to train your robot (with Deep Reinforcement Learning)
How to train your robot (with Deep Reinforcement Learning)How to train your robot (with Deep Reinforcement Learning)
How to train your robot (with Deep Reinforcement Learning)Lucas García, PhD
 

Featured (20)

Introduction to Data Science
Introduction to Data ScienceIntroduction to Data Science
Introduction to Data Science
 
Time Management & Productivity - Best Practices
Time Management & Productivity -  Best PracticesTime Management & Productivity -  Best Practices
Time Management & Productivity - Best Practices
 
The six step guide to practical project management
The six step guide to practical project managementThe six step guide to practical project management
The six step guide to practical project management
 
Beginners Guide to TikTok for Search - Rachel Pearson - We are Tilt __ Bright...
Beginners Guide to TikTok for Search - Rachel Pearson - We are Tilt __ Bright...Beginners Guide to TikTok for Search - Rachel Pearson - We are Tilt __ Bright...
Beginners Guide to TikTok for Search - Rachel Pearson - We are Tilt __ Bright...
 
Unlocking the Power of ChatGPT and AI in Testing - A Real-World Look, present...
Unlocking the Power of ChatGPT and AI in Testing - A Real-World Look, present...Unlocking the Power of ChatGPT and AI in Testing - A Real-World Look, present...
Unlocking the Power of ChatGPT and AI in Testing - A Real-World Look, present...
 
12 Ways to Increase Your Influence at Work
12 Ways to Increase Your Influence at Work12 Ways to Increase Your Influence at Work
12 Ways to Increase Your Influence at Work
 
ChatGPT webinar slides
ChatGPT webinar slidesChatGPT webinar slides
ChatGPT webinar slides
 
More than Just Lines on a Map: Best Practices for U.S Bike Routes
More than Just Lines on a Map: Best Practices for U.S Bike RoutesMore than Just Lines on a Map: Best Practices for U.S Bike Routes
More than Just Lines on a Map: Best Practices for U.S Bike Routes
 
Ride the Storm: Navigating Through Unstable Periods / Katerina Rudko (Belka G...
Ride the Storm: Navigating Through Unstable Periods / Katerina Rudko (Belka G...Ride the Storm: Navigating Through Unstable Periods / Katerina Rudko (Belka G...
Ride the Storm: Navigating Through Unstable Periods / Katerina Rudko (Belka G...
 
Barbie - Brand Strategy Presentation
Barbie - Brand Strategy PresentationBarbie - Brand Strategy Presentation
Barbie - Brand Strategy Presentation
 
Good Stuff Happens in 1:1 Meetings: Why you need them and how to do them well
Good Stuff Happens in 1:1 Meetings: Why you need them and how to do them wellGood Stuff Happens in 1:1 Meetings: Why you need them and how to do them well
Good Stuff Happens in 1:1 Meetings: Why you need them and how to do them well
 
Introduction to C Programming Language
Introduction to C Programming LanguageIntroduction to C Programming Language
Introduction to C Programming Language
 
The Pixar Way: 37 Quotes on Developing and Maintaining a Creative Company (fr...
The Pixar Way: 37 Quotes on Developing and Maintaining a Creative Company (fr...The Pixar Way: 37 Quotes on Developing and Maintaining a Creative Company (fr...
The Pixar Way: 37 Quotes on Developing and Maintaining a Creative Company (fr...
 
9 Tips for a Work-free Vacation
9 Tips for a Work-free Vacation9 Tips for a Work-free Vacation
9 Tips for a Work-free Vacation
 
I Rock Therefore I Am. 20 Legendary Quotes from Prince
I Rock Therefore I Am. 20 Legendary Quotes from PrinceI Rock Therefore I Am. 20 Legendary Quotes from Prince
I Rock Therefore I Am. 20 Legendary Quotes from Prince
 
How to Map Your Future
How to Map Your FutureHow to Map Your Future
How to Map Your Future
 
Beyond Pride: Making Digital Marketing & SEO Authentically LGBTQ+ Inclusive -...
Beyond Pride: Making Digital Marketing & SEO Authentically LGBTQ+ Inclusive -...Beyond Pride: Making Digital Marketing & SEO Authentically LGBTQ+ Inclusive -...
Beyond Pride: Making Digital Marketing & SEO Authentically LGBTQ+ Inclusive -...
 
Read with Pride | LGBTQ+ Reads
Read with Pride | LGBTQ+ ReadsRead with Pride | LGBTQ+ Reads
Read with Pride | LGBTQ+ Reads
 
Exploring ChatGPT for Effective Teaching and Learning.pptx
Exploring ChatGPT for Effective Teaching and Learning.pptxExploring ChatGPT for Effective Teaching and Learning.pptx
Exploring ChatGPT for Effective Teaching and Learning.pptx
 
How to train your robot (with Deep Reinforcement Learning)
How to train your robot (with Deep Reinforcement Learning)How to train your robot (with Deep Reinforcement Learning)
How to train your robot (with Deep Reinforcement Learning)
 

المقاربة بالكفايات تسهم في تشكيل المجتمع محمد بركات متفقد مدارس ابتدائية.pdf

  • 1. ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﺑﺘﺪاﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪارس‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻔﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻜﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬ ‫ﻣﻔﮭﻮم‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺸﺎر‬ ) ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ : ( ‫ﻣﻔﮭﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻧﻲ‬ . ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺄﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮذج‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫آﺧﺮ‬ ، ‫وﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﮭﻮم‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺸﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﺪأ‬ ) ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬ ( Compétence ‫اﻟﻠﻐﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ،‫ﺗﺸﻮﻣﺴﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻮال‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺘﯿﻨﺎت‬ ‫أواﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓطرﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻗدرة‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺄي‬ ‫ﻧﺣوﯾﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺻﺣﯾﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻣل‬ ‫وإﻧﺗﺎج‬ ،‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻛﺗﺳﺎب‬ ‫ﻟﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﺳﻣﺢ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺳﺎن‬ ‫ﻟدى‬ ، ‫اﻟﻣﺳﺗﺑطن‬ ‫اﻟﻧظﺎم‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﺣﯾث‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬ ‫ھذه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺗﺣﻛﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘواﻋد‬ , ‫ﯾﺟﻌل‬ ‫وﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﮭﻣﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎدرا‬ ‫اﻟﻔرد‬ ‫إﻧﺗﺎج‬ ‫اﻟﺟﻣل‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﻧﮭﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻋدد‬ ، ‫اﻷداء‬ ‫و‬ Performance ‫أﺧطﺎء‬ ‫ﯾﺣﺗوي‬ ‫وﻗد‬ ‫ﻛﻼم‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻼ‬ ‫اﻟﻔرد‬ ‫ﯾﻧﺗﺟﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ھو‬ . ‫ﻟﻺدراك‬ ‫اﻟرﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻔﺎھﯾم‬ ‫أﺣد‬ ‫اﻟﻛﻔﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺻطﻠﺢ‬ ‫أﺻﺑﺢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻧﻔس‬ ‫ﻋﻠم‬ ‫ﻣﺟﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺟﺎﺣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻔﮭوم‬ ‫ھذا‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﻗد‬ ‫و‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾرى‬ ‫اﻟذي‬ ،‫اﻟرادﯾﻛﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺟﻣﯾﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﯾﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻧﻔﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟوظﺎﺋف‬ ) ‫اﻻﻧﺗﺑﺎه‬ ، ‫واﻹدراك‬ ، ‫واﻟذاﻛرة‬ ، ‫ذﻟك‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫وﻣﺎ‬ ( ‫ﻣدﻋوﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻓطري‬ ‫ﺑﺟﮭﺎز‬ ) ‫ﺑواﺳطﺔ‬ ‫ﺗدار‬ ‫أو‬ " ‫وﺣدة‬ " ‫اﻟدﻣﺎغ‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ( ، ‫اﻟﻛﻔﺎءة‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻧﺎطق‬ ‫ھذه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣوﺿوع‬ ‫ﻟﻛل‬ ‫ﯾﻛون‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻐوﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻛﻔﺎءة‬ ‫رﺗﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻔس‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺛﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬ . ‫اﻟﻤﺆھﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﮭﻮم‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎوز‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬ ‫ﻣﻔﮭﻮم‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬ ، ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ Qualifications ‫ﺑ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺺ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ . ‫اﻟﻤﻘﻨﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﻔﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎط‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ، ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺚ‬ ‫ﻓﺒﻤﻔﻌﻮل‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﯾﻨﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎر‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮد‬ ‫ﺧﺒﺮة‬ ‫ﺗﺜﻤﻦ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄھﯿﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﺎل‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺪاب‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻠﻣﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺗﻌﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻧﻔس‬ . ‫إن‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮر‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ،‫ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫وﺗﻌﻘﯿﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨﯿﺔ‬ ، ‫وﺗﻄﻮ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ، ‫واﻟﺘﻘﺪم‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﯿﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫واﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻت‬ ) ICT ( ‫ﺟﺰءا‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﯿﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬ‬ ‫أﺻﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫واﻗﻊ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ . ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻐ‬ ‫ﯿﺮات‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻮاﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﺎﻟﯿﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺪﯾﻤﺔ‬ ‫وھﺰت‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯿﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ . ‫إن‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺰﺋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺻﺐ‬ ، ‫واﻻﻓﺘﻘﺎر‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﯿﺔ‬ ، ‫واﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﺮﻣﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻐﺎﯾﺔ‬ ، ‫وﻋﺪم‬ ‫ﻣﺮوﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯿﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫وﻟﺪت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺪﯾﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﺒﺎت‬ ‫أﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫أﻣﺎم‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺴﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎت‬ . ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫ھﻜﺬا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫واﻟﺪواﺋﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺎول‬ ‫ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﯿﺠﯿﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﺗﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫أﺷﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﺟﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﻈﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﯿﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻐﯿﯿﺮ‬ ‫وﻟﺠﻌﻞ‬ ‫ھﯿﺎﻛﻠﮭﺎ‬ ‫أﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮوﻧﺔ‬ ، ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ًﺎ‬‫ﻀ‬‫أﯾ‬ ‫ﻹﺷﺮاك‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺸﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺬﻛﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ . ‫أﺻﺒﺤﺖ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻹﻧﺠﺎز‬ ‫ﺿﺮورﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫اﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﺎت‬ ‫طﻠﺐ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯿﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫إﻋﺎدة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮظﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫وإﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﺮاﻓﯿﺔ‬ ) ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ : ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎط‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻘﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﻓﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺎدرة‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒﺮة‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺬاﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮن‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮاﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺪرة‬ ‫ﺟﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎھﻮ‬ (... ‫اﻟﻔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻮاﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻀﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻮﻟﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺿﺘﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻲ‬ .
  • 2. ‫ﺑﺤﯿﺚ‬ َ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻋﺎ‬ ‫أﺻﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫ﻢ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺠﺪات‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎدرﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺮﻧﯿﻦ‬ ، ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫واﻻﺑﺘﻜﺎر‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺎدرة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ، ‫و‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻮظﻔﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﻌﻞ‬ . ‫ﻧﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ﺑﺪا‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻣﺘﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬ ‫أﻧﮫ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮره‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫واﻟﻨﻔﺴﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﮭﺪف‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮﻛﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﺠﻌﻞ‬ ، ‫اﻻﻧﺘﻈﺎرات‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺬه‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﺠﯿﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻨﯿﺔ‬ ، ‫وﺗﻘﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺰﯾﺰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫وأرﺑﺎب‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪواﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ، ‫إدا‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫وﻗﺪ‬ ‫رة‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ . ‫أن‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻐﻞ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺰﻣﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻘﻮد‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺸﺎﻏﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﮫ‬ ‫ًا‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻧﻈ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮا‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﻘﯿﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫وﺗﻄﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻻﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ، . ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎدل‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺰز‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺌﺎت‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ، ‫اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫واﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ، ‫واﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪدة‬ ، ‫واﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎت‬ ، ‫اﻟﻤﻤﺎرﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎت‬ ‫وإﻧﺸﺎء‬ ) ‫اﻟﺠﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻨﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻋﻤﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ .( ‫ﺳﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫طﻼﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻜﯿﻦ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻌﻠﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺪرة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ّﻢ‬‫ﻠ‬‫اﻟﺘﻌ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﯿﺎة‬ ‫ﻣﺪى‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺮص‬ ‫ﻟﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﯿﺢ‬ ّ‫ﻮ‬‫اﻟﺘﻜ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻐﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻮق‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎ‬ ّ‫ﻲ‬‫اﻟﺬاﺗ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺗﮫ‬ . ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوراﻟﺠﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ّ ‫ﺑﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺧﺘﯿﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎرف‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫واﻟﻄﺮاﺋﻖ‬ ‫اﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ّﺔ‬‫ﯿ‬‫ﻧﻮﻋ‬ ّ‫ﺪ‬‫ﺣ‬ ،‫أھﻤﯿﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫رﻏﻢ‬ ‫ذاﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻣﺘﻼك‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﻛﯿﺰ‬ ‫ّﻤﺎ‬‫ﻧ‬‫وإ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮا‬ ‫ھﺎﻣﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﯿﺢ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﺠﺮﯾﺐ‬ ‫واﻟﺨﻄﺈ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺎوﻟﺔ‬ ،‫واﻟﻤﺴﺆول‬ ‫ّﻞ‬‫ﻘ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘ‬ ‫واﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ّﺔ‬‫ﯿ‬‫أﺳﺎﺳ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬ ‫وھﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎدة‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫وﺗﻮظﯿﻔﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎر‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺠﺎح‬ ‫ّﺔ‬‫ﯿ‬‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺎﺗﮫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﻔﺘﺄ‬ ‫ﻢ‬ ‫ّﺮ‬‫ﯿ‬‫ﯾﺘﻐ‬ ‫وﯾ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻘﺪ‬ . ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫وﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮرات‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ :  ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ : ‫اﻟﻤﺆھﻼت‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺒﺪال‬ Qualifications ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﯿﻦ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ًا‬‫ﺪ‬‫ﺳﺎﺋ‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺪاﺧﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﮭﺎﺋﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬ ‫وأﺻﺒﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﮭﺎدات‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫أدوات‬ ‫وﺣﺪت‬ ‫ﺿﺒﻄﺖ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻت‬ ‫أﺧﺮى‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﮭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﻗﺘﺪارات‬ . ‫أﺻﺒﺢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻮﯾﻊ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫وﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻛﺘﺴﺎﺑﮫ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﯿﺮه‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺆوﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ . ‫ﻣﮭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻤﺎرﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪد‬ ‫وﺛﯿﻘﺔ‬ ‫وھﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ُﺣﺪﺛﺖ‬‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ، ‫ُﺼﻨﻒ‬‫ﯾ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻢ‬ ‫إذ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﻻﻛﺘﺴﺎب‬ ‫ًﺎ‬‫ﻘ‬‫وﻓ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻮظﯿﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮظﻔﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺼﻮص‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ، ‫واﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺘﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻮظﻒ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﯿﺎري‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻘﯿﺎس‬ ‫ﻣﮭﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎر‬ ‫إطﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﮭﻨﺘﮫ‬ . ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫أﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫أﻋﻤﺎﻟﮫ‬ ‫اﺣﺘﺮاﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮات‬ . ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫اﻷﺟﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء‬ ‫أوﻟﺘﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ ‫أﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫ًﺎ‬‫ﻀ‬‫أﯾ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﮭﺎ‬ .. . ،‫إﻟﺦ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫و‬ ‫وﻻﻧﺘﺪاب‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﻄﯿﻂ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺟﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺒﻌﻀﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺗﮭﻢ‬ ‫وﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮظﻔﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮظﻔﯿﻦ‬ ‫أداء‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ .
  • 3. ‫و‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻮظﺎﺋﻒ‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻮاﺟﺰ‬ ‫إزاﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻻ‬ ‫أزواج‬ ‫إدﻣﺎج‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﯿﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪو‬ ‫إدارﯾﺔ‬ : ‫اﻟﺒﺸﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ھﯿﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫إدارة‬ ، ،‫اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻹدارة‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫واﻹد‬ ‫اﻷﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺼﯿﺮة‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻹدارة‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ،‫اﻷﺟﻞ‬ ‫طﻮﯾﻠﺔ‬ ‫ارة‬ . ‫ﻟﻠﺸ‬ ‫ﺿﺮورة‬ ‫أﺻﺒﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫إن‬ ،‫اﻟﺘﻐﯿﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﯿﻒ‬ ‫أﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪة‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮظﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ . ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫وﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﻛﺰ‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫وھﻜﺬا‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ، ‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﻘﯿﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﻲ‬ . ‫واﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫واﻟﺪﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻮظﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻺدارة‬ ‫اﻷدوات‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﺗﻈﮭﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻮظﻔﺔ‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺂت‬ ‫إﺳﺪاء‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮو‬ .  ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ : ‫ﻟﯿﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫وﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮه‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻹﺻﻼح‬ ‫ﻛﺄداة‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﻮطﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻮﻻت‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﻛﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎدرا‬ ‫ﺑ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫واﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﯾﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺈ‬ ‫ﻛ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻼب‬ ‫ﺴﺎب‬ ‫واﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﯿﺎة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﮭﺎﻣﮭﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯿﺎم‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎدرﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻌﻠﮭﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮار‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺠﺪدة‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺎﺗﮭﻢ‬ ‫طﻮال‬ . ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﺠﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮا‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫َﺣﺪﺛﺖ‬‫أ‬ ‫وﻗﺪ‬ : ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫دور‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﯿﻄﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ، ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫أھﺪاف‬ ‫ﺑ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ، ‫اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫ھﯿﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﺤﺘﻮﯾﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺿﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻔﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ ، ‫ا‬ ‫دور‬ ،‫ﻟﺒﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﯾﻨﮫ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺪرس‬ . ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺼﻮغ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﺳﯿﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﯾﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮدة‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺴﯿﻦ‬ ‫أدوات‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻐﯿﺮھﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ھﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮر‬ ‫أﻋﺎدت‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﻮﺻﯿﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺮز‬ ‫و‬ ،‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻮد‬ ‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻮاء‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﯿﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺄداة‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫أﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻷھﺪاف‬ ‫ﺿﺒﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أو‬ ،‫ﺗﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫إطﺎر‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻮظﻔﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫طﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ . ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮر‬  50  80 ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮرات‬ ‫اﻹطﺎر‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ‫داﺧﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫وطﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯾﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻷﺳﻮاق‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎل‬ ‫رأس‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺮر‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎت‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮراﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ،‫اﻟﺒﻀﺎﺋﻊ‬ ‫وطﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺮ‬ ‫رﺑﺤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ظﮭﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻤﻮﯾﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﺣﺘﻜﺎر‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻮاص‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﻮﯾﺾ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫إﻋﺪاد‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻤﻮﯾﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎص‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎزج‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻮﯾﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﻮدة‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻮﯾﺪ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫دﻋﻮة‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺻﺼﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﯾﺞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﻷداء‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮدة‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫وإﺟﺮاءات‬ ‫وﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪد‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎرج‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ : ‫ﻗﯿﺎس‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ، ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﻮدة‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ‬ ،‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﺗﺼﻨﯿﻔﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﻧﮭﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫داﺧﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺮوﻗﺮاطﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺮوﻗﺮاطﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﻄﯿﻂ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫دور‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﺎل‬ > ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﻛﺰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﺎل‬ < ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﻛﺰ‬ - ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮﺟﮫ‬
  • 4. ‫اﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ : ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺂﺧﺬ‬ : ‫اﻟﻌﺸﺮﯾﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺮن‬ ‫ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫رﺟﺎل‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎدات‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫وﺟﮭﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺪرة‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاطﻨﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎﺳﯿﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯾﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎدﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﯾﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺠﺪات‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮرات‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﯿﻒ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫وﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ : - ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎطﻠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﯾﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺪرة‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻐﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻮق‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ . - ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﻛﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻤﯿﺰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﯾﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﻣﺢ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻮﻟﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺨﺮاط‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﯾﻊ‬ . - ‫اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﺮب‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﻣﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻠﺪان‬ . - ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎءﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪودﯾﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪﺧﻼت‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﻛﯿﺰ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﺻﻔﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫أھﺪاف‬ ‫وﺿﻮح‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﺴﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺬاﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮﺟﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ . - ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬ . ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺟﯿﺎت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺠﺎﺑﮭﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺪاﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺪول‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪول‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺪرﯾﺠﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻤﺖ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ،‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻐﺮب‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﻣﯿﺔ‬ . ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﮭﻮم‬ ‫ﯾﺔ‬ ) ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬ ( : ‫اﻟﻜﻔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎھﺎن‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬ ‫ﺎﯾﺔ‬ : 1 - ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻷول‬ ‫اﻻﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫ﯾﺮى‬ ‫ﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﻗﻒ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﮭﺎرات‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎرف‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺬاﺗﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﮭﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﻄﻄﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ... ‫أو‬ ‫ﱠﺄ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ُﻌ‬‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﺗﻮظﻒ‬ ‫طﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺿﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﺟﮭﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻮﯾﻞ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻤﯿﻢ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﺒﯿﻖ‬ ‫اﻹزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮر‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ، ، ‫ﺗﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫ًﺎ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﻣﺴﺒ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮدة‬ ‫ﻣﻮارد‬ ، ‫اﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﺠﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﻤ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﺟﮭﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻮﺳﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺗﻮﻗﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫أو‬ . ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎھﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺺ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻮدة‬ ‫ﺣﻮل‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎؤل‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺤﯿﺎة‬ ‫ﻣﺪى‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ . - ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫إﺻﻼح‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﯾﯿﺮ‬ ‫وظﮭﻮر‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮدة‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬ . ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ - ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﻛﯿﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻮل‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆھﻞ‬ ) ‫دﯾﺒﻠﻮم‬ ( ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪدة‬ ‫ﻣﮭﻨﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﻛﯿﺰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬ ) ‫اﻷﻓﻘﯿﺔ‬ .( ‫اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺮار‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﻓﻘ‬ ‫أﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫إﻋﺪاد‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫دﻋﻮة‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻮق‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻐﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺪرﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺆھﻼت‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪدة‬ ‫ﺑﻤﮭﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎدرة‬ ‫ﻣﻌﯿﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻮﻻت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮرات‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮق‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﮭﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﯿﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮي‬ ‫اﻹطﺎر‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﮭﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻤﯿﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻘﺎء‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻤﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءات‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬
  • 5. 2 - ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫ﯾﺮى‬ ‫دﯾﻨﺎﻣﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﻔﯿ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺬ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺚ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أي‬ ، ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ،‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻤﮭﺎ‬ ‫إﻋﺎدة‬ ‫و‬ ، ‫ﺑﺤﯿﺚ‬ ‫أﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﻛﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺠﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫وھﻲ‬ ،‫اﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎطﺎ‬ ‫َﻔﺘﺮض‬‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻘﻦ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮار‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺠﺎوز‬ ‫ﻓﮭﻲ‬ ،‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﺟﺪه‬ ‫أﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ذاﺗﯿﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺪرة‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﺎرة‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ... ،‫اﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫إطﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫إدﻣﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﮭﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺮﻓﮭﺎ‬ ) ‫ﺗﺎردﯾﻒ‬ ‫ﺟﺎك‬ Jacques Tardif ( : " ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬ ‫ھﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺮف‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ savoir agir ‫ﻣﻌﻘﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺒﺌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﻛﯿﺐ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﯿﺔ‬ ) ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ، ‫واﻟﺪراﯾﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻷﺳﺎﻟﯿﺐ‬ ، ‫واﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻒ‬ ، ‫وﻣﺎ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ( ‫واﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻒ‬ ". ‫اﻣﺎ‬ Pierre Gillet ‫ﻓﯿﻌﺮﻓﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫أﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻣﻔﺎھﯿﻤﻲ‬ ‫وإﺟﺮاﺋﻲ‬ ، ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﻄﻄﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻐﯿﻞ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ‬ ، ‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻒ‬ ، ‫ﺑﺘﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ - َ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﮭﻤﺔ‬ ‫وﺣﻠﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻌﺎل‬ . ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎط‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺠﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻟﮫ‬ . ‫اﻟﺬاﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎط‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮرات‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻮﻻ‬ ‫اﻷﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫وﯾﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮار‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻐﯿﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺠﺪات‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﯿﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺮد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮاﺻﻞ‬ . ‫أي‬ " ‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ‬ ‫دﯾﻨﺎﻣﯿﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺎط‬ ، ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺒﺌﺘﮫ‬ ‫وﺗﻨﻈﯿﻤﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻮاﺟﮭﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﮭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﯿﻨﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪد‬ " ، ‫و‬ ‫ﯾﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺮد‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎﺗﮫ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﯾﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﯾﺪة‬ ‫ًﺎ‬‫ﻘ‬‫وﻓ‬ ‫ﻟﺪواﻓﻌﮫ‬ ‫وإطﺎره‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻲ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺤﺸﺪھﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ . ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﯾﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻠﻖ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫وﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﺟﮭﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻜﻨﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮد‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺪﻣﺠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺬھﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒﺮات‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎرف‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﯿﺴﺖ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺮورة‬ ‫ﻓﮭﻲ‬ ،‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻠﻮل‬ ‫وإﯾﺠﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺿﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫إﺷﻜﺎﻟﯿﺎت‬ . ‫إﻧﮭ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﯿﺴ‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻌﺮﻓﮫ‬ ، ‫أو‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻮل‬ ‫إﻧﻨ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ،‫ﻧﻌﺮﻓﮫ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺮﯾ‬ ‫ﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯿﺎم‬ ‫ﺑﮫ‬ ‫؛‬ ‫إﻧﮭﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻤﻮس‬ ، ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺎدرون‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﯿﺬه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﯿﻨﺔ‬ . ‫أﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﻔﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﻨﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫وﻣﻦ‬ : ‫ﺳﯿﺎﻗﯿﺔ‬ ،‫ﻧﺎﻣﯿﺔ‬ ،‫ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺔ‬ ،‫إدﻣﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ،‫اﻟﻮﺿﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻮﯾﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ ،‫ﱢﻤﺔ‬‫ﻈ‬‫ﻣﻨ‬ ،‫دﯾﻨﺎﻣﯿﻜﯿﺔ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻤﺎرﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻤﻮ‬ ،‫ﻣﺘﻄﻮرة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻋﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺒﺌﺔ‬ ،‫ﻓﻜﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻘﺪة‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎرﺳﺘﮭﺎ‬ ،‫اﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫أﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﺪ‬ ،‫وﺧﺎرﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫داﺧﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻷھﺪاف‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ‬ ) ‫اﻟﻤﮭﺎم‬ ‫أو‬ ( ‫ﺷﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﯿﺰات‬ ‫ذات‬ ،‫ﻣﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬ . ‫ﻋﺪة‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺷﻜﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﻒ‬ ‫و‬ : ‫أو‬ ،‫أﻓﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ،‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫وﺳﺎﺋﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫أو‬ ،‫ﺳﻠﻮﻛﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ... ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬ ‫و‬ ‫ھﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪدات‬ : ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﺮف‬ ) ‫اﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ ( savoir agir ، ‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻨﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎق‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻔﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﻌﺒﺌﺘﮭﺎ‬ ) ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ، ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ، ،‫اﻟﺨﺒﺮة‬ ،‫اﻟﺬاﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎت‬ ... ( ‫؛‬ ‫إرادة‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﺮف‬ vouloir agir ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬ ‫ﻛ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻔﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﯿﺎق‬ ‫ﺎﻟﺪاﻓﻊ‬ ‫واﻻﻟﺘﺰام‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬ ‫واﻋﺘﺮاف‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮرات‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﻠﺰﻣﮫ‬ ‫وﻣﺎ‬ ... ‫؛‬ ‫ﻗﺪرة‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﺮف‬ pouvoir agir ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬
  • 6. ‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬ ‫ﻮﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺎق‬ ‫ﻣﯿﺴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ار‬ ‫إط‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ظﺮوف‬ ‫اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫وﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻮارد‬ ‫و‬ ... ‫ﺗﺠﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫واﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺮوﻋ‬ ‫ﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺮد‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺆوﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﯾﺘﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺎطﺮ‬ . ‫و‬ ‫آﺧﺮون‬ ‫ﯾﺮى‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫أﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻔﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﺮف‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺨﻔﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺄﻣﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻨﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾ‬ ‫ﺎت‬ ، ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮد‬ ‫ًﺎ‬‫ﯿ‬‫ﺿﻤﻨ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺤﻀﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻔﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺒﺌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬ . ‫و‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﻲء‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺪرة‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻒ‬ ‫اﻹﺷﻜﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻔﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﯿﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻠﻮل‬ ، ‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻔﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺒﺌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺑﮭﺪف‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻔﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﺮف‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻒ‬ . ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺮﻓﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ MICHAUX 2003 ‫ﺑﺄﻧﮭﺎ‬ " ‫ﻣﻌﺎرف‬ ‫وﻣﮭﺎرات‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻨﯿﺔ‬ ) ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ( ‫وﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎدل‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫رﺳﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻋﯿﻤﮭ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﯾﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﺎﻣﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺴﯿﻖ‬ ‫أﻋﻤﺎﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﺗﺤﻘﯿﻖ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮك‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻠﻮل‬ " ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ، ‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫أداء‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬ ‫إﺛﺮاء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﺒﺮات‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎھﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ . ‫ﯾﻌﺮﻓ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﮭﺎ‬ (Philippe Zarifian) " ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬ ‫ھﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺪرة‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺸﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻜﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﮭﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻮل‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻒ‬ ، ‫ﻟﻤﺸﺎرﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﺪﯾﺎت‬ ، ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻻت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺆوﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‬ ". ‫ﻧﺸﺎط‬ ‫ﺑﺄي‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﯿﺎم‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺮد‬ ‫اﻟﻀﺮورﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺪرات‬ ‫ﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬ ‫ﻛﺄداة‬ ‫اﻟﺤﯿﺎة‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻔﮭﻮم‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺸﺮ‬ ‫وﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﮭﻨﻲ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻋﺎدي‬ ‫ﯾﻮﻣﻲ‬ . ‫ﺣﺎﺟﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪد‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺸﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺜﺮوة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﯿﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻷداة‬ ‫ﯾﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺠﮫ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاطﻨﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ... ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﮭﻮم‬ : ‫اﻣ‬ ‫ھﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻔﮭﻮم‬ ‫ﺘﺪاد‬ ) ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬ ( ‫و‬ ، ‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬ ‫ھﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺑﻮي‬ ‫ﻛ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻛﺴﺎب‬ ‫ﯾﮭﺪف‬ ‫ﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫آﻟ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﺒﻄﮭﺎ‬ ‫طﺒﯿﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪدھﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺪرﺳﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﯾﻨﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫وﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﺪرﯾﺲ‬ ‫ﯿﺎت‬ ) ‫ﻣﻔﮭﻮم‬ ( ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ . ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻤﯿﺰ‬ ‫اﻷﻓﺮاد‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ُﻨﺴﺐ‬‫ﺗ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻤ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮدي‬ . ‫ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ APC ‫ھ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﺬه‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﯿﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻷﻓﺮاد‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺪﻣﺎج‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﮭﺪف‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﺮﺗﯿﺒﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﺑﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫وﻣﺎ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ .
  • 7. ‫ﻓﮭﻲ‬ " ‫ﺷﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺶ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺗ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﻈﯿﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺪأ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﻮن‬ " ، ‫أﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻄﻮر‬ ‫ًﺎ‬‫ﯿ‬‫ﻣﻔﺎھﯿﻤ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺎ‬ ‫ًا‬‫ر‬‫وﺗﻮﻓﺮإطﺎ‬ ،‫واﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺪرﯾﺲ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫إدﻣﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫رؤﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒﺮة‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ًﺎ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﺗﻤﺎﺳ‬ ‫إﻟﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺤﺘﺎﺟﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻼب‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﮭﺪف‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺠﺎح‬ ، ‫ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻟﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺧرﺟﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑراﻣﺞ‬ ‫اﻟدراﺳﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫وﺣداﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺗﻛون‬ ‫ﻣﺗﻣﺣورة‬ ‫ﺣول‬ ‫وﻣوﺟﮭﺔ‬ ‫اﻟطﺎﻟب‬ ‫ﻧﺣو‬ ‫اﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ‬ . ‫ﻓﯿﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮظﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫أﺷﻜﺎﻻ‬ ‫اﺗﺨﺬت‬ ‫وﻗﺪ‬ : ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ،‫أﺳﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫أﻓﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ،‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ،‫ﺟﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻓﺮدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ،‫ﻣﻔﺎﺗﯿﺢ‬ .. ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﮭﺪف‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ) ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ( ،‫اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺒﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﻋﻼﻗﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ھﯿﻜﻠ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫وظﺎﺋﻔﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻷھﺪاف‬ ‫و‬ ، ‫ﻣﺪرﺳﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫إدارﯾﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺪﺧﻠﯿﻦ‬ ‫وﻣﮭﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ،‫ﺧﺮﯾﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫طﺮق‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ووظﺎﺋﺌﻔﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫أدوات‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ... ‫اﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺈطﺎرﻋﺎم‬ ‫ُﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬‫ﺗ‬‫و‬ ‫واﻟﻤﮭﻨﯿ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ،‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻔﻘﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻠﺪان‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬ . ‫ﻓﮭﻲ‬ " ‫ﺷﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺶ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺗ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﻈﯿﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺪأ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﻮن‬ " ، ‫أﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻄﻮر‬ ‫ًﺎ‬‫ﯿ‬‫ﻣﻔﺎھﯿﻤ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺎ‬ ‫ًا‬‫ر‬‫وﺗﻮﻓﺮإطﺎ‬ ،‫واﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺪرﯾﺲ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫إدﻣﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫رؤﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒﺮة‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ًﺎ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﺗﻤﺎﺳ‬ ‫إﻟﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺤﺘﺎﺟﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻼب‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﮭﺪف‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺠﺎح‬ ، ‫ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻟﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺧرﺟﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑراﻣﺞ‬ ‫اﻟدراﺳﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫وﺣداﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺗﻛون‬ ‫ﻣﺗﻣﺣورة‬ ‫ﺣول‬ ‫وﻣوﺟﮭﺔ‬ ‫اﻟطﺎﻟب‬ ‫ﻧﺣو‬ ‫اﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ‬ . ‫ﻓﯿﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮظﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫أﺷﻜﺎﻻ‬ ‫اﺗﺨﺬت‬ ‫وﻗﺪ‬ : ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ،‫أﺳﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫أﻓﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ،‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ،‫ﺟﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻓﺮدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ،‫ﻣﻔﺎﺗﯿﺢ‬ .. ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﮭﺪف‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ) ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ( ،‫اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺒﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﻋﻼﻗﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ھﯿﻜﻠ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫وظﺎﺋﻔﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻷھﺪاف‬ ‫و‬ ، ‫ﻣﺪرﺳﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫إدارﯾﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺪﺧﻠﯿﻦ‬ ‫وﻣﮭﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ،‫ﺧﺮﯾﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫طﺮق‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ووظﺎﺋﺌﻔﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫أدوات‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ... ‫اﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺈطﺎرﻋﺎم‬ ‫ُﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬‫ﺗ‬‫و‬ ‫واﻟﻤﮭﻨﯿ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ،‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻔﻘﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻠﺪان‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬ . ‫ﻓﮭﻲ‬ " ‫ﺷﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺶ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺗ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﻈﯿﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺪأ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﻮن‬ " ، ‫أﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻄﻮر‬ ‫ًﺎ‬‫ﯿ‬‫ﻣﻔﺎھﯿﻤ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺎ‬ ‫ًا‬‫ر‬‫وﺗﻮﻓﺮإطﺎ‬ ،‫واﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺪرﯾﺲ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫إدﻣﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫رؤﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒﺮة‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ًﺎ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﺗﻤﺎﺳ‬ ‫إﻟﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺤﺘﺎﺟﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻼب‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﮭﺪف‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺠﺎح‬ ، ‫ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻟﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺧرﺟﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑراﻣﺞ‬ ‫اﻟدراﺳﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫وﺣداﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺗﻛون‬ ‫ﻣﺗﻣﺣورة‬ ‫ﺣول‬ ‫وﻣوﺟﮭﺔ‬ ‫اﻟطﺎﻟب‬ ‫ﻧﺣو‬ ‫اﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ‬ . ‫ﻓﯿﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮظﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫أﺷﻜﺎﻻ‬ ‫اﺗﺨﺬت‬ ‫وﻗﺪ‬ : ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ،‫أﺳﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫أﻓﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ،‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ،‫ﺟﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻓﺮدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ،‫ﻣﻔﺎﺗﯿﺢ‬ .. ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﮭﺪف‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ) ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ( ،‫اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺒﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﻋﻼﻗﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ھﯿﻜﻠ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫وظﺎﺋﻔﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻷھﺪاف‬ ‫و‬ ، ‫ﻣﺪرﺳﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫إدارﯾﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺪﺧﻠﯿﻦ‬ ‫وﻣﮭﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ،‫ﺧﺮﯾﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫طﺮق‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ووظﺎﺋﺌﻔﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫أدوات‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ... ‫اﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺈطﺎرﻋﺎم‬ ‫ُﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬‫ﺗ‬‫و‬ ‫واﻟﻤﮭﻨﯿ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ،‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻔﻘﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻠﺪان‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬ .
  • 8. ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻜﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﯿﺎت‬ : ‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻜﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫و‬ : - ‫اﻟﺠﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻠﯿﺒﯿﺮﯾﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ : ‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﺸﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻠﯿﺒﺮاﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻘﻼﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺮ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ) ‫واﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ( ، ‫اﻟﻤﻌﯿﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﯿﺔ‬ ، ‫واﻟﺘﺠﺎرة‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻄﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻢ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬ ، ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺮض‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ . ‫اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺪﻓﺎع‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫و‬ ، ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻖ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﮭﺪف‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎن‬ ، ‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﻜﯿﺮ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻓﻌﮭﻢ‬ ،‫واﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫اﻷﻓﺮاد‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ . ‫ًﺎ‬‫ﻘ‬‫وﻓ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻨﯿﻮﻟﯿﺒﺮاﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺴﯿﺮات‬ ، ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺧﻠﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﺒﺔ‬ ‫أﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫إﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ُﻨﻈﺮ‬‫ﯾ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ، ‫واﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺠﺎرة‬ ‫ﺻﻼﺣﯿﺎﺗﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﮭﻞ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬ ‫ﻛﺤﻠﯿﻒ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮة‬ . ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫وھﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎ‬ ‫وﺗﻮﺣﯿﺪھﺎ‬ ‫واﻹﺟﺮاءات‬ ‫واﻟﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺮ‬ ‫وﻋﻠﻰ‬ ،‫اﻟﻘﯿﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻜﺎت‬ ‫إﻧﺸﺎء‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎ‬ " ‫اﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ " ، ‫و‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ " ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻤﯿﺔ‬ " ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫وھﻮ‬ ،‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎﻗﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻤﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻠﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻮﻟﻤﺘﮭ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﻔﺎءات‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺒﺎدل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ . - ‫اﻟﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺸﺮي‬ ‫أﺳﺎﻟﻤﺎل‬ : ‫ﱠف‬‫ﺮ‬‫ُﻌ‬‫ﯾ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫ﯾﻤﺘﻠﻜﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﮭﺘﻢ‬ ‫وھﻲ‬ " ‫رأس‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺸﺮي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎل‬ " ‫ﺳ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻧﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎدرة‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﻠﻌﺔ‬ ، ‫اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻌﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫وﺗﺘﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮد‬ ) ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆھﻼت‬ ، ‫اﻟﻮﺟﻮد‬ ‫طﺮﯾﻘﺔ‬ ‫ًﺎ‬‫ﻀ‬‫أﯾ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ، ‫اﻟﻌﻤﺮ‬ ، ‫اﻟﺠﺴﺪي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﮭﺮ‬ ، ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺎﺗﮫ‬ ‫طﻮال‬ ‫اﻛﺘﺴﺒﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫اﻟﺼﺤﯿﺔ‬ ( . ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎرھﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫اﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻋﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺮي‬ ‫ﺳﻤﺎل‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺸﺮوع‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻤﯿﺘﮫ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻌﮫ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎره‬ ‫ﻨﮫ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺸﺮوع‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮫ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎر‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫و‬ ، ‫اﻟﻤﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ . - ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮﯾﺎت‬ : ‫اﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻮاﻧﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻀﻊ‬ ‫ذاﺗﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬ . ‫ﺗﮭﺘﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺬھﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﯾﻤﺎرﺳﮫ‬ ‫داﺧﻠﻲ‬ ‫ذھﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺪث‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺘﺮض‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻠﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺼﺎدر‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﺪور‬ ‫أھﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻄﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺒﺮة‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺪﺧﺎل‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺪف‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ھﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫وظﯿﻔﺔ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺗﺮى‬ ‫و‬ ،‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﯿﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫وﻟ‬ ،‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﮭﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫أذھﺎﻧﮭﻢ‬ ‫دور‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪرس‬ ‫دور‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﮭﻮم‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺘﺒﺎﻋﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﮭﺬه‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫أﺑﺮز‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎدي‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺤﯿﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ : ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫اﻟﺒﻨﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻈﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺘﺎﻋﺮﻓﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ . - ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮﯾﺔ‬ : ‫واﻟﺤﻘﯿﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ّ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺮى‬ ‫ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ّﺔ‬‫ﯿ‬‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﯿﺴﺖ‬ . ،‫ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻔﺎھﯿﻢ‬ ‫ّﺎت‬‫ﯾ‬‫واﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬ ،‫واﻟﻨﻤﺎذج‬ ‫اﻟﺦ‬ ... ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﯿﺎق‬ ‫ﻣﻼءﻣﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺮھﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻘﺎء‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺄت‬ ‫أﺟﻠﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ، ‫و‬ ‫وﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪاﺗﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻘﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫وأﺑﻨﯿﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﺒﺮاﺗﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﻜﯿﻔﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﮭﺘﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫اﻷﻗﺮان‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻷﺷﯿﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫واﻷﺣﺪاث‬ ‫اﻷﺷﯿﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺴﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻜﺮي‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﯿﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮازﻧﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻼءﻣﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫طﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﻓﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮد‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻘﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬
  • 9. ‫ﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﮫ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻋﻼ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﻄﺎ‬ ‫اﻧﺪﻣﺎﺟﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻨﺪﻣﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻔﻞ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ،‫اﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﮫ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫ﺧﺒﺮة‬ ‫ﯾﻮاﺟﮫ‬ ‫وﺣﯿﻨﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫إﺟﺎﺑﺎت‬ ‫إﯾﺠﺎد‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫طﺮح‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻷﻓﻜﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺠﺮﯾﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪﯾﻠﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﮫ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ‬ ‫إﻋﺎدة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻀﻄﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮار‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻄﻮر‬ . ‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮي‬ ‫أھﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺬھﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮره‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻔﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻔﻜﯿﺮ‬ ‫اھﺘﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺎﺟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ . - : ‫اﺟﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺮاﻋﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼت‬ ‫إطﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺗﮫ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﺪن‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻨﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫ﻋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺳ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻷﺗﺮاب‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺋﻂ‬ ، ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫واﻟﻔﺮد‬ . ‫وﻣﻨﺎﺧﺎت‬ ‫أﺳﯿﻘﺔ‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ ،‫اﻟﺠﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺠﻊ‬ ‫وﺗﻌ‬ ،‫ﺟﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎرف‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻠﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﯿ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮظﯿﻔﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﮭﻢ‬ . Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky . - ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺎﻋﺮﻓﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ : . ‫إن‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫أﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﻌﻞ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﮭﺪف‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﯿﺠﯿﺎت‬ ، ‫و‬ ‫ﺣﯿﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫أﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫اﺳﺘﻘﻼﻻ‬ ‫أﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻤﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺨﺬھﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺮارات‬ ‫طﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎطﺎ‬ : - : ) ( ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﯿﺔ‬ ... - ‫اﻟﺘﺨﻄﯿﻂ‬ : ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻄﻮات‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﯿﺠﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻷھﺪاف‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻷوﻟﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ . - ‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ : ‫اﻟﻮﺿﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺰﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ . ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ﻟﻧظرﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرن‬ ‫ﺟدول‬ ‫ﻧظرﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ﺗﻌرﯾف‬ ‫ﻣوﺿوع‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ) ‫؟‬ ‫ﻛﯾف‬ ( ‫ﻋواﻣل‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫اﻟﮭدف‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻌﻠم‬ ‫دور‬ ‫دور‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫اﻹﺿﺎﻓﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺳﻠوﻛﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﯾر‬ ‫ھو‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ﺷﺑﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺳﻠوك‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫دا‬ ‫ﺋم‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﺑل‬ ‫اﻟﺳﻠوك‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻣﻼﺣظﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯾس‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺛﯾر‬ ‫ﺑﯾن‬ ‫ارﺗﺑﺎط‬ ‫اﺳﺗﺟﺎﺑﺔ‬ - ‫اﻟﺣﺎﺟﺔ‬ - ‫اﻟﺗﻛوﯾن‬ - ‫اﻟﺧطﺄ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺣﺎوﻟﺔ‬ - ‫اﻟﺗﻛرار‬ - ‫اﻟﺗﻌزﯾز‬ - ‫اﻟﻌﻘﺎب‬ - ‫اﻻﻗﺗران‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺣﻛم‬ ‫اﻟﺳﻠوك‬ - ‫اﻟﺳﻠوك‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺳﯾم‬ ‫أﺟزاء‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺳﯾطﺔ‬ - ‫ﻣن‬ ‫اﻟﺗدرج‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺳﮭل‬ ‫اﻟﺻﻌب‬ - ‫إﻋداد‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺛﯾرات‬ ‫اﺳﺗﺟﺎﺑﺎت‬ - ‫اﻟظروف‬ ‫ﺗوﻓﯾر‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋدة‬ - ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺳﻠوك‬ ‫ﺗﺣﻠﯾل‬ ‫اﻟﺑﺳﯾطﺔ‬ ‫ﺟزﺋﯾﺎﺗﮫ‬ - ‫ﺗوﻓﯾر‬ : ‫ﻣﺛﯾرات‬ ، ‫اﻟﺗﻌزﯾز‬ ،‫اﺳﺗﺟﺎﺑﺎت‬ - ‫اﻻﺳﺗﺟﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻣﺛﯾرات‬ - ‫ﺑﯾداﻏوﺟﯾﺎ‬ ‫اﻷھداف‬ - ‫اﻟﻣﺑرﻣﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾم‬ - ‫اﻟﺗﻛرار‬ - ‫اﻟﻔروق‬ ‫اﻋﺗﺑﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﻔرﯾد‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻔردﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ - ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺗدرج‬ ‫اﻛﺗﺳﺎب‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت‬
  • 10. : ‫اﻟﻤﺸﺮوع‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼت‬ . ‫اﻟﺘﺪرﯾﺲ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻔﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺠﺎوزة‬ ‫اﻷھﺪاف‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ : ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻷھﺪاف‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﺿﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺎ‬ ‫اﻷھﺪاف‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻜﺮﯾﺔ‬ - ‫اﻟﺘﯿﻠﻮرﯾﺔ‬ - ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮاﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻮم‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻓﺔ‬ ،‫اﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺔ‬ . - ‫اﻟﺠﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻠﯿﺒﯿﺮﯾﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ New Public Management - ‫اﻟﺒﺸﺮي‬ ‫اﻟﺮأﺳﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﯾﺔ‬ - ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ، ،‫اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ،‫اﻟﻌﺮﻓﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺸﺘﻠﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺟﺷطﻠت‬ ‫إﻋﺎدة‬ ‫ھو‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ﻟﻠوﺿﻌﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻧظﯾم‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾؤدي‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺗﺑﺻﺎر‬ ‫اﻟﻔﮭم‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻹدراك‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺗﺑﺻﺎر‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻧظﯾم‬ ‫إﻋﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟوﺿﻌﯾﺔ‬ ‫واﺳﺗﺑﺻﺎر‬ - ‫اﻹدراك‬ - ‫اﻟﺑﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻧظﯾم‬ - ‫اﻟﻔﮭم‬ - ‫اﻟﺗﻌزﯾز‬ ‫اﻟذاﺗﻲ‬ ‫وﺣل‬ ‫اﻟﻔﮭم‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷﺎﻛل‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗوﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﯾن‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت‬ ‫اﻷﺟزاء‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻛل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺳﺎﻋد‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻔﮭم‬ ‫اﻟﻣوﻗف‬ ‫ﺗرﺗﯾب‬ ‫ﺗﺳﺎﻋد‬ ‫ﺑﻛﯾﻔﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾﻣﻲ‬ ‫إدراك‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫اﻷﺟزاء‬ ‫ﺑﯾن‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻛل‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻛوﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟوﺻول‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺳﺎﻋده‬ ‫اﻟﺣل‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ . ‫و‬ ‫اﻹدراك‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻔﮭم‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺗﺑﺻﺎر‬ - ‫اﻟﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟطرﯾﻘﺔ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻘراءة‬ - ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺗرﻛﯾز‬ ‫اﻟﻔﮭم‬ - ‫ﻋن‬ ‫ﯾﺧﺗﻠف‬ ‫اﻟﻛل‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻛوﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺟزاء‬ ‫ﻟﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺑﻧﺎﺋﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ذاﺗﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻧظﯾم‬ ‫ﻓﮭم‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗؤدي‬ ‫ﺑﯾن‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻧﺎﺻر‬ ‫اﻟواﺣد‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻔﮭوم‬ ‫وﻓﮭم‬ ،‫اﻟﻣﺣدد‬ ‫ھذا‬ ‫ﯾرﺗﺑط‬ ‫ﻛﯾف‬ ‫اﻟﺟدﯾد‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻔﮭوم‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻣﻔﺎھﯾم‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻣﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺑق‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺑﻧﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺧططﺎت‬ ‫اﻟذھﻧﯾﺔ‬ - ‫اﻟوﻋﻲ‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫ﺑﯾن‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟذات‬ ‫اﻟﻣوﺿوع‬ - ‫ﻋن‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻛﯾف‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻣﺛل‬ ‫طرﯾق‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻼءﻣﺔ‬ - ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﺋم‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ﻋن‬ ‫ﯾﺣدث‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻌﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻲ‬ ‫طرﯾق‬ ) ‫إﻟﻐﺎء‬ ( ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺳﺗوﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﯾر‬ . - ‫اﻟﻧﺿﺞ‬ - ‫اﻟرﻏﺑﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺣﺎﺟﺔ‬ - ‫اﻟذاﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻧﺷﺎط‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻣﺗﻌﻠم‬ - ‫اﻟﻣوازﻧﺔ‬ - ‫اﻟذاﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌزﯾز‬ ‫اﻟﻔرد‬ ‫ﺗﻛﯾف‬ ‫ھو‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﯾﺋﺗﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾؤدي‬ ‫ﻣﺿﯾﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣوازﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺗؤ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔرد‬ ‫دي‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫اﻟﻣرور‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫دﻧﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﻣرﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫أرﻗﻰ‬ ‫ﻣرﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﻛﺗﻣﺎل‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬ . - ‫وﺿﻌﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺷﻛل‬ - ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺗﻛﺷﺎف‬ - ‫ﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ﺗﻘود‬ ‫ﺗﺟﺎوز‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋق‬ - ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟطﻔل‬ ‫ﻣﺳﺎﻋدة‬ ‫ﺑﺈﻋداد‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻌرﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻧﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﻣﻛن‬ ‫ﻣﺷﻛل‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺣﻘﯾق‬ ‫ﻣن‬ . - ‫أﻣﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫وﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﻋواﺋق‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﯾﻣﯾﺔ‬ . - ‫ﻧﺷﯾط‬ - ‫ﯾﺑﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻌرﻓﺔ‬ ‫ذاﺗﯾﺎ‬ - ‫اﻟﻧﻣو‬ ‫ﻣراﺣل‬ - ‫اﻟﻧﺿﺞ‬ ‫أھﻣﯾﺔ‬ - ‫اﻟذھﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺑﻧﻰ‬ - ‫اﻟﻧﺷﺎط‬ ‫أھﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻣﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫اﻟذاﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻌرﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻧﺎء‬ - ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﻣرﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺧطﺄ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ﻣراﺣل‬ ‫أﺷﻛﺎل‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫وﺷﻛل‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺗدﻻل‬ - ‫اﻟﺗﺻورات‬ ‫اﻟﺑﻧﺎﺋﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋ‬ ‫ﯾﺔ‬ ‫ھو‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ﺑﻧﻰ‬ ‫اﻛﺗﺳﺎب‬ ‫ﺟدﯾدة‬ ‫ﻣﻌرﻓﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺟﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ‬ /. ‫ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ‬ ‫ھو‬ ‫اﻟﻔرد‬ ‫ﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺎﺗﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﯾﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﯾﺋﺔ‬ - ‫اﻟﺗﻔﺎﻋﻼت‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ‬ - ‫اﻟﺻراﻋﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻌرﻓﯾﺔ‬ - ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾﻣﯾﯾﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺗﺻورات‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ﺳﯾرورة‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﺗﻣر‬ ‫اﻟﻧﻣو‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻣﻛﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻗدرات‬ ‫ﻣﻣﻛﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻗدرات‬ ‫ﺑﻔﺿل‬ ‫اﻻﻛﺗﺳﺎب‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﺎون‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻔﺎﻋل‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﯾن‬ ، ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻔﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ﻟﯾس‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻧﻣو‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻛس‬ . - ‫اﻟذاﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻧﺷﺎط‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻣﺗﻌﻠم‬ - ‫اﻟﺻراﻋﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻌرﻓﯾﺔ‬ - ‫اﻷﺗراب‬ - ‫اﻟوﺳﺎطﺔاﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻛﯾف‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯾﺎت‬ ‫إطﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺷﻛل‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺧذ‬ ‫اﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺗﺑﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﻌﯾن‬ " ‫اﻟﻧﻣو‬ ‫ﻣﻧطﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟوﺷﯾك‬ " - ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟطﻔل‬ ‫ﻣﺳﺎﻋدة‬ ‫ﻣﺷروﻋﮫ‬ ‫ﺑﻧﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺷﺧﺻﻲ‬ . - ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ﻣﻧطﻘﺔ‬ ‫إﻋداد‬ ‫اﻟوﺷﯾك‬ . - ‫اﻟوﺳﺎطﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺗﻣﻌﺎﻋﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌدﯾل‬ ‫اﻟذاﺗﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻣﻌﺎرﻓﮫ‬ ‫اﻟذھﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺑﻧﺎه‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎﻋل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻵﺧرﯾن‬ . - ‫ﻗﯾﻣﺔ‬ ‫إﻋطﺎء‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺗﻔﺎﻋﻼت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟذﻛﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﻧﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ - ‫اﻟوﺷﯾﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻧطﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻧﻣ‬ ‫و‬ - ‫اﻟﺗﺷﺎرﻛﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻣل‬ - ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌواﺋق‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﯾﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻋر‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﯾﺔ‬ ) ‫ﻓوق‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻌرﻓﯾﺔ‬ ( ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﯾر‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻌﺎرف‬ - ‫اﻟﻣﯾﺗﺎﻋرﻓﺎﻧﯾﺔ‬ - ‫اﻻﺳﺗراﺗﯾﺟﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟذھﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺗﻣدھﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻌﺎرف‬ ‫ﻟﺑﻧﺎء‬ ‫ﻟﺣل‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻼت‬ ‫ﻧﺗﯾﺟﺔ‬ ‫ھو‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫اﻟﻔرد‬ ‫ﺑﯾن‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻔﺎﻋل‬ ‫وھو‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺣﯾط‬ ‫و‬ ‫ذھﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺷﺎط‬ ‫ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﯾﻔﺗرض‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻔﮭم‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻹدراك‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺗﻧﺑﺎط‬ . - ‫اﻟﺗﺄﻣﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر‬ - ‫اﻟﺻراﻋﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻌرﻓﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫وﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺗراﺗﺟﯾﺎﺗﮫ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟذھﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺑﻧﺎء‬ ‫ﺗوظﯾﻔﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺟدﯾدة‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻣﺎت‬ . ‫وﺿﻌﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺳﯾﺎﻗﯾﺔ‬ - ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫ﻣﺳﺎﻋدة‬ ‫اﻟذاﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟوﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺗراﺗﯾﺟﯾﺎﺗﮫ‬ ‫اﻟذھﻧﯾﺔ‬ . - ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌرف‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻷﻧﻣﺎط‬ / ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻌرﻓﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻣﺷﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻗﺑل‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺳﺗﺧدﻣﺔ‬ ‫وأﺧذھﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫اﻟﻔرد‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺗﺑﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﻌﯾن‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻧﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾم‬ ‫و‬ . - ‫اﻟوﺿﻌﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗوﻓﯾر‬ ‫ﺑﻧﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋدة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ووﺳﺎﺋل‬ ‫طرق‬ ‫ذھﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻣﺷﯾﺎت‬ . ‫اﻟﻧﺷﺎط‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺄﻣﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟذاﺗﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟطرق‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟوﺳﺎﺋل‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻣﺷﯾﺎت‬ - ‫اﻟﺗﺄﻣﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر‬ - ‫اﻟذ‬ ‫ﻛ‬ ‫ذﻛﺎءات‬ ‫ﺎء‬ - ‫اﻟﻣﯾﺗﺎﻋرﻓﺎﻧﯾﺔ‬ - ‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠم‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺗراﺗﯾﺟﻲ‬ - ‫ﻣرﺗﺑطﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻌرﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﯾﺎﻗﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺑوﺿﻌﯾﺎت‬
  • 11. ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﺪف‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫اﻛﺘﺴﺎب‬ - ‫ﺗﻨﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻗﺪراﺗ‬ ‫ﮫ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺤﯿﻄﮫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻧﺪﻣﺎج‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻋﻼ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ - ‫ﻛﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎدر‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻼﻣﯿﺬ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺘﺴﺒﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺗﮫ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺣﺪاﺛﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﯿﻂ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒﺮات‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺬاﺗﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺒﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮاﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺄدوات‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ . ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻖ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺜﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛﺎة‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻠﯿﺪ‬ ‫طﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫وﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺷﺮطﯿﺔ‬ ،‫اﻟﺠﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻄﯿﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎرف‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺑﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻢ‬ ‫داﺧﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺬھﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﻄﻄﺎﺗﮫ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﺈﻋﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻘﻮم‬ ) ‫اﻟﻤﻀﯿﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮازﻧﺔ‬ ( ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ - ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫أھﺪاﻓﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪد‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻮاد‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺤﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﺪى‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻘﮭﺎ‬ . - ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮاﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪد‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻔﺮع‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺠﺎﻻت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻗﺘﺪارات‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺴﺐ‬ ‫أﻓﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺮة‬ ‫اﻷﺗﺸﻄﺔ‬ . ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ھﯿﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ : ‫ﻣﻔ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺰأة‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪم‬ ،‫ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺪرﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺎھﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻖ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻌﻠﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫إﻛﺴﺎﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺴﮭﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ : ‫وﻓﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻮظﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺪاﺧﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮا‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫د‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻷھﺪاف‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻮم‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻨﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﺪرﯾﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫إﺟﺮاﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫أھﺪاﻓﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪد‬ : ،‫اﻟﻔﮭﻢ‬ ،‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮف‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ ،‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ،‫اﻟﺘﺮﻛﯿﺐ‬ ،‫اﻟﺘﺤﻠﯿﻞ‬ ،‫اﻟﺘﻄﺒﯿﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻜﻦ‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻼت‬ ‫ﺑﺤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫أھﺪاﻓﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﺒﻂ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎوﻧﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺬاﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺎء‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎف‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮظﯿﻔﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻛﺴﺎﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫أﺟﺰاء‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪد‬ ‫وﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﮭﺎرات‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺎھﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻮظﻒ‬ ‫إدﻣﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺪرات‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﻗﻒ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻮظﯿﻒ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮق‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻔﺎھﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﻛﺘﺴﺎب‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫طﺮﻗﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ : ‫اﻟﺘﻤﺎرﯾﻦ‬ ،‫اﻻﺳﺘﺠﻮاب‬ ،‫اﻟﻌﺮض‬ ... ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻠﻜﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻرﺗﻘﺎء‬ ‫و‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮف‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ . ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺬاﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎط‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺪﻋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮق‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻮع‬ : ‫ﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺎ‬ ‫وﺑﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺎرﻗﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫اﻹدﻣﺎج‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﺮوع‬ ، ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻄﺄ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﯿﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ... ‫اﻟﺘﻤﺸﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺪاﻏﻮﺟﻲ‬ - ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻷھﺪاف‬ - ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫دور‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮه‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻢ‬ . ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ : ‫ﯾ‬ ،‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ذاﺗﯿﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﯾ‬ ‫اﻟﻈﺮوف‬ ‫ﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫دور‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬ ، ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻮﺟﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﯾﺆﻟﻒ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﯾﺤﻠﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫وﯾﻄﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﻔﺴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪرس‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺒﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﯿﻂ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫ﺗﻔﻜﯿﺮه‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺄﻣﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﮫ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﯿﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﯾﺤﺪد‬ ‫ﯾﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎدر‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮه‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻌﺎون‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﺒﻨﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﯾﺤﻞ‬ ،‫ﯾﺆﻟﻒ‬ ،‫ﯾﺤﻠﻞ‬ ، . ‫اﻟﻤﺪرس‬ ‫دور‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻗﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺒﯿﺮ‬ ، ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻷھﺪاف‬ ‫ﯾﺤﺪد‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺪرﯾﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﻮﺟﮫ‬ ،‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮق‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻔﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﻨﻨﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮة‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺪﺧﻼت‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎﺗﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﯾﺒﺤﺚ‬ : ،‫ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﯾﺤﺪد‬ ‫ﯾﻨﻈﻢ‬ ،‫وﺳﯿﻂ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﯾﺤﻔﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻨﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻤﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺿﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﯾﺎﺗﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎء‬ ‫ّﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬‫ﺘ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ّﻢ‬‫ﻠ‬‫واﻟﺘﻌ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺮض‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻄﻨﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪرﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺠﻮاب‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮح‬ ،‫اﻧﺪﻣﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ،‫ﺑﻤﺤﯿﻄﮫ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫دﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﻜﯿﺮ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﺎﻋﯿﺎ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻓﺮدﯾﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻓﻊ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺮﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺟﻤﺎﻋﯿﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﯾﻘﺪم‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻷھﺪاف‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪد‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻔﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺪدة‬ ‫اﻷھﺪاف‬ ‫وﻓﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺮاﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﻷھﺪاف‬ ‫اﺧﺘﯿﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫وﻣﻜﺘﺴﺒﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫أﻧﺴﺎق‬ ‫اﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺿﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﯾﯿﺮ‬ ‫وﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻮع‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ . ‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ - ‫اﻷﺧﻄﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺻﻼح‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫آﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﺰاﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ - ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻠﻮك‬ ‫ﺗﮭﺘﻢ‬ - ‫اﻟﻨﺠﺎح‬ ‫ﯾﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎع‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺪرة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻘﯿﻨﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻈﮭﺎر‬ - ،‫أﻧﺸﻄﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎطﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﯾ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻮﯾﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺸﺎرﻛﻮن‬ ) ‫اﻟﺘﻘ‬ ‫ﯿﯿ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺬاﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻢ‬ ‫اﻷﻗﺮان‬ ( - ‫ﻣﻌﺎﯾﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫إﺷﮭﺎدي‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ،‫ﺗﻜﻮﯾﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪرات‬ ، ‫إﺻﻼح‬ ‫اﻷﺧﻄﺎء‬ ‫أﺳﺒﺎب‬ : ‫اﻟﺤﻠﻮل‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﯿﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺬھﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻤﺸﯿﺎت‬ . - ‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫وﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﻨﻮع‬ : ‫ﻣﺸﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ،‫ﺑﺤﻮث‬ ،‫ﺷﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻔﺎت‬ ... - ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪث‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﯾﮭﺘﻢ‬ . - ‫ﺣﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﺿﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫إطﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ - ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻮاﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﮭﺘﻢ‬ - ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺪﯾﻞ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﻔﻀﻲ‬ ‫اﻹﯾﺠﺎﺑﯿﺎت‬ - ‫ﺗﻨﻔﯿﺬا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ھﯿﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻄﯿﻄﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻠﻨﺔ‬ - ‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮق‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻷھﺪاف‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺑﻂ‬ - ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮاﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﺄھﺪاف‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﯿﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻨﯿﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ - ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أﺳﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﻋﺘﺒﺎر‬ - ‫اﻟﺬھﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮاﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻋﻄﺎء‬ - ‫ھ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻄﯿﻄﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻠﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﯿﺬا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﯿﻜﻠﺔ‬ - ‫وﺿﻌﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮظﯿﻔﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎرف‬ ‫إدﻣﺎج‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﻛﯿﺰ‬ - ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻮاﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻻھﺘﻤﺎم‬ - ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺪاوﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻤﺎرﺳﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻷھﺪاف‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺑﻂ‬ - ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﻋﺘﺒﺎر‬ - ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻋﻼ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﺒﯿﺎت‬ - ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮاﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎر‬ - ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻄﺎﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ - ‫ﺗﻘﯿﯿﻤﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﯿﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺰﺋﺔ‬ - ‫اﻟﻤﻼﺣﻆ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻮك‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﯿﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎر‬ - ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫أﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ - ‫اﻟﻌﻮﻟﻤﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﯿﺒﯿﺮﯾﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺪم‬ : ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮق‬ ‫إﺧﻀﺎع‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ‬ - ‫اﻟﺒﺸﺮي‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺳﻤﺎل‬ ‫رأﺳﻤﻠﺔ‬ ) ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ( ‫ﺧﺎﺿﻌﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺎدل‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫أداة‬ ، ‫اﻟﺘﻮﺟﯿﮫ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ - ‫ﻣﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﯾﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺣﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫أھﺪاف‬ : ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺠﯿﺐ‬ : - ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻷﻓﺮاد‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬ ‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻮﻟﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻮم‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻤﻮي‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻮال‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫أﺻﺒﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮد‬ ‫ﻧﺠﺎح‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﯿﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮاﺻﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺪرﺗﮫ‬