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Learn the comparison in English

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  2. 2. COMPARATIVES <ul><li>1 syllables/ 2 -y -w </li></ul><ul><li>_________ ER + THAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kind- Kinder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spelling Rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nice- Nicer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Big – Bigger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Happy- happier </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow-Narrower </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2 or + syllables </li></ul><ul><li>MORE + ADJECTIVE + THAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MORE EXPENSIVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MORE MODERN </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. SUPERLATIVES <ul><li>1 SYLLABLE OR 2 Y W </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THE___________EST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kind – the kindest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spelling Rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nice- Nicest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Big – Biggest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Happy- happiest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow-Narrowest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2 syllables or more </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THE MOST + ADJ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The most beautiful girl </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IN THE CLASS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OF THE YEAR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IN_Place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OF - time </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Variations <ul><li>May, might (possibility) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the fog gets thicker, the plane may/might be diverted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If it doesn’t rain, we may eat out. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May, can (permission) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If your documents are in order, you can/ may leave . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must, should (command, request, advice) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you want to lose weight, you (must-should-had better) eat less bread </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Present tense (General truths, habitual results) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you heat ice, it turns to water. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imperative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you want to pass, study </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. USE <ul><li>USE: This type of sentence implies that the action in the if-clause is quite probable, real, that is likely to happen in the present or future. </li></ul>
  7. 7. SECOND CONDITIONAL <ul><li>IF CLAUSE </li></ul><ul><li>If +past simple </li></ul><ul><li>If I had money </li></ul><ul><li>Variation: past continuous . </li></ul><ul><li>MAIN CLAUSE </li></ul><ul><li>would + bare infinit </li></ul><ul><li>I would lend it to you. </li></ul><ul><li>Variations: might/ could + bare infinitive </li></ul>
  8. 8. Examples Conditional II <ul><li>If I lived in Gibraltar, I would speak English fluently . ( But I don't live in Gibraltar) </li></ul><ul><li>If I lived in London, I could speak English fluently. </li></ul><ul><li>If I went to London in summer, I might see a musical. </li></ul><ul><li>If I dyed my hair blue, everyone would look at me (but I don't intend to dye it) </li></ul>
  9. 9. USE <ul><li>This type of sentence implies that the action in the if-clause is improbable , unreal and unlikely to happen in the present or future . It is also used to give advice. </li></ul>
  10. 10. ALTERNATIVES FOR IF <ul><li>UNLESS +AFFIRMATIVE VERB = A MENOS QUE </li></ul><ul><li>Unless she studies, she won't pass her tests </li></ul><ul><li>PROVIDING THAT - PROVIDED THAT- : SIEMPRE QUE </li></ul><ul><li>You can camp here providing - provided that you don’t leave any mess . </li></ul><ul><li>AS LONG AS: MIENTRAS </li></ul><ul><li>As long as he is on time, we won't be late for the meeting . </li></ul><ul><li>ONLY IF: ÚNICAMENTE SI </li></ul><ul><li>Only if you attend the lessons regularly, you’ll have the chance of passing the exams. </li></ul><ul><li>WHETHER …OR </li></ul><ul><li>You must go tomorrow whether you are ready or not . </li></ul><ul><li>EVEN IF: Aunque </li></ul><ul><li>Even if you had come late, I would have let you in. </li></ul>
  11. 11. CONDITIONAL III <ul><li>If+ past perfect </li></ul><ul><li>If I had known that you were coming, </li></ul><ul><li>Would + have + past participle </li></ul><ul><li>I would have met you at the airport. </li></ul><ul><li>(I didn't know, so I didn't come) </li></ul><ul><li>Variation </li></ul><ul><li>Could +have + past participle </li></ul><ul><li>Might + have + past participle </li></ul>
  12. 12. USE <ul><li>In this kind of sentences the time is past, and the condition cannot be fulfilled because the action in the if-clause didn't happen. It implies an unreal situation in the past. It is also used to express regrets and criticism. </li></ul>
  13. 13. WISH + PAST SIMPLE <ul><li>Nos gustaría que algo fuera diferente en el presente. </li></ul><ul><li>Nos gustaría que esta situación cambiara. </li></ul><ul><li>I wish I didn’t have to work (I have to work) </li></ul><ul><li>I wish I had more free time. (I don’t have free time) </li></ul><ul><li>I wish I lived in a bigger house. (I live in a small house) </li></ul>
  14. 14. WISH + WOULD <ul><li>Queja o impaciencia ante hecho o situación actual. </li></ul><ul><li>Queremos que alguien haga algo. </li></ul><ul><li>I wish you wouldn’t smoke (you are smoking at the moment and it’s annoying me) </li></ul><ul><li>I wish you would be quiet (you are speaking at the moment and I’m annoyed) </li></ul>
  15. 15. WISH + PAST PARTICIPLE <ul><li>Arrepentimiento respecto a acciones del pasado. </li></ul><ul><li>I wish I had attended the lessons . </li></ul><ul><li>I wish I had known her before. </li></ul>