A unified smart city environment based on SOFIA’s            Interoperability Open Platform Giada Landi1 , Giorgio Laura2 ,...
With these concepts, SOFIA proposes an Internet-like revolution in physical space,aiming to make “embedded information” in...
(UMVS) system. Among other possible scenarios, the subway station has been selected,as it is (i) a public and densely popu...
through the UMVS middleware, generate new alerts, and send configuration commandsto the WSN managers and the CCTV server. T...
SOFIA - A unified smart city environment based on SOFIA’s Interoperability Open Platform - CONANTE/ED/NEXTWORKS
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SOFIA - A unified smart city environment based on SOFIA’s Interoperability Open Platform - CONANTE/ED/NEXTWORKS


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SOFIA - A unified smart city environment based on SOFIA’s Interoperability Open Platform - CONANTE/ED/NEXTWORKS

  1. 1. A unified smart city environment based on SOFIA’s Interoperability Open Platform Giada Landi1 , Giorgio Laura2 , Vincenzo Memeo1 , Paolo Pucci2 , and Stefan Rapp3 1 Nextworks, via Turati 43/45, 56125 Pisa, Italy {g.landi, v.memeo}@nextworks.it 2 Elsag-Datamat, via Laurentina 760, 00143 Rome, Italy {giorgio.laura,paolo.pucci}@elsagdatamat.com 3 Conante, Fellenoord 130, 5611ZB Eindhoven, The Netherlands rapp@conante.com Abstract. The purpose of the poster is to show main results we obtained during the first year of the SOFIA Project, a three-year ARTEMIS project started in January 2009, led by NOKIA and involving eighteen partners from four different EU countries. We focus on the application area related to smart city spaces and, in particular, on the Unified Monitoring and Video Surveillance system built on the common semantic Interoperability Open Platform developed in SOFIA. Keywords. Video Surveillance, Wireless Sensor Networks, Smart Systems, In- teroperability Platform1 IntroductionThe SOFIA project, a three-year ARTEMIS project started in January 2009 and in-volving partners from four different EU countries, is built around the concept of smartenvironment, intended as an ecosystem of interacting objects – e.g. sensors, devices,appliances and embedded systems in general – able to self-organize, offer federatedservices and process or provide complex data. The mission of the SOFIA project is to create a semantic interoperability platformand a selected set of vertical applications to form smart environments based on em-bedded systems. The key factors in these smart environments will be an open and dis-tributed information storage and common search procedures for all the embedded sys-tems, implemented with different specific technologies. In this vision, local mash-upapplications will be built on open data and using a range of devices. The motivations behind this approach are twofold: (i) connecting the real physicalworld with the information world enriches the user experience and (ii) an Interoperabil-ity Open Platform (IOP) will foster innovation and will guarantee the future evolutionof smart environments based on embedded systems, both from a scientific/technologicalpoint of view and in terms of business.
  2. 2. With these concepts, SOFIA proposes an Internet-like revolution in physical space,aiming to make “embedded information” in the physical world available for smart ser-vices – connecting the physical world with the information world. Outcomes of theproject encompass (i) new user interaction paradigms for interacting in smart environ-ments, (ii) a common multi-vendor interoperability solution between many new andlegacy heterogeneous devices and embedded systems, and (iii) application develop-ment schemes, ontologies and tools that can mobilize new developers for smart envi-ronments. The project addresses three application areas or “verticals” which representdifferent kinds of space – in terms of scale, potential applications and services: smartpersonal spaces (e.g. car), smart indoor spaces (e.g. home and office), and smart cityspaces (e.g. extended infrastructure and facilities like a subway station, shopping malland so on).2 Smart Spaces in the SOFIA conceptIn SOFIA, a smart space is an information search extent where semantic information ispresented in the form of an ontology graph or, equivalently, of triples (subject-predicate-object). Semantic Information Brokers (SIBs) are the information stores of the smartspace. They provide a service interface for agents known as Knowledge Processors(KPs). KPs can access the information within the smart space by connecting to the SIBand invoking the operations offered by the Smart Space Access Protocol (SSAP) inter-face. Through SSAP operations, KPs can perform session management (join, leave) andtriple governance transactions (insert, remove, update, query, subscribe, unsubscribe)in order to insert new information into the smart space, remove obsolete or otherwiseundesirable information from the smart space, retrieve specific data on-demand and bedynamically notified of the changes in the information content of the smart space by asubscription/notification mechanism. A KP, that has discovered a smart space it wants to interact with, must first join thesmart space by sending it its credentials. If the access control policies are met, the KP isallowed to establish the connection. Service discovery is accomplished using the mech-anisms available at the service level (e.g. NoTA [1]). To enable their reactive behaviourthe KPs make subscriptions in the smart space. The subscriptions are persistent queriesthat notify the subscribing KP every time that the query results change. This allowsthe KP to react appropriately and timely to changes in the smart space, while avoidingunnecessary communication [2]. Depending on its behaviour, a KP can be a producer KP (i.e. a KP able to generatenew information and insert them into the SIB), a consumer KP (i.e. a KP able to retrieveand react on specific information from the SIB through queries or subscriptions) or bothat the same time. The complete SIB interface is a union of the consumer and producerinterfaces.3 The Unified Monitoring and Video Surveillance systemThis section reports on the results achieved in the application areas related to SmartCity spaces, focusing in particular on our Unified Monitoring and Video Surveillance
  3. 3. (UMVS) system. Among other possible scenarios, the subway station has been selected,as it is (i) a public and densely populated area, that needs to be continuously and ef-fectively monitored through heterogeneous and distributed sensors and video camerasand (ii) a dynamic environment with several categories of users (passengers, operators,security staff) interested in different events to be delivered at the right time. Some solutions have been proposed in the past for event detection based on WirelessSensor Networks (WSNs) [3] and video surveillance [4]. The SOFIA IOP enables thecombined processing of both WSN and video surveillance data resulting in a moreefficient event detection. This concept is the starting point for our UMVS architecture.The UMVS architecture follows a multi-layer approach and is based on a common,distributed UMVS middleware1 able to generate heterogeneous low-layer data, calledraw events, that describe various aspects of the surrounding environment. They arecombined into a set of complex higher-layer information, called composite events, andmade available to the UMVS application layer through the SOFIA IOP. The UMVS middleware includes two types of modules: the producers of the rawevents and the data correlators (UMVS Event Managers) in charge of processing the lowlevel data in order to produce more detailed events. Currently the raw events originatefrom producer KPs such as Closed-Circuit TV (CCTV) servers handling video camerasdistributed in a large area, or WSNs characterized by different kinds of sensors (e.g.temperature, smoke, presence) , but the UMVS middleware can be easily extended inorder to support further data sources, including third-party services. The information flow of our UMVS system is described through a structured on-tology. The main advantage of this approach is, that although a uniform mechanism isused throughout, individual subsystems can be treated separately. For example, the KPsinside the CCTV server and the WSN managers need to adhere to only a fraction of theontology and need not be concerned about the rest. This is helping the implementationon resource-constrained devices, and at the same time is beneficial for the extensibilityof the system. The data exchange among all the UMVS modules, as well as the con-sistency and the synchronization of the information stored in the SIBs, relies on theSOFIA IOP mechanisms. At the top of the UMVS architecture, the application layer includes interactive mod-ules that inform the users of events or alerts and allow them to trigger further actions.All the UMVS applications interact with the SOFIA IOP in order to receive and exploitthe data provided by the UMVS middleware, including both raw and composite events.On the other hand, some trusted applications are also able to insert into the SIBs somespecific events (i.e. alerts), so that they can be propagated towards their own peers, orcommands (i.e. configuration parameters or pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) commands) to triggersome specific actions in a given device. The UMVS applications provide services forvarious user groups, characterized by specific roles and enabled to perform differentactivities, depending on their user profile and the associated access policies. The UMVS application layer comprises a set of applications deployed on a varietyof mobile and stationary devices. Central to the UMVS is a monitoring station applica-tion that allows “first-level operators” to visualize all the events and alerts exchanged 1 “Middleware” is intended simply from an application point of view, since this layer hides from the application-layer details about low-level information and related processing.
  4. 4. through the UMVS middleware, generate new alerts, and send configuration commandsto the WSN managers and the CCTV server. The monitoring station also receives videostreaming directly from the CCTV server, bypassing the IOP for performance reasons.“Second-level operators” use a mobile or wearable device to receive a subset of theevents/alerts generated by the system and to generate a subset of alerts addressed toother operators. Mobile devices with sufficient resources can interact directly with theCCTV server to receive video streams and control remote PTZ cameras. A third type ofUMVS applications deals with users that need to be informed of exceptional events suchas an evacuation order. In this class, there are modules that change the public displaysaccordingly, but also commercial signage displays are integrated into the emergencysignalling. They switch to a pre-programmed alternative content that leads passengersmore prominently to the emergency exits than it is possible with traditional signs. Fi-nally an UMVS application informs passengers with suitable personal mobile devicesof an evacuation order by sending a broadcast message to them (e.g. RSS feeds).4 SummaryWe presented a unified system for monitoring and managing a public space, based ona middleware managing heterogeneous data sources through an Interoperability OpenPlatform (IOP) that uses a semantic description framework and access policies. TheIOP is openly developed in the SOFIA consortium and a first version is accessible fromsourceforge [5].AcknowledgmentsThis work was funded by the European Commission, within the framework of theARTEMIS JU SP3 SOFIA project (http://sofia-project.org/). The authors would liketo thank all project partners who contributed to the definition and implementation ofSOFIA Open Innovation Platform.References[1] NoTA, http://www.notaworld.org[2] Toninelli, A., Bellavista, P., Pantsar-Syv¨ niemi, S., Ovaska E.: Supporting Context Aware- a ness in Smart Environments: a Scalable Approach to Information Interoperability. In In- ternational Workshop on Middleware for Pervasive Mobile and Embedded Computing (M-MPAC’09), within the ACM/IFIP/USENIX 10th International Middleware Conference (Middleware’09)[3] Chatzigiannakis I., Koninis C., Mylonas G., Colesanti U., Vitaletti A. (2009). A Peer-to- Peer Framework for Globally-Available Sensor Networks and its Application in Building Management. In: 2nd International Workshop on Sensor Network Engineering (IWSNE’09)[4] SanMiguel, J.C., Martinez, J.M., Garcia A.: An ontology for event detection and its appli- cation in surveillance video, Sixth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance, Genova 2009[5] Smart M3, http://sourceforge.net/projects/smart-m3/