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APS1015 Class 3: Gap Analysis within Social Systems

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This lectures focuses on analyzing the gaps that exist within larger systems (e.g. society-wide) and the role each sector in our society (public, private and nonprofit) plays to either reinforce or remove those gaps.

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APS1015 Class 3: Gap Analysis within Social Systems

  1. 1. APS 1015: Social EntrepreneurshipClass 3: Gap Analysis within SocialSystemsWednesday, May 22, 20131Instructors:Norm Tasevski (norm@socialentrepreneurship.ca)Karim Harji (karim@socialentrepreneurship.ca)
  2. 2. © Norm Tasevski & Karim HarjiAgenda•  Recap of Social Systems (Class 2)•  Guest Speaker – Andrew Reddin (Social CapitalPartners)•  Break•  Gap Analysis within Social Systems•  Next week2
  3. 3. Systems Mapping (Recap from LastWeek)…3
  4. 4. © Norm Tasevski & Karim HarjiCause and Effect Chain - Example4PovertyResultEffectHungerCause(Proximate)Can’t growenough foodCause (Ultimate)Bad soil?Soil erosion?Not enoughwater?Not enoughlabour?Over-usedsoil?Don’t knowhow toprevent itRains toohardChangingrainpatterns?No irrigationresources?People sick?
  5. 5. © Norm Tasevski & Karim HarjiThe Vicious Circle•  A symptom (effect) of a social condition can alsobe a cause, which then serves to further deepenthe social condition5
  6. 6. © Norm Tasevski & Karim HarjiVicious Circle - Example6PovertyResultEffectHungerCause(Proximate)Can’t growenough foodCause (Ultimate)Bad soil?Soil erosion?Not enoughwater?Not enoughlabour?Over-usedsoil?Don’t knowhow toprevent itRains toohardChangingrainpatterns?No irrigationresources?People sick?MalnutritionPoor HealthHunger could therefore beboth an effect and a cause ofpoverty
  7. 7. © Norm Tasevski & Karim HarjiVulnerability vs. Resiliency•  Vulnerability–  The reduced ability for elements within a system towithstand shocks to the system–  Examples of shocks:•  A crop failure/drought•  A health crisis/new illness•  Resiliency–  The absence of vulnerability (i.e. the ability to absorbshocks to a system)7
  8. 8. © Norm Tasevski & Karim Harji8“Root Causes ofPoverty” WorkshopTabe Ere
  9. 9. Guest Speaker:Andrew Reddin9
  10. 10. Break10
  11. 11. Gap Analysis11
  12. 12. © Norm Tasevski & Karim HarjiCurrent State & Future State•  Current State–  The amount of “stock” between two elements in a system–  The stock is typically a measurable quantity–  Examples:•  Amount of water behind a dam•  Level of trust in government•  Amount of money in a bank account–  The current state can have either in an ideal level, an over-abundance or a scarcity of stock•  Future State–  The ideal level of stock between elements in a system12
  13. 13. © Norm Tasevski & Karim HarjiInflows and Outflows•  Inflows–  An increase in stock•  Outflows–  A decrease in stock•  Example: Soil erosion–  Excess inflow of water;insufficient/ineffectiveoutflow of water13Cause (Ultimate)Bad soil?Soil erosion?Over-usedsoil?Don’t knowhow toprevent itRains toohard
  14. 14. © Norm Tasevski & Karim HarjiCorrecting Loops•  The mechanisms forcontrolling the inflowsand outflows within asocial system tomaintain an idealstate•  Correcting loops arenot necessarily“visible” in a system–  Example: how do wemaintain ideal state oftrust in government?14Cause (Ultimate)Bad soil?Soil erosion?Over-usedsoil?Don’t knowhow toprevent itRains toohard•  What correcting loopcan we form in thesystem shown above?
  15. 15. © Norm Tasevski & Karim HarjiCorrecting Loops•  The mechanisms forcontrolling the inflowsand outflows within asocial system tomaintain an idealstate•  Correcting loops arenot necessarily“visible” in a system–  Example: how do wemaintain ideal state oftrust in government?15Cause (Ultimate)Bad soil?Soil erosion?Over-usedsoil?Don’t knowhow toprevent itRains toohard•  What correcting loopcan we form in thesystem shown above?•  What is the idealstate?
  16. 16. © Norm Tasevski & Karim HarjiParameters•  The considerations/factors that affect inflowand outflow•  Example: Erosion–  Rainfall–  Soil type–  Landscape/topography–  Vegetation type–  Land management•  Can be unchangeableor changeable16Cause (Ultimate)Bad soil?Soil erosion?Over-usedsoil?Don’t knowhow toprevent itRains toohard•  What parameters canbe changed? Whatcan’t be changed?
  17. 17. © Norm Tasevski & Karim HarjiParameters (Continued)Parameters are one form of intervention (aka“Leverage Points”) to address gaps in a systemBut……we will cover leverage points in class 417
  18. 18. © Norm Tasevski & Karim HarjiGap Analysis within Systems•  Goal:–  Identify the gaps between current state and future state tobegin to understand how to design an intervention toaddress the gap•  Steps:–  Describe the current state (inflows, outflows, changeable +non-changeable parameters)–  Describe the ideal future state (ideal inflow/outflow levelsand ideal parameters)18
  19. 19. © Norm Tasevski & Karim HarjiExercise19Describe the current state in one area of this systemPovertyResultEffectHungerCause(Proximate)Can’t growenough foodCause (Ultimate)Bad soil?Soil erosion?Not enoughwater?Not enoughlabour?Over-usedsoil?Don’t knowhow toprevent itRains toohardChangingrainpatterns?No irrigationresources?People sick?MalnutritionPoor Health
  20. 20. © Norm Tasevski & Karim HarjiAnother Gap Analysis Technique•  PESTEL Analysis–  Political: The degree to which government intervenes in asystem•  E.g.: political stability, tax/education/health policies–  Economic: The degree to which economic factors affect asystem•  E.g.: economic growth, interest rates, inflation–  Social: Cultural factors that affect a system•  E.g. attitudes toward health, career, the elderly20
  21. 21. © Norm Tasevski & Karim HarjiPESTEL (Continued)•  PESTEL Analysis (Continued)–  Technological: Technological factors found in a system•  E.g.: level of R&D, level of automation–  Environmental: Ecological and environmental factors in asystem•  E.g.: weather, climate, land use/degradation–  Legal: The man-made laws governing a system•  E.g. tax/employment/health laws, type of legal system(e.g. civil, common, religious)21
  22. 22. © Norm Tasevski & Karim HarjiWhat did we learn?22

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