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Introduction to Fire Protection 3rd Edition
Chapter 11 Codes and Ordinances
Objectives <ul><li>Explain the relationship between federal, state, and local regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Explain who is...
Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>Describe how codes and ordinances are affected by court decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Explain th...
Introduction <ul><li>Code and ordinances fall under the broad description of laws </li></ul><ul><li>Laws are written and a...
Definition of Laws <ul><li>U.S. Constitution is the supreme law of the land  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other laws cannot confl...
Definition of Laws (con’t.) <ul><li>Federal statutes organized into Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) </li></ul><ul><li>St...
Definition of Laws (con’t.) <ul><li>Judicial system determines the constitutionality of laws </li></ul><ul><li>When law is...
Lawsuits <ul><li>Lawsuits are very common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More attorneys than firefighters in U.S. </li></ul></ul><u...
Lawsuits (con’t.) <ul><li>Tort is a wrongful act resulting from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonfeasance: failure to act </li></u...
Lawsuits (con’t.) <ul><li>To avoid torts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act within policies and guidelines that are agency specific...
Personnel Complaints <ul><li>Follow established procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speak to the chief or person’s supervisor ...
Harassment-Free Workplace <ul><li>Management is held responsible for harassment  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must establish a ha...
Harassment-Free Workplace (con’t.) <ul><li>Persons responsible for not engaging in harassment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manag...
Harassment-Free Workplace (con’t.) <ul><li>Exercise one or more of the following options when you believe you are being ha...
The Court System <ul><li>Jurisdiction: territory within which authority may be exercised </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be func...
The Court System (con’t.) <ul><li>The case is first heard in court of original jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>The appellat...
<ul><li>Federal district courts hear federal law violations </li></ul><ul><li>State supreme courts hear appeals from state...
Relationship of Federal, State, and Local Regulations <ul><li>Must know jurisdictional boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ca...
Fire Prevention <ul><li>Authority and responsibility to enforce fire-related codes and ordinances  </li></ul><ul><li>See v...
Fire Prevention (con’t.) <ul><li>U.S. Supreme Court guidelines for inspectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be adequately ide...
Fire Prevention (con’t.) <ul><li>U.S. Supreme Court guidelines for inspectors (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May issue sto...
Fire Prevention (con’t.) <ul><li>Most local codes are model codes adopted by ordinance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In part or in...
Model Fire Codes <ul><li>Nationally recognized model codes are more desirable than locally written codes   </li></ul><ul><...
Occupancy Classification <ul><li>When erecting a building, the intended occupancy must be identified </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Occupancy Classification (con’t.) <ul><li>A: assembly </li></ul><ul><li>B: business </li></ul><ul><li>E: educational </li>...
Occupancy Classification (con’t.) <ul><li>I: institutional </li></ul><ul><li>M: mercantile </li></ul><ul><li>R: residentia...
Occupancy Classification (con’t.) <ul><li>Occupancies have subcategories to designate levels of protection needed </li></u...
Occupancy Classification (con’t.) <ul><li>Building codes also have requirements based on occupancy classification </li></u...
Construction Types <ul><li>Indicated by Roman numerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type I: Non combustible – fire resistive  </l...
Figure 11-1   Steel construction. Figure 11-2   Unprotected steel construction after fire.
Code Development <ul><li>Codes are often created as reaction to disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Current efforts are to be proa...
Code Development (con’t.) <ul><li>Committees formed to address issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members write code language </...
Relationship of Codes to Standards <ul><li>Codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted as law in whole or by part by ordinance </l...
Operation of Emergency Vehicles <ul><li>Operators of vehicles over 26,001 pounds require Class B license </li></ul><ul><li...
Infectious Disease <ul><li>Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibits discrimination against handicapped persons </li></...
Infectious Disease (con’t.) <ul><li>Patients are not required to advise you of their condition </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals...
Infectious Disease (con’t.) <ul><li>Trained personnel have a duty to act unless extreme hazard can be proven </li></ul><ul...
Good Samaritan Laws <ul><li>Not held liable for errors when voluntarily assisting an injured person </li></ul><ul><li>Laws...
Personnel Safety <ul><li>Federal OSHA compliance instructions issued in 1995 (Two in, Two out) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requi...
Personnel Safety (con’t.) <ul><li>Minimum of four personnel at scene </li></ul><ul><li>No entry without four at scene unle...
Scene Management <ul><li>Authority determined by law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic: usually agency with primary investigat...
Health Insurance Portability  and Accountability Act (HIPAA) <ul><li>Affects firefighters due to their response to rescues...
<ul><li>Laws are interpreted in different levels of the court system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal, state, local </li></ul...
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Chapter 11

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Chapter 11

  1. 1. Introduction to Fire Protection 3rd Edition
  2. 2. Chapter 11 Codes and Ordinances
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Explain the relationship between federal, state, and local regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Explain who is responsible for enforcing codes and ordinances at the different levels </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why codes and ordinances are created </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how codes and ordinances are adopted </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>Describe how codes and ordinances are affected by court decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the relationship of codes and standards </li></ul><ul><li>Give the definition of legal terms as they apply to codes and ordinances </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Code and ordinances fall under the broad description of laws </li></ul><ul><li>Laws are written and adopted on federal, state, and local levels of government </li></ul><ul><li>Laws in different levels influence each other </li></ul>
  6. 6. Definition of Laws <ul><li>U.S. Constitution is the supreme law of the land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other laws cannot conflict with Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laws are pieces of enacted legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Statutory laws passed by Congress and states </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinances passed on local level </li></ul>
  7. 7. Definition of Laws (con’t.) <ul><li>Federal statutes organized into Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) </li></ul><ul><li>States have similar codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health and safety code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penal code, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note that local codes, such as building codes, become law when adopted by ordinance </li></ul>
  8. 8. Definition of Laws (con’t.) <ul><li>Judicial system determines the constitutionality of laws </li></ul><ul><li>When law is not specific, precedents (previous court decisions) are referenced </li></ul><ul><li>Need to know limits of authority and what is required in situations </li></ul>
  9. 9. Lawsuits <ul><li>Lawsuits are very common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More attorneys than firefighters in U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To avoid lawsuits, do your job correctly every time </li></ul><ul><li>Lawsuits are filed because of a tort </li></ul>
  10. 10. Lawsuits (con’t.) <ul><li>Tort is a wrongful act resulting from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonfeasance: failure to act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misfeasance: acting incorrectly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malfeasance: wrongdoing or misconduct </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Lawsuits (con’t.) <ul><li>To avoid torts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act within policies and guidelines that are agency specific and regularly reviewed for validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take basic responsibility to perform correctly and to the best of your ability every time </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Personnel Complaints <ul><li>Follow established procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speak to the chief or person’s supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen carefully as the officer explains options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete and forward form to designated officer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigation determines if complaint is warranted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The complainant is notified of the results of investigation, not what action was taken </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Harassment-Free Workplace <ul><li>Management is held responsible for harassment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must establish a harassment-free workplace policy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harassment: coercive or repeated, unsolicited, and unwelcome verbal comments, gestures, or physical contact(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Work environment: any area where employees work or work-related activities occur </li></ul>
  14. 14. Harassment-Free Workplace (con’t.) <ul><li>Persons responsible for not engaging in harassment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contractors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volunteers </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Harassment-Free Workplace (con’t.) <ul><li>Exercise one or more of the following options when you believe you are being harassed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell harasser to stop behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report violation to officer or supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact fire chief/union representative or Agency EEO representative </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Court System <ul><li>Jurisdiction: territory within which authority may be exercised </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be functional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire prevention versus traffic enforcement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>County versus city </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Court System (con’t.) <ul><li>The case is first heard in court of original jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>The appellate jurisdiction reviews lower court decision </li></ul><ul><li>Highest court is the U.S. Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines constitutionality of laws </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Federal district courts hear federal law violations </li></ul><ul><li>State supreme courts hear appeals from state district courts of appeal </li></ul><ul><li>District or superior courts hear state law violations </li></ul><ul><li>Municipal or county courts hear misdemeanors </li></ul>The Court System (con’t.)
  19. 19. Relationship of Federal, State, and Local Regulations <ul><li>Must know jurisdictional boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot legally act outside of jurisdiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Issuing citation for fire code violation, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>May be able to refer matter to agency with jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violation outside of fire code </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Fire Prevention <ul><li>Authority and responsibility to enforce fire-related codes and ordinances </li></ul><ul><li>See vs. City of Seattle often cited in relation to fire prevention inspections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private commercial premises without consent may be compelled only with prosecution or physical force within framework of warrant procedure </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Fire Prevention (con’t.) <ul><li>U.S. Supreme Court guidelines for inspectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be adequately identified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must state reason for inspection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must request permission to inspect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invite person to accompany you on inspection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry and follow written inspection procedure (inspection form) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Request inspection or administrative warrant if entry denied </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Fire Prevention (con’t.) <ul><li>U.S. Supreme Court guidelines for inspectors (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May issue stop order for extremely hazardous condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop reliable record keeping system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work within guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must have right to inspect (may be through licensing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be trained </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Fire Prevention (con’t.) <ul><li>Most local codes are model codes adopted by ordinance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In part or in whole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amended as necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State fire marshal may enforce state codes in state buildings and areas with no organized fire prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often delegates authority to local jurisdiction </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Model Fire Codes <ul><li>Nationally recognized model codes are more desirable than locally written codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represent a broad spectrum of fire prevention experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on large scale research and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give experts a familiar base to build protection features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undergo constant review process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to avoid conflict with building codes </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Occupancy Classification <ul><li>When erecting a building, the intended occupancy must be identified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines fire and life safety features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exits, sprinklers, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Letters designate main categories of occupancy </li></ul>
  26. 26. Occupancy Classification (con’t.) <ul><li>A: assembly </li></ul><ul><li>B: business </li></ul><ul><li>E: educational </li></ul><ul><li>F: factory </li></ul><ul><li>H: hazardous </li></ul>
  27. 27. Occupancy Classification (con’t.) <ul><li>I: institutional </li></ul><ul><li>M: mercantile </li></ul><ul><li>R: residential </li></ul><ul><li>S: storage </li></ul>
  28. 28. Occupancy Classification (con’t.) <ul><li>Occupancies have subcategories to designate levels of protection needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: A.1, A.2, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If occupancy changes, requirements may also change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sprinkler retrofit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exits </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Occupancy Classification (con’t.) <ul><li>Building codes also have requirements based on occupancy classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Area and height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set back from property line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire protection systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire-related separation </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Construction Types <ul><li>Indicated by Roman numerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type I: Non combustible – fire resistive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type II: Non combustible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type III: Ordinary construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type IV: Heavy timber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type V : Standard construction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May also have additional information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Type IV 2 hour, Type IV unprotected </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Figure 11-1 Steel construction. Figure 11-2 Unprotected steel construction after fire.
  32. 32. Code Development <ul><li>Codes are often created as reaction to disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Current efforts are to be proactive instead of reactive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural gas vehicles, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: Right to Know laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Require businesses to disclose hazardous materials inventory </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Code Development (con’t.) <ul><li>Committees formed to address issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members write code language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee circulates drafts for review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee receives and reviews challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final draft presented when code body meets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee holds hearings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members vote to accept or reject codes </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Relationship of Codes to Standards <ul><li>Codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted as law in whole or by part by ordinance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations on design or method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted as a matter of policy, not law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standards accompany many model codes in order to illustrate the points of the code </li></ul>
  35. 35. Operation of Emergency Vehicles <ul><li>Operators of vehicles over 26,001 pounds require Class B license </li></ul><ul><li>When not responding to an emergency, operators must obey all traffic laws </li></ul><ul><li>Certain exemptions are allowed when responding in an authorized emergency vehicle to an emergency </li></ul>
  36. 36. Infectious Disease <ul><li>Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibits discrimination against handicapped persons </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious disease ruled a handicap in Chalk v. U.S. District Court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV and AIDS included </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents disclosure of information to anyone not directly involved in patient care </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Infectious Disease (con’t.) <ul><li>Patients are not required to advise you of their condition </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals are not allowed to advise you of their condition </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals cannot force patient to submit to a blood test </li></ul>
  38. 38. Infectious Disease (con’t.) <ul><li>Trained personnel have a duty to act unless extreme hazard can be proven </li></ul><ul><li>HIV and AIDS are not considered extreme hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Protect yourself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wear your full EMS PPE every time you treat a patient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No exceptions </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Good Samaritan Laws <ul><li>Not held liable for errors when voluntarily assisting an injured person </li></ul><ul><li>Laws only protect persons acting within their training </li></ul><ul><li>Do not exceed your training </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful who assists you </li></ul>
  40. 40. Personnel Safety <ul><li>Federal OSHA compliance instructions issued in 1995 (Two in, Two out) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires SCBA when performing interior structural firefighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires personnel to work in buddy system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires equipped and trained personnel to be available outside to effect rescue </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Personnel Safety (con’t.) <ul><li>Minimum of four personnel at scene </li></ul><ul><li>No entry without four at scene unless “imminent rescue” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover yourself legally and announce on the radio </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Scene Management <ul><li>Authority determined by law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic: usually agency with primary investigative authority (law enforcement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire: fire department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EMS: dependent on provider </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazmat: may be given to fire due to advanced hazmat training </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) <ul><li>Affects firefighters due to their response to rescues and medical aid calls </li></ul><ul><li>Health information regarding a patient can only be given to someone directly involved in the treatment of the patient </li></ul><ul><li>Covers any patient care report or station logbook information </li></ul><ul><li>Records must be kept confidential </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Laws are interpreted in different levels of the court system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal, state, local </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firefighters must be aware of their legal authority and limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighters have the moral obligation to perform their duties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To the best of their ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within the scope of their training </li></ul></ul>Summary

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