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Using a Fishbone Diagram: Part 2 PROG 1026: Logic & Problem Solving
Agenda <ul><li>Review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workshop Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause & Effect Introduction <...
Workshop Introduction <ul><li>Why use C&E? </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives of C&E </li></ul>...
Intro to C&E <ul><li>Definition: A Cause and Effect Diagram is a tool that helps a team to identify,  explore, and display...
Constructing a Fishbone Diagram <ul><li>Velaction Video </li></ul>
Process Flowchart <ul><li>Problem Definition Critical </li></ul><ul><li>Format/ Cause Categories </li></ul><ul><li>Brainst...
Case Study <ul><li>The Case of the Missing Deadline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the central problem? </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Process <ul><li>Select a facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Phrase the problem statement (5 min) </li></ul><ul><li>Generate cau...
Step 1: Select a Facilitator  <ul><li>A facilitator is expected to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure that the problem is cl...
Step 2: Problem Statement  <ul><li>Facilitator provides opportunity for team to contribute </li></ul><ul><li>Statement sho...
Step 3: Generate Causes <ul><li>General to specific? </li></ul><ul><li>Specific to general? </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm <...
Step 3: Dispersion Analysis <ul><li>4 Ps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process/Procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></...
Step 3: Process Classification  <ul><li>Define major steps in the Process </li></ul><ul><li>Establish causes relative to t...
Step 4: Construct Diagram <ul><li>Assign Causes  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign to one category if possible </li></ul></ul><...
Step 5: Analyse Causes <ul><li>Look for repeating items, patterns </li></ul><ul><li>In Process Classification, repeating i...
Step 6: Next Steps <ul><li>Recommendations Document </li></ul><ul><li>Process Improvement Suggestion </li></ul><ul><li>Req...
Other Issues <ul><li>When do you use a tool? </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing C&E Format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersion Analys...
A Word on GOAL/QPC <ul><li>Memory Jogger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash Drives </li></ul></u...
Wrap-up <ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Math – the Language of Logic </li></ul></ul>...
Final Exam <ul><li>20 M/C Questions = 40% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hint: focus on Class Notes/ slides on site </li></ul></ul>...
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Cause & effect analysis part 2

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Part 2 of the Cause and Effect workshop. Today's class covers application of the Fishbone technique.

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Cause & effect analysis part 2

  1. 1. Using a Fishbone Diagram: Part 2 PROG 1026: Logic & Problem Solving
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workshop Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause & Effect Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cause & Effect Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Cause & Effect Follow-up </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap-up and Exam Prep </li></ul>
  3. 3. Workshop Introduction <ul><li>Why use C&E? </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives of C&E </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Root causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teamwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ground Rules </li></ul>
  4. 4. Intro to C&E <ul><li>Definition: A Cause and Effect Diagram is a tool that helps a team to identify, explore, and display in increasing detail, all of the possible causes related to a problem or condition in order to discover its root cause(s). </li></ul><ul><li>Practice Basics Weekend Procrastination? </li></ul><ul><li>Define/ Assign Cause Categories </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm more detailed causes </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a cause and ask “Why?” 2-5 times </li></ul><ul><li>Share lowest level causes and look for patterns </li></ul>Problem Statement
  5. 5. Constructing a Fishbone Diagram <ul><li>Velaction Video </li></ul>
  6. 6. Process Flowchart <ul><li>Problem Definition Critical </li></ul><ul><li>Format/ Cause Categories </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming! </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Action on Root Causes </li></ul>
  7. 7. Case Study <ul><li>The Case of the Missing Deadline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the central problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are possible causes of the problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Take a moment to review and reflect on the case study </li></ul>
  8. 8. Process <ul><li>Select a facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Phrase the problem statement (5 min) </li></ul><ul><li>Generate causes (10 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>Construct the diagram (15 minutes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersion Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Categorization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Break down causes to find root causes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analyse Causes (15 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up on root causes (debrief – 5-10 minutes) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Step 1: Select a Facilitator <ul><li>A facilitator is expected to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure that the problem is clearly understood by everyone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get the team to participate in the current step. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage the time so that each task is finished in line with the training schedule. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure that any and all ideas are recorded accurately. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize the team’s conclusions based on the consensus of the team and the specific assignment. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Step 2: Problem Statement <ul><li>Facilitator provides opportunity for team to contribute </li></ul><ul><li>Statement should normally be 4-8 words or less </li></ul><ul><li>A problem is an issue that represents a gap between desired and actual performance/results and is an observable effect of one or more contributing causes </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss in team and come up with a statement – write it large on a sticky note and place at far right middle of the chart </li></ul><ul><li>5 MINUTES </li></ul>
  11. 11. Step 3: Generate Causes <ul><li>General to specific? </li></ul><ul><li>Specific to general? </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no judgment, just try to get as many ideas as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator, ensure everyone has a chance to participate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>10 MINUTES </li></ul><ul><li>Next: Major Cause Categories </li></ul>
  12. 12. Step 3: Dispersion Analysis <ul><li>4 Ps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process/Procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant/Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 Ms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manpower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machinery Equipment </li></ul></ul>Problem Statement Process People Policy Plant/ Equipment
  13. 13. Step 3: Process Classification <ul><li>Define major steps in the Process </li></ul><ul><li>Establish causes relative to the process </li></ul>Late Pizza Deliveries on Friday Nights Assembling Pizza Baking Pizza Taking Orders Delivering Pizza
  14. 14. Step 4: Construct Diagram <ul><li>Assign Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign to one category if possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If not possible, consider rephrasing relative to the cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeating causes in multiple categories may be a good sign of a root cause </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilitator works to ensure consensus of assignment </li></ul><ul><li>15 MINUTES </li></ul>
  15. 15. Step 5: Analyse Causes <ul><li>Look for repeating items, patterns </li></ul><ul><li>In Process Classification, repeating is rare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for items that create bottlenecks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask “Why?” 2-5 times </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure it is cause and effect or it is a new cause </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator – manage process to ensure you go far enough and not too far; build consensus on patterns, root causes </li></ul><ul><li>15 MINUTES </li></ul>
  16. 16. Step 6: Next Steps <ul><li>Recommendations Document </li></ul><ul><li>Process Improvement Suggestion </li></ul><ul><li>Request for Decision </li></ul>
  17. 17. Other Issues <ul><li>When do you use a tool? </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing C&E Format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersion Analysis? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4Ms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4Ps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Team Generated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process Driven </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Team Generated </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. A Word on GOAL/QPC <ul><li>Memory Jogger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash Drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.goalqpc.com or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.memoryjogger.org </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Wrap-up <ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Math – the Language of Logic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Algorithms & Programmatic Problem-Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Tools & Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IPO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowcharts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudocode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishbone/ C&E Diagram </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Final Exam <ul><li>20 M/C Questions = 40% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hint: focus on Class Notes/ slides on site </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 Application = 60% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Either </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 programming problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flowchart, pseudocode and Ruby procedures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Approach is worth more than code </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or, Business Case </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complete Fishbone with brainstorm, classification, and analysis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Approach is worth more than quality of analysis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Good luck! </li></ul>

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