Total crude oil production from the North Sea, U.S. decline in oil production since 1970. Oil and oil price in 2006 dollars per barrel. supply today dominated by imports. Fossil fuels are a finite resource. Hence, we seek alternative energy sources. Economic motivation
A firefighter under a protective chemical spray at Kuwait’s Greater Burhan Oil Field, which retreating Iraqi troops had set on fire, 1991We are interested in security of energy supply!Political motivation
Line-up at a Los Angeles gas station in anticipation of rationing, 11 May, 1979We are interested in security of energy supply!Political motivation
In 1769 James Watt patented his CO2 concentrations (parts/million) for the last 1100 years. steam engine. Using fossil fuels changes the climate!Environmental motivation
Alberta Athabasca Oil Sands. Their production impacts a larger landbase, and produces more greenhouse gases than conventional methods. Using fossil fuels changes the climate! ...and has other serious environmental impactsEnvironmental motivation
A complex network of wells, pipelines and roads covers the Kazakh steppe. Using fossil fuels changes the climate! ...and has other serious environmental impactsEnvironmental motivation
Current consumption per person and a future consumption plan, in “cartoon Britain 2008” along with a possible breakdown (left two columns)... of fuels (right two columns). This plan requires that electricity supply be increased from 18 to 48 kWh per day per person. We can produce lots of electricity* to electrify transportation and heating!*From renewable sources.
The immense dependence of plan G on renewables, especially wind, creates difficulties for balancing supply and demand! Wind 32 KW/day/person (4x global wind power in 2008 or 120x UK wind power in 2009) +Photovoltaics 3 KW/day/person (that’s 6m² of panels per person)
Photovoltaics Approx. 9m² of panels per person covering 43% of all available roofs across the country. (Remaining real estate is reserved for solar heated water.)It’s pretty much the same story, only slightly more radical.
To make a difference, renewable facilities have to be country-sized. What’srequired are BIG contributions by everybody!Renewable-based energy solution will necessarily belarge and intrusive - Little things wont do!
We are looking at large scale transformations in the material and institutional infrastructures that shape the ways in which we produce and consume energy!... so what do things look like on the ground?
Gebäu d eergeb nis Ph otovol Eignun taik g Ges a m tgebä ude: Eignun g Teilflä c hen: s ehr gu 133,64 t geeign T ech n m² et ische D 0 m² s ehr gu aten tg Möglic h 0 m² gut gee eeignet ig e CO - bedingt net Möglic h 2 Eins par geeigne er Stro ung: t Ins tallie me rbare M rtrag: 11,26 t pro Ja Möglic h od es Inve ulfläc he: 18,04 hr Erz ielb st MW h p are Lei itions volum en 133,64 ro Jahr s tung: : m² 66.850 Gebäu € d eergeb 19,1 kW nis So larther Eignun mie g Ges a m tgebä ude: Nutz ba re Fläc he: The solar potential of my house: 170 m ² geeigne t According to the Solar Atlas Berlin “Sehr gut geeignet!”h in e i ne m n ä c hs te n de r r n S c hr ds Da c itt für d hk a mp e n s ol a gne u a rta ug n lic he n
So, how might we pull this off? One street at a time...
Taking inspiration from dispersion processes of wind turbines? “Im Bereich der Windenergienutzung, die sich von vornherein als die kapitalintensivste Form der alternativen Stromproduktion erwies, entwickelte sich die gemeinschaftliche Handlungsform „Bürgerkraftwerk“ in der Rechtsform der GmbH & Co KG zu einer tragenden Säule des Verbreitungsprozesses.”