You will need to have printed off England & Finney’s scoping questionnaire provided for the class exercise.
This is an opportunity to discuss the model again. This is also an opportunity to revise any content students found difficult last week.
Ask students why they think the answers to these questions might be different.
This is a useful point to discuss understanding the needs of clients and how you go about understanding them. The skill is in producing a strategy document that you both agree on, with signatures.
We are building up to a class exercise using England & Finney’s scoping document. It is imperative that students understand that what England and Finney term as scoping is different from what Garrett describes as the scope plane. We will use England & Finney’s techniques to build an effective strategy plane.
Explain that the questionnaire should be seen as a tool, not all sections are correct for every circumstance and students should pick and choose according to their needs.
Discuss with students how vital it is to have someone responsible for sign off. Ask students what differing expectations clients might have according to experience. Consider the difference between a church based charity run by a 65 year old that does not have a Web site to the web site for a new skateboard and clothing shop run by a 35 year old graphic designer.
The details on this particular form are wide reaching and particularly relevant to large projects. Never the less, it is important to consider all these aspects when discussing a project. Formalising what is required at these early stages stops time consuming mistakes later on. Ask students to consider Market Sector, a financial institution would require a very different product to a television channel. Within the project content bias, point out that getting a client to rank the importance and size expectations are key.
Naturally, you would be expected to explain the idea that different browsers work in different ways. Include a discussion on Mac/Windows. Explain this is important but will not be gone into in great depth here. The mobile ‘phone question opens up a discussion on screen sizes and the implications this has on design.
At this point you can discuss content management systems, what they are and how they’re used. The key question being, will you make one yourself or buy one off the shelf.
Students should have started thinking about what they are going to produce for their coursework, ask them to think about their users and who they are.
The BBC website www.bbc.co.uk is an excellent example of a Web site that is truly constructed for “everyone”. On the surface this may seem true but the deeper one delves into the site, the more specialist the content becomes and the more segmented the users are.
Explain that these terms come from market research and are used as an indicator.
The prepend of Psycho indicates that the theories relate to the mind. Use an example of wealthy conservatives in a leafy borough and mechanics working in a garage. Each group is likely to relate well with each other and there will be cross over beliefs and values but at their core they will be very succinct groups.
These are great examples of mixed demographics and psychographics. Car companies spend a lot of time and money deciding exactly who they are building a car for. Explain to students that it is unlikely they’re first Web site will have the same critical financial implications but they should definitely take these ideas on board.
The amount of detail depends on the scope of the website. The Labour Party www.labour.org.uk/ Website is going to have a much wider user segmentation than Hard to Find Records http://www.htfr.com/
A good example is that you would build a different type of site for a person buying a second hand cheap car http://www.buyyourcar.co.uk/used-car.aspx to one for Ferrari owners http://www.fioranoferrari.com/.
Again, it is useful to reiterate that Jarrett’s scope plane is different to the scoping questionnaire. The scoping questionnaire is very much a document to analyse client needs. The scope plane discusses what the site will do.
It’s hoped that students are beginning to grasp that there are three distinct perspectives going into the construction of any site. The final product is a fine balance between client expectations, user needs and the skill and experience of the developer.
We return, once again to the original model.
Week 3 - A Planning Website
IMD09117 and IMD09118 Web Design and Development Planning and Scoping a Web site.
Reminder of the 5 planes model Last week we examined Garrett’s model in detail. We discussed the typical web development life cycle. We also looked into mission statements for websites. Today we will cover the strategy plane in greater detail. We will move onto the scope plane and discuss client needs.
Strategy <ul><li>What do we want to get from this site? </li></ul><ul><li>What do our users want? </li></ul><ul><li>These are the two key questions to be answered by the strategy plane. </li></ul>
Who are we building the site for? <ul><li>It’s easy when you are your own client but when you’re building for other people you have to listen. </li></ul><ul><li>Your skill as a designer is using your expertise to help the client understand what it is they want. </li></ul>
Clients <ul><li>Most people have an idea of what they want but how do you clarify what is to be delivered. </li></ul><ul><li>England & Finney (2007) call this process “scoping”. They describe this as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting the right information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translating this information into appropriate solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showing that these solutions fit a client’s needs </li></ul></ul>
How much detail? <ul><li>This is a key question. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too much detail overcomplicates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too little will lead to an unsatisfactory product. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The important objective is to retrieve any relevant information for the project. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England & Finney provide a questionnaire which is a solid basis for the information you need, we will discuss some of the questions . </li></ul></ul>
Contact <ul><li>Never underestimate the importance of establishing a firm contact. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You need the security of having a liaison that is responsible for agreeing work is finished and satisfactory. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Previous interactive Media Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The level of experience a client has will change their expectations. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Market Sector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This effects the type of site you will produce. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Content Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is here as a tool to help you understand what the client expects and to ensure that you can demonstrate to the client what has been agreed. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Browser/platform expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all browsers or products display Websites the same way. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is your client expecting people to access the site on their mobile ‘phones? </li></ul></ul>
Site maintenance <ul><li>Once our Website is up and running, who’s going to look after it? </li></ul><ul><li>If it’s down to the client, how will this be? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do they need training? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will you produce a content management system? </li></ul></ul>
Users <ul><li>So far we’ve talked about about the client and what they expect, it’s time to consider the users of our new Web site. </li></ul><ul><li>When designing any product it is vital to understand who we are making it for. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an easy trap to assume that our product is for one type of user who happens to be exactly like us. </li></ul>
Diversity <ul><li>It can be very complicated to define users as they come from all walks of life. </li></ul><ul><li>To simply claim that a site is for “everyone” is a cop out. There are very few sites for which this is true. </li></ul>
Demographics <ul><li>Demographics are one way of describing users. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marital Status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income </li></ul></ul>
Psychographics <ul><li>These idea describe the attitudes and perceptions of users. Psychographics and demographics are often linked: People with the same income level of the same age living in the same area will have similar attitudes. </li></ul>
Some examples from forbes.com Pictures from http://www.forbes.com/2007/05/09/cars-message-autos-forbesllife-cx_dl_0510carsays_slide_7.html?thisSpeed=15000
User Segmentation <ul><li>To understand who’s using our products, we break down our users into groups of people with shared needs. </li></ul><ul><li>By understanding who they are and what they want, we can build an effective site. </li></ul>
User Research <ul><li>Once we have decided who we are building our site for, we need to know how to provide the information they want. </li></ul>
Defining the Scope <ul><li>This turns our question from: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Why are we building this site?” </li></ul><ul><li>To: </li></ul><ul><li>“ What are we going to make?” </li></ul>
Requirements <ul><ul><li>functional specifications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content requirements </li></ul></ul>Now we understand what we are building we need to combine all the information we have so far and break into two distinct areas: