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produces instructions to make
proteins that may treat or prevent
disease
 mRNA medicines aren’t small molecules, like
traditional pharmaceuticals. And they aren’t
traditional biologics (recombinant proteins and
monoclonal antibodies) – which were the genesis of
the biotech industry. Instead, mRNA medicines are
sets of instructions. And these instructions direct cells
in the body to make proteins to prevent or fight
disease.
 CH.SRINIVASA REDDY
 M.sc
It’s actually basic human biology.
 DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a double-stranded
molecule that stores the genetic instructions your
body’s cells need to make proteins. Proteins, on the
other hand, are the ‘workhorses’ of the body. Nearly
every function in the human body – both normal and
disease-related – is carried out by one or many
proteins.
mRNA is just as critical as DNA.
 Without mRNA, your genetic code would never get
used by your body. Proteins would never get
made. And your body wouldn’t – actually couldn’t –
perform its functions. Messenger ribonucleuc acid, or
mRNA for short, plays a vital role in human biology,
specifically in a process known as protein
synthesis. mRNA is a single-stranded molecule that
carries genetic code from DNA in a cell’s nucleus to
ribosomes, the cell’s protein-making machinery.
mRNA’s role in protein synthesis
 Through a process known as transcription, an RNA
copy of a DNA sequence for creating a given protein is
made.
 This copy – mRNA – travels from the nucleus of the
cell to the part of the cell known as the cytoplasm,
which houses ribosomes. Ribosomes are complex
machinery in the cells that are responsible for making
proteins.
 Then, through another process known as translation,
ribosomes ‘read’ the mRNA, and follow the
instructions, creating the protein step by step.
 The cell then expresses the protein and it, in turn,
carries out its designated function in the cell or the
body.
category of medicines.
 Using mRNA to develop a new category of medicines.
 At Moderna, we are leveraging the fundamental role
that mRNA plays in protein synthesis. We have
developed proprietary technologies and methods to
create mRNA sequences that cells recognize as if they
were produced in the body. We focus on diseases
where enabling targeted cells to produce – or turn ‘on’
– one or more given proteins will enable the body to
fight or prevent a given disease.
 start with our desired sequence for a protein.
 design and synthesize the corresponding mRNA
sequence – the code that will create that protein.
 Before synthesis, we also engineer that mRNA
sequence to optimize the mRNA’s physical properties,
as well as those of the encoded protein.
Using mRNA to develop a new
category of medicines.
 deliver the mRNA sequence to the cells responsible for
making that protein via one of
several modalities. Reaching different types of cells
requires different delivery methods.
 And, once the mRNA – the instructions – are in the
cell … human biology takes over. Ribosomes read the
code and build the protein, and the cells express the
protein in the body.
mRNA’s role in protein synthesis
mRNA’s role in protein synthesis
mRNA’s role in protein synthesis

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What does mRNA do? mRNA produces instructions to make proteins that may treat or prevent disease

  • 1.
  • 2. produces instructions to make proteins that may treat or prevent disease  mRNA medicines aren’t small molecules, like traditional pharmaceuticals. And they aren’t traditional biologics (recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies) – which were the genesis of the biotech industry. Instead, mRNA medicines are sets of instructions. And these instructions direct cells in the body to make proteins to prevent or fight disease.
  • 4. It’s actually basic human biology.  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a double-stranded molecule that stores the genetic instructions your body’s cells need to make proteins. Proteins, on the other hand, are the ‘workhorses’ of the body. Nearly every function in the human body – both normal and disease-related – is carried out by one or many proteins.
  • 5. mRNA is just as critical as DNA.  Without mRNA, your genetic code would never get used by your body. Proteins would never get made. And your body wouldn’t – actually couldn’t – perform its functions. Messenger ribonucleuc acid, or mRNA for short, plays a vital role in human biology, specifically in a process known as protein synthesis. mRNA is a single-stranded molecule that carries genetic code from DNA in a cell’s nucleus to ribosomes, the cell’s protein-making machinery.
  • 6. mRNA’s role in protein synthesis  Through a process known as transcription, an RNA copy of a DNA sequence for creating a given protein is made.  This copy – mRNA – travels from the nucleus of the cell to the part of the cell known as the cytoplasm, which houses ribosomes. Ribosomes are complex machinery in the cells that are responsible for making proteins.
  • 7.  Then, through another process known as translation, ribosomes ‘read’ the mRNA, and follow the instructions, creating the protein step by step.  The cell then expresses the protein and it, in turn, carries out its designated function in the cell or the body.
  • 8. category of medicines.  Using mRNA to develop a new category of medicines.  At Moderna, we are leveraging the fundamental role that mRNA plays in protein synthesis. We have developed proprietary technologies and methods to create mRNA sequences that cells recognize as if they were produced in the body. We focus on diseases where enabling targeted cells to produce – or turn ‘on’ – one or more given proteins will enable the body to fight or prevent a given disease.
  • 9.  start with our desired sequence for a protein.  design and synthesize the corresponding mRNA sequence – the code that will create that protein.  Before synthesis, we also engineer that mRNA sequence to optimize the mRNA’s physical properties, as well as those of the encoded protein.
  • 10. Using mRNA to develop a new category of medicines.  deliver the mRNA sequence to the cells responsible for making that protein via one of several modalities. Reaching different types of cells requires different delivery methods.  And, once the mRNA – the instructions – are in the cell … human biology takes over. Ribosomes read the code and build the protein, and the cells express the protein in the body.
  • 11. mRNA’s role in protein synthesis
  • 12. mRNA’s role in protein synthesis
  • 13. mRNA’s role in protein synthesis