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The Oxford Vaccine Centre COVID-
19 Phase II/III Clinical Trial
Explained
 Ch.srinivasa reddy
 M.sc
research study?
 The purpose of this study is to test a new vaccine
against COVID-19 in healthy volunteers.
 This study aims to assess how well people across a
broad range of ages could be protected from COVID-19
with this new vaccine called ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. It will
also provide valuable information on safety aspects of
the vaccine and its ability to generate good immune
responses against the virus.
What is the vaccine being tested? ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 is made from a virus (ChAdOx1),
which is a weakened version of a common cold virus
(adenovirus) that causes infections in chimpanzees,
that has been genetically changed so that it is
impossible for it to grow in humans.
What is the vaccine being tested?
 Genetic material has been added to the ChAdOx1
construct, that is used to make proteins from the
COVID-19 virus (SARS-CoV-2) called Spike
glycoprotein (S). This protein is usually found on the
surface of SARS-CoV-2 and plays an essential role in
the infection pathway of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The
SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus uses its spike protein to bind
to ACE2 receptors on human cells to gain entry to the
cells and cause an infection.
 By vaccinating with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, we are hoping
to make the body recognise and develop an immune
response to the Spike protein that will help stop the
SARS-CoV-2 virus from entering human cells and
therefore prevent infection.

 Our collaborators at Rocky Mountain Laboratories
(NIAID/NIH) have conducted a rapid yet thorough
investigation and demonstrated good safety and
efficacy of a single dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in the
rhesus macaque model that they had previously
established. We were able to review the data before
vaccinations in the clinical trial were initiated. There
are also animal studies underway in Australia and the
UK, and the results will be published once those
studies are complete.

What does the study involve?
 In total this study will enrol up to 10,260 adults and
children across the UK.
 The phase II part of the study involves expanding the
age range of people the vaccine is assessed in, to
include a small number of adults and children:

Aged 56-69Aged over 70Aged between 5-12 year
What is the MenACWY vaccine? The MenACWY vaccine is a licensed vaccine against
group A, C, W and Y meningococcus which has been
given routinely to teenagers in the UK since 2015 and
protects against one of the most common causes of
meningitis and sepsis. This vaccine is also given as a
travel vaccine for high risk countries
What is the MenACWY vaccine?
 The MenACWY vaccine is being used as an ‘active
control’ vaccine in this study, to help us understand
participants’ response to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. The
reason for using this vaccine, rather than a saline
control, is because we expect to see some minor side
effects from the ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 vaccine such as a
sore arm, headache and fever. Saline does not cause
any of these side effects.
What is the MenACWY vaccine?
 If participants were to receive only this vaccine or a
saline control, and went on to develop side effects, they
would be aware that they had received the new
vaccine. It is critical for this study that participants
remain blinded to whether or not they have received
the vaccine, as, if they knew, this could affect their
health behaviour in the community following
vaccination, and may lead to a bias in the results of the
study.

How will the trial work?
 The main focus of the study is to find out if this
vaccine is going to work against COVID-19, if it won’t
cause unacceptable side effects and if it induces good
immune responses. The dose used in this trial was
chosen based on previous experiences with other
ChAdOx1 based vaccines.
How will the trial work?
 Study participants will not know whether they have
received the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine until the end
of the trial.
 To recruit the large number of participants needed
for this trial, multiple clinical research sites across the
UK are involved in delivering the study. This is a
collaborative effort led by the University of Oxford and
a full list of our study sites is available on our website.
Vaccinations will be taking place across the sites in
May and June.
What about after the vaccination?
 Some participants will be given an E-diary to record
any symptoms experienced for 7 days after receiving
the vaccine and if they feel unwell for the following 3
weeks. There is also a weekly survey that participants
will be asked to complete about any household
exposure to COVID-19.
When will the results be available?
 To assess whether the vaccine works to protect from
COVID-19, the statisticians in our team will compare
the number of infections in the control group with the
number of infections in the vaccinated group. For this
purpose, it is necessary for a small number of study
participants to develop COVID-19. How quickly we
reach the numbers required will depend on the levels
of virus transmission in the community.
What if it doesn’t work?
 A significant proportion of vaccines that are tested in
clinical trials don’t work. If we are unable to show that
the vaccine is protective against the virus, we would
review progress, examine alternative approaches, such
as using different numbers of doses, and would
potentially stop the programme.

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OXFORD UNIVERSITY covid-19 phase II/III clinical trail explained

  • 1.
  • 2. The Oxford Vaccine Centre COVID- 19 Phase II/III Clinical Trial Explained  Ch.srinivasa reddy  M.sc
  • 3. research study?  The purpose of this study is to test a new vaccine against COVID-19 in healthy volunteers.  This study aims to assess how well people across a broad range of ages could be protected from COVID-19 with this new vaccine called ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. It will also provide valuable information on safety aspects of the vaccine and its ability to generate good immune responses against the virus.
  • 4. What is the vaccine being tested? ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 is made from a virus (ChAdOx1), which is a weakened version of a common cold virus (adenovirus) that causes infections in chimpanzees, that has been genetically changed so that it is impossible for it to grow in humans.
  • 5. What is the vaccine being tested?  Genetic material has been added to the ChAdOx1 construct, that is used to make proteins from the COVID-19 virus (SARS-CoV-2) called Spike glycoprotein (S). This protein is usually found on the surface of SARS-CoV-2 and plays an essential role in the infection pathway of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus uses its spike protein to bind to ACE2 receptors on human cells to gain entry to the cells and cause an infection.
  • 6.  By vaccinating with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, we are hoping to make the body recognise and develop an immune response to the Spike protein that will help stop the SARS-CoV-2 virus from entering human cells and therefore prevent infection. 
  • 7.  Our collaborators at Rocky Mountain Laboratories (NIAID/NIH) have conducted a rapid yet thorough investigation and demonstrated good safety and efficacy of a single dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in the rhesus macaque model that they had previously established. We were able to review the data before vaccinations in the clinical trial were initiated. There are also animal studies underway in Australia and the UK, and the results will be published once those studies are complete. 
  • 8. What does the study involve?  In total this study will enrol up to 10,260 adults and children across the UK.  The phase II part of the study involves expanding the age range of people the vaccine is assessed in, to include a small number of adults and children:  Aged 56-69Aged over 70Aged between 5-12 year
  • 9. What is the MenACWY vaccine? The MenACWY vaccine is a licensed vaccine against group A, C, W and Y meningococcus which has been given routinely to teenagers in the UK since 2015 and protects against one of the most common causes of meningitis and sepsis. This vaccine is also given as a travel vaccine for high risk countries
  • 10. What is the MenACWY vaccine?  The MenACWY vaccine is being used as an ‘active control’ vaccine in this study, to help us understand participants’ response to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. The reason for using this vaccine, rather than a saline control, is because we expect to see some minor side effects from the ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 vaccine such as a sore arm, headache and fever. Saline does not cause any of these side effects.
  • 11. What is the MenACWY vaccine?  If participants were to receive only this vaccine or a saline control, and went on to develop side effects, they would be aware that they had received the new vaccine. It is critical for this study that participants remain blinded to whether or not they have received the vaccine, as, if they knew, this could affect their health behaviour in the community following vaccination, and may lead to a bias in the results of the study. 
  • 12. How will the trial work?  The main focus of the study is to find out if this vaccine is going to work against COVID-19, if it won’t cause unacceptable side effects and if it induces good immune responses. The dose used in this trial was chosen based on previous experiences with other ChAdOx1 based vaccines.
  • 13. How will the trial work?  Study participants will not know whether they have received the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine until the end of the trial.  To recruit the large number of participants needed for this trial, multiple clinical research sites across the UK are involved in delivering the study. This is a collaborative effort led by the University of Oxford and a full list of our study sites is available on our website. Vaccinations will be taking place across the sites in May and June.
  • 14. What about after the vaccination?  Some participants will be given an E-diary to record any symptoms experienced for 7 days after receiving the vaccine and if they feel unwell for the following 3 weeks. There is also a weekly survey that participants will be asked to complete about any household exposure to COVID-19.
  • 15. When will the results be available?  To assess whether the vaccine works to protect from COVID-19, the statisticians in our team will compare the number of infections in the control group with the number of infections in the vaccinated group. For this purpose, it is necessary for a small number of study participants to develop COVID-19. How quickly we reach the numbers required will depend on the levels of virus transmission in the community.
  • 16. What if it doesn’t work?  A significant proportion of vaccines that are tested in clinical trials don’t work. If we are unable to show that the vaccine is protective against the virus, we would review progress, examine alternative approaches, such as using different numbers of doses, and would potentially stop the programme.