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Welcome	to	our	4th		
DE-US.net	webinar!	
DE-US.net	–	Webinar	II/2018,	Feb.	22,	2018	1
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2	
Your	hosts	
Dr. Stephan
Bartke
Prof. Dr. Reimund
Schwarze
Prof. Peter B Meyer, PhD
DE-US.net	–	Webinar	II/2018,	Feb.	22,	2018
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!  network	
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!  interested	in	shaping	the	City	of	Tomorrow		
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Join	us	at	hBp://de-us.net!	
3	
DE-US.net	–	Get	involved!	
DE-US.net	–	Webinar	II/2018,	Feb.	22,	2018
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
May	22.2018	–	May	25.2018	Bochum	/	Germany	-	STRUCTURAL	CHANGE	AND	BROWNFIELD	RECYCLING	IN	GERMANY	
	
Tuesday,	May	22:	Urban	Development	in	global	and	regional	perspecLves	
The	Ruhr	Metropolitan	Area,	a	Survey.	Michael	Schwarze-Rhodrian,	Regional	Associa8on	Ruhr	(asked)	
Urban	development	in	a	global	environmental-economic	perspec8ve.	Prof.	Dr.	Reimund	Schwarze,	UFZ	
Structural	Change	in	the	Ruhr-Region,	1960	–	2017.	Prof.	Dr.	Rolf	Heyer,	WEG/Ruhr	University	Bochum	
Brownfield	Recycling	in	Germany	and	Northrhine-Wesealia,	Instruments	and	Results.	Prof.	Dr.	Rolf	Heyer	
Wednesday,	May	23:	Structural	Change	and	Brownfield	Recycling	in	Bochum		
Excursion	by	bus	
City	West	with	Jahrhunderthalle;	from	Graetz	(TV-produc8on)	via	Nokia	(mobile	phone	produc8on)	to	logis8cs;	former	coal	mine	Lothringen,	new	industrial	parks;	from	coal	mine	Dannebaum	
via	Opel	(car	produc8on)	to	Mark	51°7;	University	campus	Querenburg	with	technology	and	health	science	campus.	
Thursday,	May	24:	Urban	land	management	
Tourism,	Culture	and	Recrea8on,	New	Industries	in	Old	Buildings.	Andreas	Kuchajda,	Bochumer	Veranstaltungsgesellschal.	
No	more	than	30	ha	per	day	!	Strategies,	instruments	and	results.	Detlef	Grimski,	UBA.	
Residen8al	Reuse	of	Former	Industrial	Sites?	Prof.	Dr.	Rolf	Heyer,	WEG/RUB	
Investors	and	Brownfields.	Stephan	Bartke,	UFZ	
Friday,	May	25:	Regional	Projects	/	From	Steel	to	Housing	and	New	industries		
Excursion	by	bus:	Regional	Projects	
From	Steel	to	Housing	and	New	industries:	Phoenix	in	Dortmund;	a	new	district	for	Gelsenkirchen	:	Graf	Bismarck;	World	Heritage	:	Zeche	Zollverein	in	Essen;	The	park	of	the	21st	Century	:	
Landschalspark	Park	Duisburg;	Inner	Harbor,	Duisburg.	
hBp://www.de-us.net/index.php/summerschool.html	
Summer	School	
DE-US.net	–	Webinar	II/2018,	Feb.	22,	2018	4
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
!  JAN	23,	2018:	Brownfields	Redevelopment,	The	Opel/GM	
Case	in	Bochum/Germany	
!  Rolf	Heyer,	WEG	Bochum	&	Sabine	Mar8n,	KSU	
!  NOV	27,	2017:	Op8miza8on	of	redevelopment	for	
environmentally	burdened	sites	
!  Kersten	Roselt,	JenaGeos	&	Ingo	Quaas,	Quaas	Stadtplaner	
!  Sep	13,	2017:	Climate-Resilient	Infrastructure	Financing	
!  Reimund	Schwarze,	UFZ	&	Peter	B.	Meyer	EP	Systems	
!  Find	recordings	at	www.de-us.net/index.php/webinar.html	
5	
Previous	webinars	
DE-US.net	–	Webinar	II/2018,	Feb.	22,	2018
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
!  Peter	and	Reimund	will	present	
!  YOU	can	send	your	ques8ons	/	comments		
!  In	the	chat	box	below	
!  Or	by	email	to	webinar@de-us.net	
!  Tweet	them	to	@de_us_net	
!  During	and	aler	the	presenta8on,		
we	will	answer	to	the	ques8ons	
6	
How	it	works	
DE-US.net	–	Webinar	II/2018,	Feb.	22,	2018
Urban	Climate-Resilient	Infrastructure	Finance	
aler	the	Bonn-Fiji	commitment	to	urban	ac8on	
Peter	B.	Meyer	(EPSG,	USA)		and	Reimund	Schwarze	(UFZ,	Germany)	
DE-US.net	webinar	I/2018															2018	February	22nd
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
8	
„Our	struggle	towards	sustainability	will	be	won	or	lost	in	
ci8es.“		
(Ban	Ki	Moon,	2012)	
	
90% of the entire urban
population growth
Asia				48%		>>>>>>>>>			64%	
Africa	40%		>>>>>>>>>			56%	
India,	China,	Nigeria		37%
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
1	 Climate	infrastructure	finance	issues	
2	 Paris-Accord:	Builds	on	botom-up	financing	solu8ons	
4	
Carbon	pricing	and	carbon	risk	disclosure	as	panaceas	-	mechanisms,	experiences	
and	challenges	
5	 Pulling	pieces	together:	The	need	for	co-benefits	frameworks	
6	 Conclusion	&	take	home	message		
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	9	
Outline	
3	 Bonn-Fiji	commitment	to	urban	ac8on:	How	the	Paris	Accord	makes	a	difference
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	10	
The	Perceived	Problem:	only	4%	of	the	500	largest	ci8es	in	developing	countries	
were	creditworthy	in	interna8onal	financial	markets	and	20%	are	creditworthy	in	
local	markets	
The	Reality:	infrastructure	financing	may	be	accessible	but	too	expensive	–	or	the	
needs	may	exceed	even	creditworthy	ci8es’capacity	to	service	the	debt	–	and	may	
appear	to	be	a	less	immediate	need	than	other	current	expenditures	
The	Way	Forward:	such	infrastructure	could	compete	on	current	cost	grounds	if	
carbon	risks	and	life8me	returns	on	investment	are	considered	
	
	
1.	Climate	infrastructure	finance	issues	
The	need:	average	annual	infrastructure	investment	need	of	some	US$	5.7	(WEF	
2013)	to	US$	6.5	(CCFLA	2016)	trillion		
The	 Issue:	 not	 enough	 climate	 financing	 –	 only	 US$437	 billion	 invested	
interna8onally	in	2015,	falling	to	US$383	billion	in	2016	(CPI).			
	
Bankability	
Access	
Local	
poliLcal	
support
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Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	11	
Global	Commission	on	the	Economy	and	Climate	
-	$1,8	
C-Risk	
•  The	term	‘stranded	asset’	
refers	to	changes	in	
technology,	markets	or	
regula8on	which	render	
economic	assets	
worthless			
•  If,	on	the	other	hand,	
carbon	risk	(C-Risk)	
accoun8ng	would	become	
a	systema8c	element	of	
investment	planning	in	
ci8es,	stranded	asset	risks	
turn	into	actual	cost	
savings	for	low	carbon	
investment	plans	of	ci8es
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	12	
E.g.,	city	self-financing	capaci8es	differ	substan8ally		the	US	–	DE	
contrast	illustrates	well:	
•  German	ciLes	are	mostly	dependent	on	their	states	(laender)	and	
the	federal	government	for	their	opera8ng	funds	–	between	
10-16	%	of	their	financing	needs	generate	from	their	own	tax	
bases.	Land	tax	is	based	on	unit	values	(1935East,	1964West).	
•  U.S.	ciLes	generate	80%	of	their	financing	needs	from	their	own	
tax	bases	–	but	their	ability	to	raise	funds	from	taxa8on	and	
borrowing	are	controlled	by	the	individual	states	and	can	include	
income	taxes	in	some	instances.	Land	tax	is	based	on	current	
market	values	and	rises	with	local	development.	
There	is	no	one-size-fits-all	financing	solu8on
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13	
•  Climate	resilience	is	“the	capability	of	urban	systems	to	prepare	for	and	
respond	to	the	risks	and	impacts	of	natural	hazards,	climate	variability,	
and	 climate	 change”	 (World	 Bank).	 It	 effec8vely	 combines	 climate	
change	 mi8ga8on	 and	 adapta8on	 (ARC3.2:	 ‘Climate	 acBons’)	 with	
elements	of	disaster	risk	reduc8on.			
•  Most	defini8ons	focus	on	physical	structures,	i.e.	“hard	infrastructure	”	
such	 as	 buildings,	 u8li8es,	 transporta8on	 systems,	 communica8ons	
networks.	 But	 there	 is	 also	 a	 “soe	 infrastructure	 ”	 of	 health	 care,	
educa8on,	emergency	and	support	networks,	the	so-called	“safety	net”.	
It	may	be	associated	with	physical	structures,	e.g.	parks,	public	pools,	
schools,	libraries.	
•  Climate-resilient	infrastructure	is	a	mix	of	hard	and	soe	infrastructure	
that	is	resilient	to	climate	variability	and	climate	change.	It	underpins	
sustained	quality	of	life,	business	con8nuity	and	growth.		
What	is	‘climate	resilient	infrastructure'?		
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
ForecasLng	capacity	is	the	founda8on	of	resilience	planning	
•  Threats	and	Opportuni8es	need	to	be	iden8fied	
•  The	life8me	costs	and	benefits	of	alterna8ve	means	of	pursuit	of	resilience	need	to	be	compared 	.	
Informing	ciLzens	and	civil	society	is	essen8al	for	soe	infrastructure	to	become	more	resilient	
Smart	sustainable	ciLes	“use	informaBon	and	communicaBon	technologies	(ICT)	to	be	more	intelligent	
and	efficient	in	the	use	of	resources,	resulBng	in	cost	and	energy	savings,	improved	service	delivery	and	quality	
of	life,	and	reduced	environmental	footprint–	all	supporBng	innovaBon,	growth	and	the	low-carbon	
economy”	(Interna8onal	Telecommunica8ons	Union).	
	
Resilient	infrastructure	depends	on	smart	ci8es	
Titel	der	Präsenta8on	14
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Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	15	
We	find	both	“hard”	and	“soe”	barriers	to	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	(CIF)	of	ci8es:		
•  Many	reports	highlight	the	limited	availablility	of	public	funding	on	urban	CIF.		Only	$55	B	out	
of	a	total	of	$391	B	in	climate	finance	is	delivered	through	grants	and	low	cost	project	debt	
•  Many	reports	refer	to	the	global	need	to	improve	creditworthiness	of	ci8es.	Only	4%	of	the	
500	largest	ci8es	were	creditworthy	in	interna8onal	financial	markets	and	20%	were	
domes8cally	creditworthy.		
•  Soe	factors	such	as	ideology	may	block	commitment	of	available	funds.		Without	prior	
poliLcal	commitment,	available	sustainable	infrastructure	investment	op8ons	may	never	get	
examined	
•  Sources	of	funding	–	and	their	priori,es	–	may	shape	local	commitment	to	climate	resilience	
in	infrastructure	investments.	When	priori8es	are	iden8fied	by	an	external	funding	source	as	
factors	in	eligibility,	project	plans	olen	get	modified	to	assure	access	to	funds	
•  That	means	that	local	poli8cal	will	is	not	fixed	and	may	be	malleable	by	supra-local	policies	
and	actors	
Availability	of	public	funds	and	market	access	is	only	half	the	issue,	…
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	16	
2.	Paris-Accord:	Builds	on	boBom-up	financing	soluLons
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																					Degree	of 															Kyoto-Protocol 	 	The	interim 																			Paris	Accord	
						interna8onal	rulling	
	
	
K	
	
	 	 	 	 	 																		Mutually	reinforce?	
	
	 	 	 	 	 		
	 	 		
	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 		
																																																																																																																																																																							Commitment	periods	
	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 		
The	Paris	Accord,	a	regime	shil	in	UN	climate	policy	
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	17	
Without	
Canada		
and	the	US	
2008	-	2012	 2013	-	2020	
Kyoto-Protocol	
Only	EU,	Japan		
and	Australia	
Pledge	and	
review	process	
(Copenhagen/	
Cancun)		
2020	-	-	
Paris	Accord	
“Hybrid"		
decentralized		
approach		
Bonn-Fiji	
commitment	to	
urban	ac8on
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
•  Long	term	goals:	Stay	significantly	below	2°C	global	temperature	
change,	strive	for	1.5°C		
•  Key	instrument:	Na8onally	Determined	Contribu8ons	(NDCs)	
•  Current	NDCs	for	2020	are	likely	to	lead	to	a	warming	of	at	least	
3°C;		 	unless	a	more	stringent	approach	can	be	agreed	for	2030	by	
‘ratche8ng’ NDCs		upward,	the	interna8onal	regime	will	not	be	
able	to	deliver	the	long	term	goals		
•  Long-term	goals	can	be	thought	of	as	being		“transformaLonal”,	
sending	a	signal	to	city	planers,	businesses	and	financial	markets		
	
Long-term	goals,	na8onal	pledges	and	‘ratche8ng’ 	
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	18
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
Solu8ons	Agenda,	a	new	interplay	between	subna8onal,	private	
ini8a8ves	and	UN	climate	policy		
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	19	
" Breakthrough	Energy	CoaliLon	–	to	‘Form	a	network	of	private	capital	commited	to	building	a	structure	that	will	allow	informed	decisions	to	
help	accelerate	the	change	to	the	advanced	energy	future.’	
" 	Caring	for	Climate	–	‘an	ini8a8ve	mobilizing	business	leaders	to	implement	and	recommend	climate	change	solu8ons	and	policies	by	advancing	
prac8cal	solu8ons,	sharing	experiences,	informing	public	policy	and	shaping	public	a•tudes.’	
" 	Global	Alliance	for	Buildings	and	ConstrucLon	–	‘aims	to	gather	countries,	ci8es	and	public	and	private	organiza8ons	of	the	building	sector	
value	chain,	in	order	to	scale	up	the	implementa8on	of	ambi8ous	ac8ons	toward	the	"below	2°C"	pathway	in	buildings	and	construc8on	sector.
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
3.	The	Bonn-Fiji	commitment	to	urban	acLon			
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	20	
!  Affirm	our	resolve	to	enhance	the	resilience	of	communi8es	
!  I	underscore	the	need	to	assess	the	direct	and	indirect	
impacts	of	climate	change,	reduce	disaster	risks	and	
implement	adapta8on	planning	and	measures	
!  Commit	to	cooperate	with	many	more	local	an	regional	
governments	globally	
!  Commit	to	work	with	Par8es	and	iden8fy	concrete	
opportuni8es	for	greater	climate	ambi8on	
	
The	Global	Covenant	of	Mayors	for	Climate	&	Energy		joining	forces	with	the	Urban	Leadership	Council	in	
the	ImplementaLon	of	the	Paris	Accord	goals	in	their	jurisdic8ons:	
Aggregate	impact	of	the	7494	ciLes	and	local	governments,	represenLng	over	680	million	people,	could	
collecLvely	reduce	1.3	Gt	CO2e	per	year	from	business	as	usual	in	2030
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
The	U.S.	Climate	Alliance,	a	bi-par8san	collabora8on	of	state	Governors,,	now		includes	states	with	over	
36%	of	the	US,	popula8on,	and	economies	totaling	over	$7	trillion	
•  Alliance	states	are	on	track	to	achieve	emissions	reduc8ons	of	24-29%		below	2005	levels	by	2025	
•  Member	states’	economies	con8nue	to	grow	more	rapidly	than	those	of	non-alliance	states	
•  The	Alliance	has	formed	a	new	partnership	today	with	Resources	for	the	Future	and	the	Climate	Impact	
Lab	to	generate	updated	es8mates	for	the	Social	Cost	of	Carbon,	for	use	in	assessing	the	damage	done	
by	carbon	pollu8on	–	and	central	to	measuring	the	economic	returns	to	mi8ga8on	
The	U.S.	Pull-out	and	America‘s	pledge	–	The	„We	Are	S8ll	In“	
coali8on	and	the	U.S.	Climate	Alliance	
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	21	
Four	days	aler	President	Trump	announced	withdrawal	from	the	Paris	Agreement,	
the	“We	Are	SLll	In”	coaliLon	was	formed	
•  It	now	has	over	2500	members	from	all	50	states,	corpora8ons,	universi8es	and	
local	governments		
•  Membership	represents	over	130	Million	people	and	$6.2	trillion	of	the	U.S.	
economy	implemen8ng	the	U.S.	commitment	to	the	agreement
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
2005	Emission	Level	
2015	Emissions	
2025	Emissions	Forecast,	More	
Certain	
2025	Emissions	Forecast,	Less	
Certain	
U.S.	NaBonally	Determined	ContribuBon	
26%	-	28%	
11.5%	
Reduc8ons	achieved	through	
2015	
14.1%	
CO₂	and	non-CO₂	(0.6%)		
City	and	business	(2.0%)	
17.8%	
Addi8onal	city	ac8ons	(1.0%)	
Land-use	and	forestry	(2.7%)	
Growing	State	Renewable	
Poreolio	Standards	and	
emphasis	on	reducing	supply	
chain	emissions	will	increase	
these	savings	
Gap	
Carbon	pricing	acBons	
needed	to	accelerate	the	
emission	reducBons			
Source:	C2ES,	Projec8ng	and	accelera8ng	U.S.	greenhouse	gas	reduc8on,	9/2017	(adapted)
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
•  Ideology	may	block	commitment	of	available	funds	to	sustainable	or	climate-responsive	physical	
infrastructure	
•  NaLonal	commitments	on	GHG	reducLon	may	change	ideologies		
•  Without	prior	poli8cal	commitment,	available	sustainable	infrastructure	investment	op8ons	may	never	get	
examined	
•  With	no	ideological	barriers	and	an	incenLve	to	find	the	most	efficient	means	of	reducing	emissions,	
new	opLons	will	be	welcomed		
•  Available	sources	of	funding	–	and	their	poli8cal	priori8es	–	may	shape	local	commitment	to	climate	
resilience	in	infrastructure	investments	
•  Where	local	financing	capacity	exists,	as	in	the	US	and	Germany,	we	already	see	sub-naLonal	
commitments	growing	
•  That	local	commitment	is	not	fixed	and	may	be	malleable	by	the	ac8ons	and	programs	of	supra-local	
poli8cal	and	social	en88es		
•  Precisely:	That	is	why	the	Paris	Accord	makes	a	difference!	
	
How	Paris	Accord	helps	to	solve	the	‘other	half’	of	the	issues		
Ur 	ban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	23
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•  Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	(CIF)	depends	on	predic8ons	of	the	
risks	of	higher	future	costs	of	carbon,	that	is	Carbon	Risk	
Disclosure	(CRD)	
•  Carbon	Pricing	(CP)	helps	offers	a	means	for	measuring		climate-
related	risks	and	opportuni8es	in	financial	terms	
•  Such	measurements	are	essen8al	to	scenario	projec8ons	that	are	
rou8nely	used	in	assessing	prospec8ve	risk	in	the	presence	of	
uncertainty	
•  CP	is	thus	necessary	for	CIF	bankability		
	
4.	Carbon	pricing	and	carbon	risk	disclosure	as	panaceas	-	
mechanisms,	experiences	and	challenges	
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	24	
CIF	
CRD	
CP
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The	growing	world	of	‚effec8ve	carbon	pricing‘		
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	25	
World	Bank	Group	(2016).	Regional,	naBonal	and	subnaBonal	carbon	pricing	iniBaBves:	Share	of	
global	GHG	emissions	covered	
China national ETS
European Emission
Trading Scheme
(EU-ETS)
RGGI
Internal Carbon Pricing
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
	
	
EU-ETS	–	failures		&	how	to	overcome	them	
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	26	
•  Decreasing EU cap (2.2% linear
reduction from 2021, was 1.74%)
•  Market stability reserve (24% of
surplus allowances, was 12%;
excesses cancelled after 2023)
•  MS allowed to voluntarily cancel
allowances for plant closures
•  No fossil fuels from allowance
fund (2%, 310 Mt) for poorer MS
•  BUT: No minimum price
surplus	of	
allowances		
high	price	fluctua8on	 not	represen8ng	social	costs
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
•  China	signed	up	to	decrease	its	carbon	intensity	by	40–45%	(in	2020	2005)	and	raised	
ambi8on	to	-60-65%	(in	2030	2005)		
•  To	achieve	this	target,	China	adopted	numerous	programs,	including	an	ETS	pilot		
•  During	2014–2016	(extended),	China’s	pilot	ETS,	included	two	provinces	and	five	
municipali8es	(	~	25%	China’s	GHG)	and	expected	to	lead	to	a	na8onal	ETS	(delayed	to	
2018)	
•  The	caps	are	decided	botom-up	by	provinces	and	municipali8es,	they	are	based	on	
historical	emissions	(‘grandfathering’)	with	some	benchmarking	
•  Shenyang	(capital	of	the	Liaoning	province)	to	launch	its	own	City-Level	Carbon	
Market	(gradual	growth)	
•  Tianjin	holds	1st	Fixed	Price	Carbon	AucLon.	The	first	auc8on	offers	1,000	allowances	
for	a	set	price	of	15	RMB	(~	1.9	€)	each,	while	the	remaining	11,944	allowances	will	be	
auc8oned	for	a	set	price	of	12.5	RMB	(~	2	USD).	Clearing	naBonwide	at	1–8	USD/tCO2							
China's	Emission	Trading	Scheme	(ETS)	
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	27	
Chongqing	重 	
Beijing	北京	
Guangdong	广	
Shenzhen	深圳	
Shanghai	上海	
Tianjin	天津	
Hubei	湖北
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
	
	
The	Regional	Greenhouse	Gas	Ini8a8ve	
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	28	
RGGI	formed	in	2008	by	nine	US	states:	ConnecLcut,	Delaware,	Maine,	
Maryland,	MassachuseBs,	New	Hampshire,	New	York,	Rhode	Island	and	
Vermont,	New	Jersey		
•  90%	of	all	allowances	are	distributed	by	auc8on;	total	allowances	declining	2.5%	each	year		
•  Member	states	cut	carbon	emissions	by	30%,	2008-2015;	rest	of	US	(excl.	California)	
dropped	only	14%	
•  RGGI	states'	economies	outgrew	the	rest	of	the	US		25%	to	21%	
•  $1.37	B	in	proceeds	have	been	invested	in	GHG	mi8ga8on	efforts	
•  Expected	to	provide	$4.67	B	in	life8me	energy	bill	savings	
•  Over	their	life8me,	RGGI	investments	should	save	76.1	M	MMBtu	of	fossil	fuels	and	20.6	M	
MWh	of	electricity,	reducing	carbon	pollu8on	by	15.4	M	short	tons
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
	
	
	The	Carbon	Disclosure	Project,	facts	and	trends		
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	29	
Voluntary	Self-Generated	Reports	
Source:	CDP	Official	webpage;		CDP	(2013).	The	Facts,	CDP,	2013.	Own	compila8on		
Steady	increase	of	internal	CP	globally	
Company	internal	carbon	pricing
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
Internal	pricing,	convergence	and	divergence	
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	30	
	
		Energy	industries										2014 		2015 	2016	 														U8li8es																						2014							2015							2016	
				7 		14														22	 			4													18											25
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
Limits	of	Carbon	Pricing		
31	
MAC	
SCC																			
Cap	
P*	
P	
E*	 Emission	[t	CO2]	
Marginal	Cost	[$]	
Pmin	
•  We	need	poli8cally	determined	SCC-
oriented	carbon	price	targets,	e.g.	40-80	
$/t	CO2	in	2020	(Macron’s		#OnePlanetSummit),	
not	a	P-floor																						
•  Prices	exist	–	but	CP	methods	are	not	
standardized:	Investors	cannot	reflect	if	
technology	or	enterprise-specific	methods	
such	as	fees	or	marginal	abatement	cost	
(MAC)	are	used				
•  Even	if	we	had	the	needed	standards,	
however,	that	would	only	get	us	to	
effecLve	carbon	pricing	(CP),	not	to	the	
social	cost	of	carbon	(SCC)															
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
•  Accessability,	i.e.	the	capacity	to	service	debt	incurred	for				
infrastructure,	is	a	necessary,	albeit	insufficient	condi8on	
for	carbon	infrastructure	financing	(CIF)	 	 		
•  Carbon	pricing	(CP),	carbon	risk	disclosure	(CRD)	and	a	form	
of	‘blended	value’	(BV)	movement	would	have	a	major	
impact	on	bankability	of	CIF	programs		
•  Local	poliLcal	will	is	influenced	by	supra-local	policies	and	
actors	such	as	the	Paris	Accord		
•  It	also	depends	on	the	framing	of	climate	ac8on	as	
producing		local	co-benefits	to	the	cons8tuency	
	 	 	 	 		
	
5.	Pulling	pieces	together:	The	need	for	co-benefits	
frameworks		
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	32	
Supra-local	
policies,	e.g.	
Paris	Accord	
CRD	
CP	
BV	
Local	co-benefits	
frameworks	
Bankability		
Access	
Local	
poli8cal	
will
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
A	US	Dept.	of	Energy	study	in	2014	found	that	inves8ng	in	local	
energy	infrastructure	produced	an	array	of	different	
measurable	local	economic	impacts:	
• 	Job	CreaBon		
• 	Energy	Cost	Savings		
• 	Higher	Energy	Supply	Certainty		
• 	Improved	Local	Business	CompeBBveness		
• 	Higher	Property	Values	and	Tax	Revenues		
• 	City	MarkeBng	and	ReputaBon	
In	addi8on	to	direct	benefits	to	exis8ng	local	businesses,	the	
energy	investments	atracted	new	capital	to	locali8es	across	
the	country	by	reducing	energy	instability	risks	(e.g.:	Newton/
Iowa)	
e.g.:	Economic	Development	Benefits	from	Energy	Efficiency	and	
Renewable	Energy	Investments		
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	33	
SuRe®	-	
The	Standard		for	Sustainable	and	Resilient	Infrastructure	
37120	
#mysmartcity	
#worldsmartcity2017
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
•  RGGI	improved	health	status,	reduced	
demand	for	medical	care,	and	increased	
worker	produc8vity	across	New	England	
with	measurable	cost	savings	to	the	
region‘s	economy.	
•  As	a	C-40	Ci8es	report	points	out,	
measuring	infrastructure	co-benefits	
requires	good	data	collec8on	and	
analy8cal	capacity,	highligh8ng	the	
importance	of	the	Smart	City.		
Resilience	Investment	Co-Benefits:	Some	Other	Examples				
34	 Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
Access	to	capital	is	necessary,	but	not	sufficient			
Bankability	of	CRI	programs	can	be	facilitated	by	effecLve	carbon	
pricing,	but	CP	alone	will	not	suffice	and	does	not	create	the	needed	
poliLcal	will		
Only	with	the	recogniLon	of	co-benefits	will	ciLes	overcome	their	
orientaLon	towards	minimizing	the	short-term	budget	cost	of	their	
infrastructure	investments	
ConnecLng	city	need	for	infrastructure	to	local	concerns	for	climate	
change	is	an	essenLal	element	of	success	for	the	Paris	Accord	
	
6.	Conclusions	&	take-home	message	
Urban	Climate	Infrastructure	Finance	35
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
Thank		you!	
w	w	w	.	d	e	–	u	s	.	n	e	t	
Peter	B.	Meyer,	PhD		<pbmeyer@Louisville.edu>	
Professor	Emeritus	of	Urban	Policy	and	Economics	
University	of	Louisville	
President	and	Chief	Economist	
The	E.P.	Systems	Group,	Inc.,	New	Hope,	PA,	USA	
<pbm@theepsystemsgroup.com>	
Prof.	Dr.	Reimund	Schwarze	<schwarze@europa-uni.de>	
Professor	Interna8onal	Environmental	Economics	
European	University	Viadrina	
Department	of	Economics	–	Head	of	Climate	Economics	
Helmholtz	Centre	for	Environmental	Research	GmbH	–	UFZ	
<reimund.schwarze@ufz.de>
Sponsored	by	German	Federal	Ministry	of	Educa8on	and	Research	(BMBF):	FKZ	01DD17004	
37	
Now	we	answer	to	your	ques8ons	
Dr. Stephan
Bartke
Prof. Dr. Reimund
Schwarze
Prof. Peter B Meyer
DE-US.net	–	Webinar	II/2018,	Feb.	22,	2018

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