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CougsCARE: Clean And
Renewable Energy at
Washington State University
Eli
Chambers
Dr. Jacob
Leachman
Other Authors: Cale Levengood, Shi-Shen Liaw
Faculty Advisors: J. Leachman, M. Garcia-Perez, and S. Ha
September 4, 2012
Jake
Bair
Dr. Su
Ha
Special Thanks to H2 Ed.
Foundation
•Opportunity to learn about
technologies
•Competitive incentive to come up
with something feasible
•Finally something tangible to put
knowledge to work
2
Problem and Solution
•WSU “Climate Action Plan”: President
Elson Floyd vows 15% CO2 reduction
by 2020
•EPA restricts field burning for farmers
(No use for field residue)
•Lignocellulose feedstock- what do we
do with it?
•Technologies exist, unique to each
situation
3
An Abundance of Wheat Straw: Palouse
Biomass Residue 2005 (tonnes)
4
Wheat
Straw,
291,517
Other
Field
Residue,
10,750
Grass
Seed
Straw,
8,681
Barley
Straw,
147,605
Solution
• System mass/energy
balance, economic
analysis
• Thermochemical
conversion- step by
step
• Production of
methane to feed to
DFC
5
Pyrolysis
Gasification
Syngas
Upgrading
Fuel Cells
H2
Separation
Methanation
Thermochemical Conversion for
Hydrogen Heat and Power (CHHP)
6
Thermochemical Conversion for
Hydrogen Heat and Power (CHHP)
7
Pyrolysis
• The pyrolysis reactor,
producing char and pyrolysis
vapor
• 68 wt% pyrolysis vapor, 32 wt %
char
8
Pyrolysis
Gasification
Syngas
Upgrading
Fuel Cells
H2
Separation
Methanation
Gasification
9
Pyrolysis
Gasification
Syngas
Upgrading
Methanation
Fuel Cells
H2
Separation
Methanation and Syngas
Upgrading
• Methanation: H2 + CO → CH4
• The methane concentration raised
with a water gas shift reactor, a
CO2 scrubber, and a H2
separation membrane
Syngas
10
Pyrolysis
Gasification
Syngas
Upgrading
Fuel Cells
H2
Separation
Methanation
Fuel Cell Electricity + H2
Separation
11
Pyrolysis
Gasification
Syngas
Upgrading
Methanation
Fuel Cells
H2
Separation
• DFC: Reformer + molten
carbonate fuel cell
• Residual hydrogen can be
separated and used
12
Cooling
Tower
Fuel Cells
Hydrogen
Separation
Pyrolysis
Reactor
Gasifier
Syngas
Upgrading
13
Plant and Straw Storage Location
Overall Daily System Balance
In Out
Straw 104 tonnes Ash 7.97 tonnes
Water 164 tonnes Pyrolysis Vapor 29.8 tonnes
CO2 15.8 tonnes
CO 18.2 tonnes
H2 428 kg
Electricity 105,600 kW-hr
Heat 86,400 kW-hr
14
Primary Uses for Products
• Hydrogen to mass
transit, vehicles, and
system recycling
• 4.4 MW electricity to grid
(Pullman’s draw is 18.5
MW)
• Heat to adjacent
greenhouses
• Excess pyrolysis vapor to
supplement natural gas at
the steam plant
15
Conservative Cost & Environmental Analysis
16
2012 2012 With CHHP
Electricity Usage from Avista 162,352,083
kW-hr/year
125,630,000
kW-hr/year
Estimated Unit Cost ($) 0.062/kW-hr 0.062/kW-hr
Electricity Cost ($) 10,065,000 7,789,000
Natural Gas for Steam Production
($)
5,837,000 4,404,000
Fueling Cost for Campus Vehicles
($)
833,000 372,000
Avoided CO2 Emissions 0 tons/year 54,000 tons/years
CHHP System Op. Cost ($) - 5,560,200
Total Energy Costs ($) 16,735,000 18,125,200
Net Savings with CHHP System ($) (1,390,200)
Future Development, Now!
• Refining plant location, size,
equipment selection (Ha,
Garcia-Perez, Mehrizi-Sani)
• Ammonia synthesis via
Haber reactions (Leachman,
Haselbach)
• Economic & soil-mineral
nitrogen & phosphorous cycle
analyses (Fortenbery, Pan)
• Production of plastics,
concrete from char/ash,
preliminary proposal and
marketing (All above)
17
A Win-Win for the Community
1. It minimizes air
pollution to benefit
overall community health
2. It creates clean energy
to supplement the grid of
an expanding WSU
campus
3. It finally gives Whitman
County farmers a use for
their wasted straw
18
Thank You!
• Special thanks to
–Drs. Leachman, Ha, & Garcia; The Bair family
–Ryan Terry of WSU Energy Services; Avista
• Faculty contact: Jacob Leachman,
jacob.leachman@wsu.edu
• View full report at HydrogenContest.org

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Washington State University Presentation (2012)

  • 1. CougsCARE: Clean And Renewable Energy at Washington State University Eli Chambers Dr. Jacob Leachman Other Authors: Cale Levengood, Shi-Shen Liaw Faculty Advisors: J. Leachman, M. Garcia-Perez, and S. Ha September 4, 2012 Jake Bair Dr. Su Ha
  • 2. Special Thanks to H2 Ed. Foundation •Opportunity to learn about technologies •Competitive incentive to come up with something feasible •Finally something tangible to put knowledge to work 2
  • 3. Problem and Solution •WSU “Climate Action Plan”: President Elson Floyd vows 15% CO2 reduction by 2020 •EPA restricts field burning for farmers (No use for field residue) •Lignocellulose feedstock- what do we do with it? •Technologies exist, unique to each situation 3
  • 4. An Abundance of Wheat Straw: Palouse Biomass Residue 2005 (tonnes) 4 Wheat Straw, 291,517 Other Field Residue, 10,750 Grass Seed Straw, 8,681 Barley Straw, 147,605
  • 5. Solution • System mass/energy balance, economic analysis • Thermochemical conversion- step by step • Production of methane to feed to DFC 5 Pyrolysis Gasification Syngas Upgrading Fuel Cells H2 Separation Methanation
  • 6. Thermochemical Conversion for Hydrogen Heat and Power (CHHP) 6
  • 7. Thermochemical Conversion for Hydrogen Heat and Power (CHHP) 7
  • 8. Pyrolysis • The pyrolysis reactor, producing char and pyrolysis vapor • 68 wt% pyrolysis vapor, 32 wt % char 8 Pyrolysis Gasification Syngas Upgrading Fuel Cells H2 Separation Methanation
  • 10. Methanation and Syngas Upgrading • Methanation: H2 + CO → CH4 • The methane concentration raised with a water gas shift reactor, a CO2 scrubber, and a H2 separation membrane Syngas 10 Pyrolysis Gasification Syngas Upgrading Fuel Cells H2 Separation Methanation
  • 11. Fuel Cell Electricity + H2 Separation 11 Pyrolysis Gasification Syngas Upgrading Methanation Fuel Cells H2 Separation • DFC: Reformer + molten carbonate fuel cell • Residual hydrogen can be separated and used
  • 13. 13 Plant and Straw Storage Location
  • 14. Overall Daily System Balance In Out Straw 104 tonnes Ash 7.97 tonnes Water 164 tonnes Pyrolysis Vapor 29.8 tonnes CO2 15.8 tonnes CO 18.2 tonnes H2 428 kg Electricity 105,600 kW-hr Heat 86,400 kW-hr 14
  • 15. Primary Uses for Products • Hydrogen to mass transit, vehicles, and system recycling • 4.4 MW electricity to grid (Pullman’s draw is 18.5 MW) • Heat to adjacent greenhouses • Excess pyrolysis vapor to supplement natural gas at the steam plant 15
  • 16. Conservative Cost & Environmental Analysis 16 2012 2012 With CHHP Electricity Usage from Avista 162,352,083 kW-hr/year 125,630,000 kW-hr/year Estimated Unit Cost ($) 0.062/kW-hr 0.062/kW-hr Electricity Cost ($) 10,065,000 7,789,000 Natural Gas for Steam Production ($) 5,837,000 4,404,000 Fueling Cost for Campus Vehicles ($) 833,000 372,000 Avoided CO2 Emissions 0 tons/year 54,000 tons/years CHHP System Op. Cost ($) - 5,560,200 Total Energy Costs ($) 16,735,000 18,125,200 Net Savings with CHHP System ($) (1,390,200)
  • 17. Future Development, Now! • Refining plant location, size, equipment selection (Ha, Garcia-Perez, Mehrizi-Sani) • Ammonia synthesis via Haber reactions (Leachman, Haselbach) • Economic & soil-mineral nitrogen & phosphorous cycle analyses (Fortenbery, Pan) • Production of plastics, concrete from char/ash, preliminary proposal and marketing (All above) 17
  • 18. A Win-Win for the Community 1. It minimizes air pollution to benefit overall community health 2. It creates clean energy to supplement the grid of an expanding WSU campus 3. It finally gives Whitman County farmers a use for their wasted straw 18
  • 19. Thank You! • Special thanks to –Drs. Leachman, Ha, & Garcia; The Bair family –Ryan Terry of WSU Energy Services; Avista • Faculty contact: Jacob Leachman, jacob.leachman@wsu.edu • View full report at HydrogenContest.org