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Youth Organization “Human World”
Ukraine. The state policy. Current problems of Social Protection
of the disabled people in Ukraine
Actual problems of social protection of people with disability in Ukraine
Actual problems of social protection of disabled people in Ukraine are analysed and their reasons are
specified. Subjects of realisation of a policy in this sphere are defined. Ways of the decision of
problems at level of different subjects are offered.
Key words: social protection of invalids, actual problems, ways of the decision of problems.
Formulation of the problem. People with disabilities are among all population groups in any
society. These are people with disabilities, as lesions of the musculoskeletal system and the central
and peripheral nervous system, mental illness and mental retardation, organ damage hearing and
vision, lesions of internal organs.
Number of persons with disabilities is growing, although the causes and consequences of disability
can be different: as caused by unequal socio-economic conditions and different degrees of welfare
state of its citizens. Now we can talk about global disability issues - all over the world certain options
are limited at about one in ten people (650 million people), of which nearly 470 million people of
working age.
For Ukraine the problem of social protection of the disabled is particularly significant due to the
steady upward trend in the share of persons with disabilities in the overall structure population.
While in the early 90s of last century, the total number of disabled people in Ukraine amounted to
about 3% of the total population, or 1.5 million people, in 2008 their number amounted to 2,650,000
persons, including 122.6 thousand . disabled children, ie the share of this category in the total
population is 5.3% of the population, according to their number increased by almost 1.6 times.
Increase the number of people with disabilities caused by conflicting social and economic
development of Ukrainian society, which reduced the standard of living of most people,
unsatisfactory state of health care, lack of safety and labor protection, low environmental culture,
the presence of a variety of disasters - natural, environmental, military including the effects of the
Second World War, the wars in Afghanistan and other areas of the Chernobyl disaster.
The level of public social protection of persons with disabilities is a reflection of the level of society as
a whole. In recent decades, the world saw a major change in the attitude towards the disabled. The
basis for these changes is the recognition of equality of persons with disabilities to full life in society
and the creation by the real conditions for rehabilitation and social integration of people with
disabilities. Previously, they were mainly based motifs mercy to handicapped, now - the observance
of their rights. The duty of the state and society is to ensure proper social protection and support,
social integration, equal opportunities for self-fulfillment, full of life, education and employment
uploads disabled for spiritual, cultural and sporting life.
It should be noted that the Soviet era in Ukrainian society remained bad inheritance: the public
believed that the state cares for the disabled, but the state was unable to provide an appropriate
level of social protection. Disability policy was largely passive - financial support, state pension, to
work at specialized enterprises organizations of disabled people. People with disabilities were
deprived of access to many social benefits along with healthy people. People with disabilities still face
with contempt, prejudice and fears that throughout history hindered social development of this
category of members of society and isolate them from it.
The transition to a market economy and construction of a social state in Ukraine determined new
approaches to social protection of disabled people who are in the creation of an integrated system
on modern principles. Accession to international law, ratification of ILO conventions Ukraine
reorienting policy towards handicapped in socially accepted standards, which follow highly developed
civilized country provides harmonization of domestic legislation with international standards, creates
specialized rehabilitation facilities and barrier-free environment and so on. A market economy is
expanding approaches to the provision of social services and maintenance care centers for
disabilities. Our society is gradually realizes what he needs to adapt to the needs of disabled people,
and not vice versa.
Significant contribution to the study of this problem and make the experts of the Institute of Social
Work and National Pedagogical University. M.Dragomanov, State Institution Research Institute of
industrial relations, the Ukrainian Center for Professional Rehabilitation and the National Assembly of
Disabled of Ukraine, the Social Protection of Disabled People and the Department for Disabled
Persons, the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy of Ukraine.
Level of study problems of people with disabilities can not be considered sufficient and the problem
requires further research in identifying ways of of modernization the existing system of social
protection of the disabled and solving urgent problems at different subjects.
The aim of the article - to analyze the current problems of social protection of invalids in Ukraine,
identify their causes and suggest ways to overcome them.
The basic material. In Ukraine every 18 citizen - disabled, ie a person who needs help and
support from the state, not only in monetary terms but also special housing planning, construction
entrances, public transport, provision of technical and other means of rehabilitation, medical supplies
and assistance in obtaining education, professional skills, employment, health and cultural services.
A wide range of problems of people with disabilities in Ukraine demonstrates the need for enhanced
and comprehensive account of the state and society. Modern life creates the appropriate
requirements for social protection of the population. Practice shows that much of the provisions of
socioeconomic disability policy is outdated and does not meet the needs of the present, and is not
consistent with generally recognized high humane international norms and standards. The legal
framework but also contains a lot of positive steps towards solving the many problems of the
disabled, but is mostly declarative, no material resources and mechanisms for management
implementation.
Experience highly developed countries showed the ineffectiveness of passive policy on social
protection of people with disabilities, which is based compensation costs - pensions, financial aid,
benefits, compensation and more. Social support people with disabilities in the leading countries in
Europe for the past 30 years is characterized by assignation of significant resources on creating
accessible environment to exist for persons with disabilities, training, special arrangement and
available jobs.
In our view, the current system of social protection of disabled persons includes not only government
social assistance and pensions, benefits and compensation system and social domestic services, but
also includes protection of labor, education and employment of persons with disabilities, as well as
social and professional rehabilitation and social integration into society. That social protection of
persons with disabilities including not only material question, but the whole range of problems and
needs of human life. This issue is caused by the fact that in today's society, any person requires
extended social protection, which is not only financial and material support, but also in creating
diverse conditions for the normal functioning and development of the individual, the maximum of its
needs and interests. Thus, the policy of social protection of the disabled should include new
conceptual approaches, encompassing socio-economic, political, legal, organizational, managerial,
scientific and methodological, ethical and informational aspects.
Today Ukraine is trying to move from medical to social model of disability. The latter is the
relationship between a person with disabilities and society, rather than fixation deviations in her
health and development, as is typical of the medical model and was characteristic of the Soviet
system of government.
Current national policy Social Protection of Disabled includes a number of measures, including the
creation of conditions for the integration of disabled persons in active social life, increased
government guarantees to achieve higher social standards in material well-disabled, creating a
uncrossed environment for persons with disabilities, ensuring active cooperation of government
agencies and NGOs disabled in solving problems of the disabled and others.
The main subject of social protection of disabled remains the state. Activities of the State is to
develop measures creating, appropriate institutions, the use of mechanisms, designed to provide
living and social needs of persons with disabilities, to implement civil rights and freedoms, to create
equal opportunities for their integration into society, favorable conditions for social, medical, labor
rehabilitation of disabled.
The state and local governments are required to create a legal basis under international law and
appropriate institutions to promote the development of NGOs in this area, to ensure the proper
amount of material and financial aspects of social protection of persons with disabilities, to expand
and improve the list social services, actively promote the professional rehabilitation of persons.
State includes a network of ministries, departments and relevant institutions. Today in the
management of various departments operate 557 rehabilitation facilities: the Ministry of Labour -
289, the system of Ministry of Education has 100 such institutions in the health care sector - 61, the
Ministry of Family - 45 centers for social and psychological rehabilitation of children and young
people with functional restrictions in public organizations engaged, in rehabilitation of disabled
persons with disabilities 62 institutions.
Ministry of Labour and Social Policy of Ukraine is subject:
- 289 rehabilitation centers and offices: Ukrainian Centre of Professional Rehabilitation, 15
rehabilitation facilities vocational rehabilitation of disabled persons, 6 regional centers (since 2003) -
Crimea, Vinnytsia, Luhansk, Lviv, Donetsk, Zhytomyr region, 7 regional and urban centers
(Dnipropetrovsk, Transcarpathian, Zaporozhye, Odessa, Rivne, Cherkasy region);
- Department of Labor and Social Protection;
- State Employment Service;
- Fund for Social Protection of Disabled Persons.
Active partner states are other subjects of social Protection of Disabled Persons, such as non-
governmental organizations, charitable and religious organizations and foundations, political parties,
legal entities, entrepreneurs, caring people are exerting a regulating effect on the social protection of
the disabled, especially in rehabilitation and provision of social services.
Also, increased participation of the handicapped and their social organizations. Ukraine has about
120 active nationwide public organizations that represent the interests of different categories of
disabled persons, deliberately and slowly changing their lives for the better. With the help of NGOs
with disabilities have access to certain social and rehabilitation services, and information about their
rights, benefits, social guarantees. Public associations are created disabled for their of social
protection, cultural and sports activities, vocational, employment, medical, psychological and
educational rehabilitation, providing the conditions for normal life and so on. Functions of NGOs to
some extent coincide with the functions of authorized state organs for social protection, so the state
and public organizations of disabled persons are social partners in addressing the problems of people
with disabilities.
Although one of the main areas of social policy in relation to handicapped Ukrainian state specified
set of measures aimed at improving their livelihoods, restoration of social status, to achieve financial
independence and full integration into society, programs for Social Protection of Disabled high
priority government programs and spending on their implementation mainly attributed to the
protected articles of the State budget of Ukraine, but in reality people with disabilities today are
among the most vulnerable population groups, the observance of the rights evidenced by a lack of
participation of disabled people in economic and social life.
As is known, much of the disabled people poor material provided. The small size of social assistance
from the state and the special needs of such people can not maintain a socially acceptable standard
of living. For disabled people families who have been living in poverty, characterized by unhealthy
eating habits, lack of modern medical care, psychological stress, early death, forced abandonment of
birth of children, inability to give them a normal education, lack of opportunities proper rest and so
on.
Despite efforts by government and local authorities in the Ukrainian society has changed little
stereotypes in relation to disabled people - the idea of equal rights and equal opportunities for the
disabled is not yet generally accepted, as little change in attitude to the problems of disabled people
professionals - lack of modern approaches to social Protection of Disabled Persons.
The National report "On the situation of disabled people in Ukraine" outlined these issues in Social
Protection of Disabled: providing pension and social benefits disabled in size, which would guarantee
them sufficient standard of living, a decent education in the integrated learning, enabling a seamless
rehabilitation services at the place of residence of the disabled, the ability to work without
discrimination in recruitment and follow-up work, reform of stationary institutions for disabled
persons and the transfer of funding for the creation of support services that enable people with
disabilities to live without separation from society, creating accessible environment for disabled
persons and free movement unimpeded communication. Should be noted that these problems not
solved and continue to be actual for the Ukrainian society.
Continuous positive growth dynamics of pension and social benefits for disabled persons is lack of
social protection as persons with disabilities continue to be the poorest groups of the population in
Ukraine. This situation demonstrates the need not only to increase social benefits for disabled
persons, but also to change the technology of calculation and provision of benefits. For example,
should replace the social benefits on the compensation for unused benefits.
In our view, particularly important is measures to educational opportunities for persons with
disabilities. Education is one of the most effective ways out people with disabilities from the state of
isolation from society, and that new educational programs, including distance learning, should be
subject to comprehensive state-managerial influence.
Providing education for disabled children is rather low, the existing institutions do not allow
fulfillment and have many drawbacks. It is necessary to equip educational institutions in line with
international standards, that is, free from barriers to entry to the premises, to arrange bathrooms,
provide access to the upper floors of the school, access to public transportation.
Noteworthy is the experience of many countries that have introduced in secondary schools
integrated learning, which involves gaining knowledge of disabled people together with healthy
children. This option enables disabled people largely to integrate into the environment peers, and
healthy children learn to care and charity, is a change of public attitudes on this category of persons.
Development of educational services through the Internet allows you to get in distance education
format for everyone who wants to learn, this is a real opportunity to education for the disabled. In
fact, for them it is "Education without borders" in a broad sense. Distance learning is almost
minimizes barriers that make it impossible to education in school the traditional way. The main
achievement of distance education for persons with disabilities is a change of own and social
consciousness - it becomes apparent suitability for their life and work, to enjoy the achievements of
civilization, on a par with others, to bring social benefits, performing different services at home using
computer. This means aligning education and life chances of overcoming the psychological and social
barriers to people with disabilities who otherwise can not rely on educational success in conventional
educational system.
In Western Europe, Australia and the United States is implemented many educational projects for the
people with disabilities. For Ukraine, this direction is not enough developed, so it is reasonable to
study and borrowing experience of countries, which successful working in that direction.
It is necessary to highlight the problem of employment of disabled people. Practice shows that the
involvement of citizens with disabilities to the labor essential both for themselves and for the country
as rising living standards of disabled people, increasing their ability to pay, and the ability to self-
realization. Government policy is to enhance the potential maximum intensification of people with
disabilities in the context of professional, vocational rehabilitation and employment.
Many countries have established such conditions that disabled workers are on average half the
people of the total number of people with disabilities. For example, in USA are 29% of the people
who have health problems in the UK - 40% Italy - 55%, Sweden - 60%, China - 80%. In Ukraine,
disabled workers are about 20%, despite the fact that the number of disabled people of working age
is 1.5 million persons among which almost 443 thousand working.
In Soviet times, a disability was treated as a disability that did not enable a person to be a full
participant in the labor market. The amendments to the Law of Ukraine "On Social Protection of
Disabled People" (Article 2) show that disability is established as the norm losing health. Accordingly,
be provided the opportunity for all citizens employed. It is important that employers create safe and
not harmful to health conditions, taken measures to prevent further disability, to restore their
disability.
People with disabilities usually has additional needs, the problem of creating appropriate conditions
for its employment and training also becomes relevant content and certain specific features. The
establishment, the requirements for such jobs and the actual employment of disabled persons
determined appropriate resolution by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. This procedure provides
for the certification of workplaces specially created commission company with representatives of
medical and social expert commissions, State oversight safety, public organizations of disabled
people and their adaptation according to medical recommendations to a specific person with
disabilities.
In Ukraine, as in most European countries, has the concept of state quotas certain percentage
workplaces in the factory. According to Art. 19 Law of Ukraine "On Principles of Social Protection of
the Disabled in Ukraine", all enterprises, institutions and organizations with a workforce from 8 and
more people is established standards to creat 4% workplaces for people with disabilities. For
comparison, in Italy and Spain - 2%, Germany - 5%, France - 6%. Such a quota of Ukraine shall
perform all entities regardless of ownership, but only 55% of companies follow the established rate,
for them is cheaper to pay fines than to provide workplaces for the disabled. However, only a small
portion of proceeds from penalties aim at creating jobs for people with disabilities. Consequently,
there is an urgent need to ensure public oversight of compliance by employers of quotas.
In our view, for the empowerment of guarantees employment for this category of workers should
borrow foreign experience about performance in distance mode, which greatly helps to regulate the
employment of people with disabilities. About efficiency and utility of this form of employment is
evidenced by the fact that in Europe there are about 20 million people who work remotely.
Speaking of the unsolved problems of disabled people can not avoid the following.
Of primary importance after the reform of financial assistance and social services for the disabled has
suitable accommodation. They are given priority on improving living conditions in the manner
provided by law. Residential areas should be equipped with special tools and adaptations, according
to the individual rehabilitation program, and also, should be telecommunications. In the absence of
these norms can be performed replacement housing. Is known that the waiting list for housing
extends over a decade, and now the state , practically, is not providing social housing. But when
housing is obtained, this right is not fully used, the discrepancy of certain provisions does not address
proper attention - Disabled do not know how to defend their rights. The situation is similar with
garages for cars with manually operated for disabled with diseases of the musculoskeletal system -
the construction of garages should build only near their place of residence directly. However, they
are not build and not provide in proper quantity and in accordance with applicable regulations.
The problem of disabled by motor transport as housing came from the former Soviet Union.
Currently, 156 thousand disabled people standing in line at the car that the opportunities of provide
extends over almost 30 years. In this connection it is necessary to spread across Ukraine municipal
programs to provide free transport services for disabled persons, who may require a special vehicle
to visit a clinic or other structure. This practice is well established in some regions of the country.
It should be noted that five years after the defined requirements for social infrastructure to create
unhampered access to Disabled in the Law of Ukraine "On the Rehabilitation of the Disabled in
Ukraine" dated October 6, 2005 № 2961-IV are not adapted to the smooth disabled access housing,
building of central executive bodies, social infrastructure - health care, social security and social
services, education, office buildings and public transport. There is a problem inconvenient ramps,
install ramps except as required enforcement of regulations and standards in creating a barrier-free
environment.
Pressing issue is the improvement of urban and suburban transportation for the disabled and for the
allocation of places in their car parking. Local authorities should take appropriate measures to equip
bus, trolleybuses and tram routes at least one vehicle to transport people with disabilities. It is also
necessary to make the purchase of railroad passenger cars, maximum adapted for handicapped.
Service support of disabled people in airports and train stations needs to be changed and should be
ensured uninterrupted operation of elevators and other hardware designed for disabled people in
wheelchairs and other small mobile groups.
Loss of public morality and lawlessness leads to abuses of government officials who have to provide
social protection to disabled. Thus, checkup of the rights of persons with intellectual and physical
abilities, which was performed by employees of the General Prosecution, found a number of
violations. People with disabilities are not only limited of physical abilities, but also often in their
rights. Among them - the loss of incapacitated citizens ownership of housing, not fully provided by
the health care authorities and the right of disabled children to free quality medical care and
preferential provision of medicines, medical advisory committees in determining disability are not
made individual rehabilitation program, which has conducted physical, psychological, pedagogical
adaptation and integration of these children into society, residential care workers fail to take
measures to establish the legal status of children and protection of their property and housing rights -
Pensions issued late, the children do not get alimony and passports to achieve 16 years and
documents about disability, employment status is inappropriate for disabled children, especially
graduates of special, vocational and university.
Conclusions. Analysis of actual problems of social protection of invalids in Ukraine shows that
at this stage not implemented measures to ensure the normal life of people with disabilities , no
modernization of the existing Social protection of Disabled people.
Important was ratification by the Parliament of Ukraine UN Convention on the Rights of Disabled
Persons, adopted December 13, 2006 the UN General Assembly, as well as a system exploring
disabilities of their rights in all spheres of life.
In addition to aforementioned the ways of solving the problems of disabled people offer a number of
measures.
Necessary to accelerate the development of mechanisms for optimizing the construction of social
housing and control obligations of real estate developers to allocate an appropriate share of flats for
these people.
Implement reforms of inpatient institutions for the disabled and the transfer of funding for the
creation of support services that will enable people with disabilities to live without separation from
society. Ensure unhindered receiving rehabilitation services at home for disabled people, including to
expand the range of social services to the private sector.
Enhance state control over compliance by employers quota for employment of disabled people and
ensuring proper working conditions. Adopt new State program of development of rehabilitation and
employment of persons with disabilities, mental illness and mental retardation until 2015.
It is important to introduce of an inclusive and integrated education in secondary schools. Because of
permanent lack of funds needed to involve non-state structures to provide books for children with
visual impairments , visual-didactic materials and special aids for children who require correction of
physical and (or) mental development, as well as other amenities.
Needs to solve the issue of access to the global information network Internet on preferential terms.
The urgent need is to increase the number of informational, educational, artistic, creative and child
development programs.
Should increase funding for the production and distribution of television programs using sign
language and subtitling. Information programs on television should go on air with the use of subtitles
and sign language. It is also necessary introduce special training programs for translators of sign
language.
Is important to ensure funding for participants of Paralympic Games (international sport games for
people with disabilities) and Deaflympics (sports for deaf people) and the creation of appropriate
conditions for training.
Needs to improve cooperation between state and public organizations of disabled people, in
particular, it should be reflected in the Law on State Budget, in other fundamental laws, decisions of
the government, ministries and local authorities. It is also important to promote NGOs that work with
people with disabilities in monitoring of state policy on implementation the rights of people with
disabilities.
In our view, deserves attention study the experience of Sweden concerning the establishment and
functioning of the institute of the problems of people with disabilities and Institute of elaborating
assistive devices for people with disabilities.
Prospects for further research. Great value in this situation shall training of qualified
personnel. is need to define nomenclative list of specialists in the field of social assistance to
disabled people in accordance with international standards, to identify the need for them to ensure
organizational and methodological basis for their training and subsequent employment.
Is necessary to create the conditions for changing negative stereotypes and attitudes towards
disabled people in Ukrainian society on the basis of achieving social solidarity and social justice and to
promote the general principle: "Look at me as an equal".

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Ukraine.state policy.hw

  • 1. Youth Organization “Human World” Ukraine. The state policy. Current problems of Social Protection of the disabled people in Ukraine
  • 2. Actual problems of social protection of people with disability in Ukraine Actual problems of social protection of disabled people in Ukraine are analysed and their reasons are specified. Subjects of realisation of a policy in this sphere are defined. Ways of the decision of problems at level of different subjects are offered. Key words: social protection of invalids, actual problems, ways of the decision of problems. Formulation of the problem. People with disabilities are among all population groups in any society. These are people with disabilities, as lesions of the musculoskeletal system and the central and peripheral nervous system, mental illness and mental retardation, organ damage hearing and vision, lesions of internal organs. Number of persons with disabilities is growing, although the causes and consequences of disability can be different: as caused by unequal socio-economic conditions and different degrees of welfare state of its citizens. Now we can talk about global disability issues - all over the world certain options are limited at about one in ten people (650 million people), of which nearly 470 million people of working age. For Ukraine the problem of social protection of the disabled is particularly significant due to the steady upward trend in the share of persons with disabilities in the overall structure population. While in the early 90s of last century, the total number of disabled people in Ukraine amounted to about 3% of the total population, or 1.5 million people, in 2008 their number amounted to 2,650,000 persons, including 122.6 thousand . disabled children, ie the share of this category in the total population is 5.3% of the population, according to their number increased by almost 1.6 times. Increase the number of people with disabilities caused by conflicting social and economic development of Ukrainian society, which reduced the standard of living of most people, unsatisfactory state of health care, lack of safety and labor protection, low environmental culture, the presence of a variety of disasters - natural, environmental, military including the effects of the Second World War, the wars in Afghanistan and other areas of the Chernobyl disaster. The level of public social protection of persons with disabilities is a reflection of the level of society as a whole. In recent decades, the world saw a major change in the attitude towards the disabled. The basis for these changes is the recognition of equality of persons with disabilities to full life in society and the creation by the real conditions for rehabilitation and social integration of people with disabilities. Previously, they were mainly based motifs mercy to handicapped, now - the observance of their rights. The duty of the state and society is to ensure proper social protection and support, social integration, equal opportunities for self-fulfillment, full of life, education and employment uploads disabled for spiritual, cultural and sporting life. It should be noted that the Soviet era in Ukrainian society remained bad inheritance: the public believed that the state cares for the disabled, but the state was unable to provide an appropriate level of social protection. Disability policy was largely passive - financial support, state pension, to work at specialized enterprises organizations of disabled people. People with disabilities were deprived of access to many social benefits along with healthy people. People with disabilities still face
  • 3. with contempt, prejudice and fears that throughout history hindered social development of this category of members of society and isolate them from it. The transition to a market economy and construction of a social state in Ukraine determined new approaches to social protection of disabled people who are in the creation of an integrated system on modern principles. Accession to international law, ratification of ILO conventions Ukraine reorienting policy towards handicapped in socially accepted standards, which follow highly developed civilized country provides harmonization of domestic legislation with international standards, creates specialized rehabilitation facilities and barrier-free environment and so on. A market economy is expanding approaches to the provision of social services and maintenance care centers for disabilities. Our society is gradually realizes what he needs to adapt to the needs of disabled people, and not vice versa. Significant contribution to the study of this problem and make the experts of the Institute of Social Work and National Pedagogical University. M.Dragomanov, State Institution Research Institute of industrial relations, the Ukrainian Center for Professional Rehabilitation and the National Assembly of Disabled of Ukraine, the Social Protection of Disabled People and the Department for Disabled Persons, the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy of Ukraine. Level of study problems of people with disabilities can not be considered sufficient and the problem requires further research in identifying ways of of modernization the existing system of social protection of the disabled and solving urgent problems at different subjects. The aim of the article - to analyze the current problems of social protection of invalids in Ukraine, identify their causes and suggest ways to overcome them. The basic material. In Ukraine every 18 citizen - disabled, ie a person who needs help and support from the state, not only in monetary terms but also special housing planning, construction entrances, public transport, provision of technical and other means of rehabilitation, medical supplies and assistance in obtaining education, professional skills, employment, health and cultural services. A wide range of problems of people with disabilities in Ukraine demonstrates the need for enhanced and comprehensive account of the state and society. Modern life creates the appropriate requirements for social protection of the population. Practice shows that much of the provisions of socioeconomic disability policy is outdated and does not meet the needs of the present, and is not consistent with generally recognized high humane international norms and standards. The legal framework but also contains a lot of positive steps towards solving the many problems of the disabled, but is mostly declarative, no material resources and mechanisms for management implementation. Experience highly developed countries showed the ineffectiveness of passive policy on social protection of people with disabilities, which is based compensation costs - pensions, financial aid, benefits, compensation and more. Social support people with disabilities in the leading countries in Europe for the past 30 years is characterized by assignation of significant resources on creating accessible environment to exist for persons with disabilities, training, special arrangement and available jobs. In our view, the current system of social protection of disabled persons includes not only government social assistance and pensions, benefits and compensation system and social domestic services, but also includes protection of labor, education and employment of persons with disabilities, as well as social and professional rehabilitation and social integration into society. That social protection of persons with disabilities including not only material question, but the whole range of problems and needs of human life. This issue is caused by the fact that in today's society, any person requires extended social protection, which is not only financial and material support, but also in creating
  • 4. diverse conditions for the normal functioning and development of the individual, the maximum of its needs and interests. Thus, the policy of social protection of the disabled should include new conceptual approaches, encompassing socio-economic, political, legal, organizational, managerial, scientific and methodological, ethical and informational aspects. Today Ukraine is trying to move from medical to social model of disability. The latter is the relationship between a person with disabilities and society, rather than fixation deviations in her health and development, as is typical of the medical model and was characteristic of the Soviet system of government. Current national policy Social Protection of Disabled includes a number of measures, including the creation of conditions for the integration of disabled persons in active social life, increased government guarantees to achieve higher social standards in material well-disabled, creating a uncrossed environment for persons with disabilities, ensuring active cooperation of government agencies and NGOs disabled in solving problems of the disabled and others. The main subject of social protection of disabled remains the state. Activities of the State is to develop measures creating, appropriate institutions, the use of mechanisms, designed to provide living and social needs of persons with disabilities, to implement civil rights and freedoms, to create equal opportunities for their integration into society, favorable conditions for social, medical, labor rehabilitation of disabled. The state and local governments are required to create a legal basis under international law and appropriate institutions to promote the development of NGOs in this area, to ensure the proper amount of material and financial aspects of social protection of persons with disabilities, to expand and improve the list social services, actively promote the professional rehabilitation of persons. State includes a network of ministries, departments and relevant institutions. Today in the management of various departments operate 557 rehabilitation facilities: the Ministry of Labour - 289, the system of Ministry of Education has 100 such institutions in the health care sector - 61, the Ministry of Family - 45 centers for social and psychological rehabilitation of children and young people with functional restrictions in public organizations engaged, in rehabilitation of disabled persons with disabilities 62 institutions. Ministry of Labour and Social Policy of Ukraine is subject: - 289 rehabilitation centers and offices: Ukrainian Centre of Professional Rehabilitation, 15 rehabilitation facilities vocational rehabilitation of disabled persons, 6 regional centers (since 2003) - Crimea, Vinnytsia, Luhansk, Lviv, Donetsk, Zhytomyr region, 7 regional and urban centers (Dnipropetrovsk, Transcarpathian, Zaporozhye, Odessa, Rivne, Cherkasy region); - Department of Labor and Social Protection; - State Employment Service; - Fund for Social Protection of Disabled Persons. Active partner states are other subjects of social Protection of Disabled Persons, such as non- governmental organizations, charitable and religious organizations and foundations, political parties, legal entities, entrepreneurs, caring people are exerting a regulating effect on the social protection of the disabled, especially in rehabilitation and provision of social services. Also, increased participation of the handicapped and their social organizations. Ukraine has about 120 active nationwide public organizations that represent the interests of different categories of disabled persons, deliberately and slowly changing their lives for the better. With the help of NGOs with disabilities have access to certain social and rehabilitation services, and information about their rights, benefits, social guarantees. Public associations are created disabled for their of social protection, cultural and sports activities, vocational, employment, medical, psychological and educational rehabilitation, providing the conditions for normal life and so on. Functions of NGOs to
  • 5. some extent coincide with the functions of authorized state organs for social protection, so the state and public organizations of disabled persons are social partners in addressing the problems of people with disabilities. Although one of the main areas of social policy in relation to handicapped Ukrainian state specified set of measures aimed at improving their livelihoods, restoration of social status, to achieve financial independence and full integration into society, programs for Social Protection of Disabled high priority government programs and spending on their implementation mainly attributed to the protected articles of the State budget of Ukraine, but in reality people with disabilities today are among the most vulnerable population groups, the observance of the rights evidenced by a lack of participation of disabled people in economic and social life. As is known, much of the disabled people poor material provided. The small size of social assistance from the state and the special needs of such people can not maintain a socially acceptable standard of living. For disabled people families who have been living in poverty, characterized by unhealthy eating habits, lack of modern medical care, psychological stress, early death, forced abandonment of birth of children, inability to give them a normal education, lack of opportunities proper rest and so on. Despite efforts by government and local authorities in the Ukrainian society has changed little stereotypes in relation to disabled people - the idea of equal rights and equal opportunities for the disabled is not yet generally accepted, as little change in attitude to the problems of disabled people professionals - lack of modern approaches to social Protection of Disabled Persons. The National report "On the situation of disabled people in Ukraine" outlined these issues in Social Protection of Disabled: providing pension and social benefits disabled in size, which would guarantee them sufficient standard of living, a decent education in the integrated learning, enabling a seamless rehabilitation services at the place of residence of the disabled, the ability to work without discrimination in recruitment and follow-up work, reform of stationary institutions for disabled persons and the transfer of funding for the creation of support services that enable people with disabilities to live without separation from society, creating accessible environment for disabled persons and free movement unimpeded communication. Should be noted that these problems not solved and continue to be actual for the Ukrainian society. Continuous positive growth dynamics of pension and social benefits for disabled persons is lack of social protection as persons with disabilities continue to be the poorest groups of the population in Ukraine. This situation demonstrates the need not only to increase social benefits for disabled persons, but also to change the technology of calculation and provision of benefits. For example, should replace the social benefits on the compensation for unused benefits. In our view, particularly important is measures to educational opportunities for persons with disabilities. Education is one of the most effective ways out people with disabilities from the state of isolation from society, and that new educational programs, including distance learning, should be subject to comprehensive state-managerial influence.
  • 6. Providing education for disabled children is rather low, the existing institutions do not allow fulfillment and have many drawbacks. It is necessary to equip educational institutions in line with international standards, that is, free from barriers to entry to the premises, to arrange bathrooms, provide access to the upper floors of the school, access to public transportation. Noteworthy is the experience of many countries that have introduced in secondary schools integrated learning, which involves gaining knowledge of disabled people together with healthy children. This option enables disabled people largely to integrate into the environment peers, and healthy children learn to care and charity, is a change of public attitudes on this category of persons. Development of educational services through the Internet allows you to get in distance education format for everyone who wants to learn, this is a real opportunity to education for the disabled. In fact, for them it is "Education without borders" in a broad sense. Distance learning is almost minimizes barriers that make it impossible to education in school the traditional way. The main achievement of distance education for persons with disabilities is a change of own and social consciousness - it becomes apparent suitability for their life and work, to enjoy the achievements of civilization, on a par with others, to bring social benefits, performing different services at home using computer. This means aligning education and life chances of overcoming the psychological and social barriers to people with disabilities who otherwise can not rely on educational success in conventional educational system. In Western Europe, Australia and the United States is implemented many educational projects for the people with disabilities. For Ukraine, this direction is not enough developed, so it is reasonable to study and borrowing experience of countries, which successful working in that direction. It is necessary to highlight the problem of employment of disabled people. Practice shows that the involvement of citizens with disabilities to the labor essential both for themselves and for the country as rising living standards of disabled people, increasing their ability to pay, and the ability to self- realization. Government policy is to enhance the potential maximum intensification of people with disabilities in the context of professional, vocational rehabilitation and employment. Many countries have established such conditions that disabled workers are on average half the people of the total number of people with disabilities. For example, in USA are 29% of the people who have health problems in the UK - 40% Italy - 55%, Sweden - 60%, China - 80%. In Ukraine, disabled workers are about 20%, despite the fact that the number of disabled people of working age is 1.5 million persons among which almost 443 thousand working. In Soviet times, a disability was treated as a disability that did not enable a person to be a full participant in the labor market. The amendments to the Law of Ukraine "On Social Protection of Disabled People" (Article 2) show that disability is established as the norm losing health. Accordingly, be provided the opportunity for all citizens employed. It is important that employers create safe and not harmful to health conditions, taken measures to prevent further disability, to restore their disability. People with disabilities usually has additional needs, the problem of creating appropriate conditions for its employment and training also becomes relevant content and certain specific features. The
  • 7. establishment, the requirements for such jobs and the actual employment of disabled persons determined appropriate resolution by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. This procedure provides for the certification of workplaces specially created commission company with representatives of medical and social expert commissions, State oversight safety, public organizations of disabled people and their adaptation according to medical recommendations to a specific person with disabilities. In Ukraine, as in most European countries, has the concept of state quotas certain percentage workplaces in the factory. According to Art. 19 Law of Ukraine "On Principles of Social Protection of the Disabled in Ukraine", all enterprises, institutions and organizations with a workforce from 8 and more people is established standards to creat 4% workplaces for people with disabilities. For comparison, in Italy and Spain - 2%, Germany - 5%, France - 6%. Such a quota of Ukraine shall perform all entities regardless of ownership, but only 55% of companies follow the established rate, for them is cheaper to pay fines than to provide workplaces for the disabled. However, only a small portion of proceeds from penalties aim at creating jobs for people with disabilities. Consequently, there is an urgent need to ensure public oversight of compliance by employers of quotas. In our view, for the empowerment of guarantees employment for this category of workers should borrow foreign experience about performance in distance mode, which greatly helps to regulate the employment of people with disabilities. About efficiency and utility of this form of employment is evidenced by the fact that in Europe there are about 20 million people who work remotely. Speaking of the unsolved problems of disabled people can not avoid the following. Of primary importance after the reform of financial assistance and social services for the disabled has suitable accommodation. They are given priority on improving living conditions in the manner provided by law. Residential areas should be equipped with special tools and adaptations, according to the individual rehabilitation program, and also, should be telecommunications. In the absence of these norms can be performed replacement housing. Is known that the waiting list for housing extends over a decade, and now the state , practically, is not providing social housing. But when housing is obtained, this right is not fully used, the discrepancy of certain provisions does not address proper attention - Disabled do not know how to defend their rights. The situation is similar with garages for cars with manually operated for disabled with diseases of the musculoskeletal system - the construction of garages should build only near their place of residence directly. However, they are not build and not provide in proper quantity and in accordance with applicable regulations. The problem of disabled by motor transport as housing came from the former Soviet Union. Currently, 156 thousand disabled people standing in line at the car that the opportunities of provide extends over almost 30 years. In this connection it is necessary to spread across Ukraine municipal programs to provide free transport services for disabled persons, who may require a special vehicle to visit a clinic or other structure. This practice is well established in some regions of the country. It should be noted that five years after the defined requirements for social infrastructure to create unhampered access to Disabled in the Law of Ukraine "On the Rehabilitation of the Disabled in Ukraine" dated October 6, 2005 № 2961-IV are not adapted to the smooth disabled access housing, building of central executive bodies, social infrastructure - health care, social security and social
  • 8. services, education, office buildings and public transport. There is a problem inconvenient ramps, install ramps except as required enforcement of regulations and standards in creating a barrier-free environment. Pressing issue is the improvement of urban and suburban transportation for the disabled and for the allocation of places in their car parking. Local authorities should take appropriate measures to equip bus, trolleybuses and tram routes at least one vehicle to transport people with disabilities. It is also necessary to make the purchase of railroad passenger cars, maximum adapted for handicapped. Service support of disabled people in airports and train stations needs to be changed and should be ensured uninterrupted operation of elevators and other hardware designed for disabled people in wheelchairs and other small mobile groups. Loss of public morality and lawlessness leads to abuses of government officials who have to provide social protection to disabled. Thus, checkup of the rights of persons with intellectual and physical abilities, which was performed by employees of the General Prosecution, found a number of violations. People with disabilities are not only limited of physical abilities, but also often in their rights. Among them - the loss of incapacitated citizens ownership of housing, not fully provided by the health care authorities and the right of disabled children to free quality medical care and preferential provision of medicines, medical advisory committees in determining disability are not made individual rehabilitation program, which has conducted physical, psychological, pedagogical adaptation and integration of these children into society, residential care workers fail to take measures to establish the legal status of children and protection of their property and housing rights - Pensions issued late, the children do not get alimony and passports to achieve 16 years and documents about disability, employment status is inappropriate for disabled children, especially graduates of special, vocational and university. Conclusions. Analysis of actual problems of social protection of invalids in Ukraine shows that at this stage not implemented measures to ensure the normal life of people with disabilities , no modernization of the existing Social protection of Disabled people. Important was ratification by the Parliament of Ukraine UN Convention on the Rights of Disabled Persons, adopted December 13, 2006 the UN General Assembly, as well as a system exploring disabilities of their rights in all spheres of life. In addition to aforementioned the ways of solving the problems of disabled people offer a number of measures. Necessary to accelerate the development of mechanisms for optimizing the construction of social housing and control obligations of real estate developers to allocate an appropriate share of flats for these people. Implement reforms of inpatient institutions for the disabled and the transfer of funding for the creation of support services that will enable people with disabilities to live without separation from society. Ensure unhindered receiving rehabilitation services at home for disabled people, including to expand the range of social services to the private sector.
  • 9. Enhance state control over compliance by employers quota for employment of disabled people and ensuring proper working conditions. Adopt new State program of development of rehabilitation and employment of persons with disabilities, mental illness and mental retardation until 2015. It is important to introduce of an inclusive and integrated education in secondary schools. Because of permanent lack of funds needed to involve non-state structures to provide books for children with visual impairments , visual-didactic materials and special aids for children who require correction of physical and (or) mental development, as well as other amenities. Needs to solve the issue of access to the global information network Internet on preferential terms. The urgent need is to increase the number of informational, educational, artistic, creative and child development programs. Should increase funding for the production and distribution of television programs using sign language and subtitling. Information programs on television should go on air with the use of subtitles and sign language. It is also necessary introduce special training programs for translators of sign language. Is important to ensure funding for participants of Paralympic Games (international sport games for people with disabilities) and Deaflympics (sports for deaf people) and the creation of appropriate conditions for training. Needs to improve cooperation between state and public organizations of disabled people, in particular, it should be reflected in the Law on State Budget, in other fundamental laws, decisions of the government, ministries and local authorities. It is also important to promote NGOs that work with people with disabilities in monitoring of state policy on implementation the rights of people with disabilities. In our view, deserves attention study the experience of Sweden concerning the establishment and functioning of the institute of the problems of people with disabilities and Institute of elaborating assistive devices for people with disabilities. Prospects for further research. Great value in this situation shall training of qualified personnel. is need to define nomenclative list of specialists in the field of social assistance to disabled people in accordance with international standards, to identify the need for them to ensure organizational and methodological basis for their training and subsequent employment. Is necessary to create the conditions for changing negative stereotypes and attitudes towards disabled people in Ukrainian society on the basis of achieving social solidarity and social justice and to promote the general principle: "Look at me as an equal".