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International
Security:
EUROPE
Aleksandra Szydlo
Marharyta Ivankova
Mikita Murashko
Yiming Liu
Region’s
characteristics
1
Geographical conditions, demography
Territory
There are 50 countries in Europe,
but only 44 of them have their
capital city on the European
continent. The largest country in
Europe is Russia, followed by
Ukraine and France. The smallest
country in Europe is Vatican City,
which is only about 0.44 square
kilometres in area
Geophysical
conditions
• Major Mountain Ranges:
• Alps (France to Austria)
• Carpathians (Central & Eastern Europe)
• Urals (Europe-Asia boundary)
• Caucasus Mountains (Europe-Asia barrier)
• Pyrenees (Spain-France border)
• Extensive Plains:
• North European Plain
• Hungarian Plain
• Diverse Coastlines:
• Atlantic Ocean
• Arctic Ocean
• Baltic Sea
• Black Sea
• Caspian Sea
• Mediterranean Sea
Demography
1.2
People, ethnicity
The population is 830,364,178
Top countries
1.Russia 146,447,424 1. Andorra 80,120
2.Turkey 85,372,377 2. Liechtenstein 39,315
3.Germany 84,607,016 3. Monaco 39,150
4.United Kingdom 67,026,292 4.San Marino 33,785
5.France 68,221,000 5.Vatican City 764
1.Germanic Peoples
2.Slavic Peoples
3.Romance Peoples
4.Celtic Peoples
5.Baltic Peoples
6.Greek People
7.Turkic Peoples
8.Jewish People
9.Roma (Gypsy) People
10.Other Minorities
States
composition
2
Of region and subregional structure
Colonisation
2.1
And decolonisation process
Reasons of colonization
Search
for precious metals
needed for trade
Development
of navigation and
ship construction
Accumulation
of geographical
knowledge
Creation
of centralized States
1
The Portuguese Empire
The beginning of the XVI century - XVII
century
Controlled colonies
Brazil, some parts of Africa (Angola,
Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, etc.), East Timor,
Goa and other territories in Asia
Dates of founding
Reasons of founding
The search for raw materials (especially
precious metals), the expansion of trade
relations, religious and cultural missions
Features of colonies
The Portuguese colonies maintained close ties
with the empire, as well as the strong influence
of the Catholic Church and the system of
slavery, especially in Brazil
3
2
4
Colony-Empire
Relations
The Portuguese Empire faced a number of
uprisings and conflicts in its colonies, such as
the Wars of independence in Angola and
Mozambique
Dates of decolonisation
The Portuguese Empire began to collapse in
the middle of the 20th century. For example,
Brazil became independent in 1822, and the
former African colonies gained independence
in the 1970s and 1980s
5 6
1
The Spanish Empire:
The end of the XV century - the XVII century
Controlled colonies
Latin America (Mexico, Peru, Colombia, Chile,
etc.), part of the USA (California, Florida), the
Philippines, some islands in the Caribbean
Dates of founding
Reasons of founding
The search for gold and silver, the expansion of
Christianity, the establishment of trade routes,
the strategic position
Features of colonies
The Spanish colonies were characterized by
close ties with the metropolis, strong influence
of the Catholic Church and a system of
exploitation of the indigenous population
3
2
4
Colony-Empire
Relations
The Spanish Empire faced a number of
rebellions and wars of independence in its
colonies, such as the Mexican War of
Independence and the Wars of Independence
in South America
Dates of decolonisation
Most Latin American colonies became
independent in the first half of the 19th century,
as a result of the wars of independence that
took place in different periods since the
beginning of the 19th century
5 6
1
The French Empire
XVII-XIX centuries
Controlled colonies
Africa (French West Africa, French Equatorial
Africa), Southeast Asia (Indochina), some
islands in the Caribbean and the Pacific Ocean
Dates of founding
Reasons of founding
Economic expansion, the search for raw
materials, the establishment of trade relations,
strategic position
Features of colonies
French colonies usually had their own
administrative system and cultural
characteristics reflecting the influence of
French culture and law
3
2
4
Colony-Empire
Relations
As with other European empires, there were
numerous rebellions and conflicts in the
colonies, such as the war in Algeria and the
uprising in Vietnam.
Dates of decolonisation
The decolonization of the French Empire
mainly occurred in the second half of the 20th
century. For example, Vietnam's independence
was declared in 1945, and most of the African
colonies became independent in the 1960s
5 6
1
The Dutch Empire
The end of the XVI century - XVII century
Controlled colonies
Indonesia (including the former Netherlands
East Indies), Suriname, some islands in the
Caribbean and Africa (for example, Curacao,
Aruba)
Dates of founding
Reasons of founding
Economic benefits (trade in spices, sugar,
coffee, etc.), strategic position (control of sea
routes), religious and political confidence
Features of colonies
Dutch colonies were often characterized by a
variety of cultures and nationalities, as well as a
high level of civil freedom
3
2
4
Colony-Empire
Relations
The Dutch Empire faced a number of conflicts
and uprisings, such as the Great Uprising in
Indonesia in the middle of the 20th century
Dates of decolonisation
The process of decolonization of the
Netherlands took place mainly in the second
half of the 20th century. For example,
Indonesia became independent in 1949, and
Suriname in 1975
5 6
1
The British Empire
Depending on the region, for example, the first
settlements in North America appeared at the
beginning of the XVII century, while in India,
British colonization began from the XVII-XVIII
centuries
Controlled colonies
India, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South
Africa, part of the USA (before their
independence)
Dates of founding
Reasons of founding
Economic benefits (trade, resource
extraction), strategic position (control of sea
routes), religious and political confidence
Features of colonies
Each colony had its own unique characteristics,
but in general, British colonies were often
characterized by a developed administrative
system, infrastructure and economic structures
3
2
4
Colony-Empire
Relations
The British Empire faced a number of uprisings
and conflicts, such as the Indian Rebellion of
1857 and the Boer Wars in South Africa. In
addition, there were periods of growing
national resistance and decolonization in the
colonies
Dates of decolonisation
The decolonization of the British Empire took
place mainly after the Second World War. For
example, India became independent in 1947,
and most of the African colonies became
independent in the 1960s
5 6
1
The Belgian Empire
At the end of the XIX century
Controlled colonies
Congo (Belgian Congo), Rwanda, Burundi
Dates of founding
Reasons of founding
Economic expansion (extraction of natural
resources, including rubber and diamonds),
strategic position, religious mission
Features of colonies
In the Congo, the system of colonial
exploitation was particularly pronounced,
which led to serious violations of human rights
3
2
4
Colony-Empire
Relations
The Belgian Empire faced resistance in its
colonies, including an uprising in the Congo
led by Patrice Lumumba
Dates of decolonisation
The Belgian Congo became independent in
1960
5 6
1
The Italian Empire
In the late XIX - early XX century
Controlled colonies
Libya, Somalia, Ethiopia (between 1936 and
1941)
Dates of founding
Reasons of founding
Economic expansion, strategic position, desire
to increase influence and resources
Features of colonies
Colonial policies were implemented in
Ethiopia, including the Italian program of
"racist" policies
3
2
4
Colony-Empire
Relations
The Italian Empire faced resistance in its
colonies, including armed conflicts with local
peoples in Ethiopia
Dates of decolonisation
The decolonization of the Italian colonies
occurred after World War II. For example,
Ethiopia became independent in 1941, and
Libya and Somalia in the 1950s and 1960s,
respectively
5 6
1
The Russian Empire
At different times, starting from the XVII
century
Controlled colonies
Although most of Russia's colonial activity was
concentrated in Asia (Siberia, Central Asia),
Russia also had small colonies in the Baltic and
America, such as Alaska
Dates of founding
Reasons of founding
The expansion of territory and control over
strategic resources, the development of new
territories for trade and resource extraction
Features of colonies
Each colony had its own unique characteristics,
but in general the Russian Empire pursued a
policy of resource development and
exploitation
3
2
4
Colony-Empire
Relations
There were cases of conflicts and uprisings in
America and the Baltic, but in general, Russian
rule in these colonies was not as intense as in
Asia
Dates of decolonisation
The decolonization occurred as a result of a number
of historical events, including the Russo-Japanese
War of 1904-1905 and the First World War. Alaska
was sold to the United States in 1867, and in 1917, as a
result of the Russian Revolution, the empire collapsed
5 6
This is a map
In many colonies, national identity and the
desire for self-determination and
independence began to form. This led to
mass movements for independence and
decolonization
The rise of nationalism
Changing economic priorities and
increasing needs within the colonial
empires themselves contributed to the
emergence of new political views on the
management and maintenance of their
colonies
Economic changes
After World War II, many colonial empires
weakened as a result of the war, and also
changed their strategic priorities
geopolitical changes
Record of the battles in history
International
Security
organizations
NATO
NATO is an intergovernmental military alliance of 32
member states—30 European and 2 North American.
Established in the aftermath of World War II, it's one
of the most influential organization in the region
and in the world. The latest new joiner is Swedin(2024
March)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
CSTO
Founded in 2002 by former Soviet
republics(CIS), currently six
member states left in the
organization
Collective Security Treaty Organization
osce
The OSCE emerged from the
Conference on Security and
Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), a
series of meetings held during
the Cold War (1973-1975).
The OSCE has 57 member states,
including Russia, the United
States, and Canada
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Europol
EUROPOL was established in 1995,
Focuses on serious international crime
and terrorism within the EU.
Key Activities:
Information gathering and analysis
Joint investigations and operations
Supporting member states' law
enforcement capabilities
Training and expertise exchange
The European Union Agency for Law
Enforcement Cooperation
Role of global
powers
2.3
In shaping security process
Political
challenges
1.Rise of Populism and Nationalism: Anti-
establishment sentiment and a return to
national interests challenge European
unity and cooperation.
2.Democratic Backsliding: Erosion of
democratic institutions and norms in some
member states.
3.Euroscepticism: Discontent with the
European Union, sometimes leading to calls
for reduced integration or even
withdrawal.
Military
challenges
2.5
And threats
Overview of Current Military Conflicts in Europe
● - **War in Ukraine:**
● Participants: Ukraine, Russia.
● - **Kosovo:**
● Participants: Kosovo and Serbia.
● -**The Cyprus issue**
● Participants: Turkey, Greece, Cyprus
● - **Nagorno-Karabakh:**
● Participants: Armenia and Azerbaijan.
● -**Transnistria**
● Participants :Moldova, Transnistria, Russia also Ukraine (indirectly involved due to
territorial proximity)
War in Ukraine
Key points of the conflict:
1.International reactions
2. Impact on Europe
3. Security and defense
4. Humanitarian crises
5. Political impact
The war in Ukraine, which began in 2014 with Russia's
annexation of Crimea and the subsequent conflict in eastern
Ukraine, significantly escalated in 2022 with Russia's full-scale
invasion, has a profound and multifaceted impact on all of
Europe.
Tension between NATO and Russia
Tension between NATO and Russia in recent years has reached levels not seen since
the Cold War, especially since 2014 when Russia annexed Crimea, deepening
concerns and distrust between the parties.
Here are several key aspects of this tension:
**Military actions and strategic decisions:**
- NATO expansion
- Russian military activity
- NATO military presence in
**Diplomatic and political tension:**
- Sanctions against Russia
**Perspectives and challenges:**
- War in Ukraine
- Threat of a new "Cold War":
Terrorism in Europe
Terrorism remains one of the biggest threats to security in
Europe, impacting national policies, international relations, and
public opinion. Events in recent decades, including attacks in
Madrid, London, Paris, Brussels, Nice, and other cities, have
highlighted that terrorism can arise both from outside and
within Europe.
**Main types of terrorism:**
- Islamic extremism:
- Right-wing extremism
- Left-wing extremism and
anarchism
- Separatist terrorism
**Impact of terrorism on Europe:**
- Increased security measures
- Political consequences
- Social impact
- Economic consequences:
Threats of Hybrid Warfare
Threats of hybrid warfare play a key role in the modern geopolitical landscape, especially in
the context of Europe, where such actions can have significant implications for national and
regional security. Hybrid warfare is a strategy that combines military, political, economic,
civilian, and informational means to achieve strategic goals, often masking the aggressor and
its intentions.
**Key aspects of hybrid warfare:**
- Cyberattacks
- Propaganda and disinformation
- Economic pressure
- Support for internal separatist
and radical groups
- Use of conventional military
mean
**Impact of hybrid warfare on Europe:**
- Political instability
- Information security
- Foreign policy influence
- EU and NATO unity
Migration Crisis, Impact on Regional Security
The migration crisis in Europe, which became particularly acute during the significant influx of
refugees in 2015 from war-torn countries such as Syria, Afghanistan, and Iraq, has been one of the
biggest tests for European politics, society, and security. This crisis has had significant consequences
for regional stability, the political landscape, and social cohesion.
**Impact of the migration crisis on regional security:**
- Political consequences:
- Strengthening of right-wing and
populist parties
- Division among EU countries
- Social consequences:
- Social integration
- Increase in xenophobia and
racism
- Security challenges:
- Border control
- Terrorism
- Economic consequences:
- Impact on the labor market
- Social welfare
Cybersecurity Threats
Cybersecurity threats are becoming increasingly important in a global
context as digital technologies penetrate all spheres of life. In Europe,
where digital infrastructure is highly developed, cyber threats cause
significant concern for both states and private organizations.
**Main types of cybersecurity threats:**
- Cyberattacks
- DDoS attacks
- Phishing
- APT (Advanced Persistent Threats)
**Impact on Europe:**
- Economic losses
- National security
- Trust in digital systems
- International relations
The geopolitical landscape of Europe has been undergoing significant
changes in recent years due to several key events and trends, including
Brexit, the strengthening of the European Union, and the formation of
new alliances. These events have far-reaching implications for regional
politics, economics, and security.
Impact of Brexit
Political changes
Security issues
Strengthening of the EU:
The European Union is responding to contemporary challenges by strengthening integration and
coordination among its members:
Economic integration
Social policy
New alliances and cooperation:
Against the backdrop of changes in the global order, Europe is responding by forming new alliances and
cooperation:
Transatlantic relations
Relations with new global power
Regional alliances
Future challenges and security strategies in Europe:
Future challenges for ensuring security in Europe are diverse and complex, covering a wide range of issues
from traditional military threats to modern cyber threats and socio-political problems. Here are some key
challenges and strategies to overcome them:
Future challenges:
Geopolitical tensions
Terrorism
Migration crises
Cybersecurity
Political instability in the EU
Security strategies:
Cybersecurity
Integration policy
Diplomacy and international
cooperation
Socio-cultural
challenges
2.6
For the regional security
Socio-cultural
challenges
2.6
For the regional security
Economic
challenges
2.7
For the regional security
Ecological
challenges
2.8
For the regional security
Conclusion
3
Main security
problems
3.1
of the region
Regions role
3.1
In the international relations
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Speaking of craters, many of them were
named after artists or authors who made
significant contributions to their
respective fields. Mercury takes a little
more than 58 days to complete its
rotation, so try to imagine how long days
must be there! Since the temperatures
are so extreme, albeit not as extreme as
in Venus, and the solar radiation is so
high, Mercury has been deemed to be
non-habitable for humans
Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun
and the smallest one in the entire Solar
System. This planet's name has nothing
to do with the liquid metal, since
Mercury was named after the Roman
messenger god. Despite being closer to
the Sun than Venus, its temperatures
aren't as terribly hot as that planet's. Its
surface is quite similar to that of Earth's
Moon, which means there are a lot of
craters and plains
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Mercury
Two ideas
Venus
Venus has a beautiful name and
is the second planet from the
Sun. It’s hot and has a
poisonous atmosphere
Mercury is the closest planet to
the Sun and the smallest one in
the Solar System—it’s only a bit
larger than the Moon
Mercury Venus Mars
Here are three important ideas
Mercury is the closest
planet to the Sun and the
smallest in the Solar System
Venus has a beautiful name
and is the second planet
from the Sun
Despite being red, Mars is
actually a cold place. It’s full
of iron oxide dust
Four ideas
Mars
Mars is actually a very
cold place
Venus
Venus is the second
planet from the Sun
Jupiter
Jupiter is the biggest
planet in the System
Saturn
Saturn is a gas giant
and has rings
Venus
Venus is the second
planet from the Sun
Neptune is the
farthest planet
Six ideas
Mercury
Mars is actually a very
cold place
Mercury is the closest
planet to the Sun
Saturn
Saturn is ringed and a
gas giant planet
Neptune
Mars
Jupiter
Jupiter is the biggest
planet of them all
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4,498,300,000
Big numbers catch your audience’s attention
The Sun’s mass compared to Earth’s
Jupiter's rotation period
9h 55m 23s
333,000
386,000 Km
Distance between Earth and the Moon
LET’S USE SOME PERCENTAGES
Mercury Venus
Mercury is the closest
planet to the Sun and
the smallest of them all
Venus has a beautiful
name and is the second
planet from the Sun
Mars
Despite being red, Mars
is actually a cold place.
It’s full of iron oxide dust
50% 75%
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Venus has a beautiful
name and is the second
planet from the Sun
Albania
This is a timeline
Mercury is the
closest planet
Mercury
Neptune is far away
from us
Neptune
Mars is full of iron
oxide dust
Mars
Jupiter is the
biggest planet
Jupiter
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4
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Mercury is the
closest planet
Mercury
Jupiter is the
biggest planet
Jupiter
Venus is the
second planet
Venus
Mars is full of iron
oxide dust
Mars
Neptune is far away
from us
Neptune
Travel expenses
Date Type Description Status
01/07/2023 Money Venus is the second planet from the Sun ✔
02/07/2023 Credit Card Mars is actually a very cold place ✗
03/07/2023 Money Jupiter is the biggest planet of them all ✔
04/07/2023 Money Neptune is far away from Earth ✔
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Mercury
Mercury is the closest planet to the
Sun and the smallest one
Venus
Venus has a beautiful name and is
the second planet from the Sun
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Our team
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Jenna Doe
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Tim Jimmy
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about this person here
Peter Smith Ana Scott
You can speak a bit
about this person here
John Doe
You can speak a bit
about this person here
This is a infographic
Jupiter is a gas giant and the biggest planet in the System
Jupiter
Despite being red, Mars is actually a cold place
Mars
Venus has a beautiful name and is the second planet
Venus
Saturn is the second-largest planet in the Solar System
Saturn
Earth
1
2
3
4
VENUS
MERCURY
Venus has a beautiful name and is the
second planet from the Sun
Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun
and the smallest in the Solar System
This is a graph
Follow the link in the graph to modify its data and then paste the new one here. For more info, click here
You can use a timeline
Mercury is the
closest planet
2xxx
Neptune is far
away from us
2xxx
Mars is a very
cold place
2xxx
Venus is the
second planet
2xxx
Jupiter is a
big planet
2xxx
1 2 3 4 5
NEPTUNE
Neptune is far away
from Earth
Venus is the second
planet from the Sun
Reviewing concepts is a good idea
MERCURY
Mars is actually a very
cold place
Mercury is the closest
planet to the Sun
SATURN
Saturn is ringed and a
gas giant planet
VENUS
MARS
JUPITER
Jupiter is the biggest
planet of them all
VENUS
Two ideas
MERCURY
Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and
the smallest one in the Solar System—it’s
only a bit larger than the Moon
Venus has a beautiful name and is the
second planet from the Sun. It’s hot and has
a poisonous atmosphere
Travel planner
Destination: Albania
Places to see:
Day 1 Venus is the second planet from the Sun
Day 2 Mars is actually a very cold place
Day 3 Neptune is far away from Earth
Expenses: $50,000
Notes: Jupiter is the biggest planet of them all
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Travel Guide_ Albania by in terms of European trip

  • 3. Territory There are 50 countries in Europe, but only 44 of them have their capital city on the European continent. The largest country in Europe is Russia, followed by Ukraine and France. The smallest country in Europe is Vatican City, which is only about 0.44 square kilometres in area
  • 4. Geophysical conditions • Major Mountain Ranges: • Alps (France to Austria) • Carpathians (Central & Eastern Europe) • Urals (Europe-Asia boundary) • Caucasus Mountains (Europe-Asia barrier) • Pyrenees (Spain-France border) • Extensive Plains: • North European Plain • Hungarian Plain • Diverse Coastlines: • Atlantic Ocean • Arctic Ocean • Baltic Sea • Black Sea • Caspian Sea • Mediterranean Sea
  • 6. The population is 830,364,178
  • 7. Top countries 1.Russia 146,447,424 1. Andorra 80,120 2.Turkey 85,372,377 2. Liechtenstein 39,315 3.Germany 84,607,016 3. Monaco 39,150 4.United Kingdom 67,026,292 4.San Marino 33,785 5.France 68,221,000 5.Vatican City 764
  • 8. 1.Germanic Peoples 2.Slavic Peoples 3.Romance Peoples 4.Celtic Peoples 5.Baltic Peoples 6.Greek People 7.Turkic Peoples 8.Jewish People 9.Roma (Gypsy) People 10.Other Minorities
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11. States composition 2 Of region and subregional structure
  • 13. Reasons of colonization Search for precious metals needed for trade Development of navigation and ship construction Accumulation of geographical knowledge Creation of centralized States
  • 14. 1 The Portuguese Empire The beginning of the XVI century - XVII century Controlled colonies Brazil, some parts of Africa (Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, etc.), East Timor, Goa and other territories in Asia Dates of founding Reasons of founding The search for raw materials (especially precious metals), the expansion of trade relations, religious and cultural missions Features of colonies The Portuguese colonies maintained close ties with the empire, as well as the strong influence of the Catholic Church and the system of slavery, especially in Brazil 3 2 4 Colony-Empire Relations The Portuguese Empire faced a number of uprisings and conflicts in its colonies, such as the Wars of independence in Angola and Mozambique Dates of decolonisation The Portuguese Empire began to collapse in the middle of the 20th century. For example, Brazil became independent in 1822, and the former African colonies gained independence in the 1970s and 1980s 5 6
  • 15. 1 The Spanish Empire: The end of the XV century - the XVII century Controlled colonies Latin America (Mexico, Peru, Colombia, Chile, etc.), part of the USA (California, Florida), the Philippines, some islands in the Caribbean Dates of founding Reasons of founding The search for gold and silver, the expansion of Christianity, the establishment of trade routes, the strategic position Features of colonies The Spanish colonies were characterized by close ties with the metropolis, strong influence of the Catholic Church and a system of exploitation of the indigenous population 3 2 4 Colony-Empire Relations The Spanish Empire faced a number of rebellions and wars of independence in its colonies, such as the Mexican War of Independence and the Wars of Independence in South America Dates of decolonisation Most Latin American colonies became independent in the first half of the 19th century, as a result of the wars of independence that took place in different periods since the beginning of the 19th century 5 6
  • 16. 1 The French Empire XVII-XIX centuries Controlled colonies Africa (French West Africa, French Equatorial Africa), Southeast Asia (Indochina), some islands in the Caribbean and the Pacific Ocean Dates of founding Reasons of founding Economic expansion, the search for raw materials, the establishment of trade relations, strategic position Features of colonies French colonies usually had their own administrative system and cultural characteristics reflecting the influence of French culture and law 3 2 4 Colony-Empire Relations As with other European empires, there were numerous rebellions and conflicts in the colonies, such as the war in Algeria and the uprising in Vietnam. Dates of decolonisation The decolonization of the French Empire mainly occurred in the second half of the 20th century. For example, Vietnam's independence was declared in 1945, and most of the African colonies became independent in the 1960s 5 6
  • 17. 1 The Dutch Empire The end of the XVI century - XVII century Controlled colonies Indonesia (including the former Netherlands East Indies), Suriname, some islands in the Caribbean and Africa (for example, Curacao, Aruba) Dates of founding Reasons of founding Economic benefits (trade in spices, sugar, coffee, etc.), strategic position (control of sea routes), religious and political confidence Features of colonies Dutch colonies were often characterized by a variety of cultures and nationalities, as well as a high level of civil freedom 3 2 4 Colony-Empire Relations The Dutch Empire faced a number of conflicts and uprisings, such as the Great Uprising in Indonesia in the middle of the 20th century Dates of decolonisation The process of decolonization of the Netherlands took place mainly in the second half of the 20th century. For example, Indonesia became independent in 1949, and Suriname in 1975 5 6
  • 18. 1 The British Empire Depending on the region, for example, the first settlements in North America appeared at the beginning of the XVII century, while in India, British colonization began from the XVII-XVIII centuries Controlled colonies India, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, part of the USA (before their independence) Dates of founding Reasons of founding Economic benefits (trade, resource extraction), strategic position (control of sea routes), religious and political confidence Features of colonies Each colony had its own unique characteristics, but in general, British colonies were often characterized by a developed administrative system, infrastructure and economic structures 3 2 4 Colony-Empire Relations The British Empire faced a number of uprisings and conflicts, such as the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and the Boer Wars in South Africa. In addition, there were periods of growing national resistance and decolonization in the colonies Dates of decolonisation The decolonization of the British Empire took place mainly after the Second World War. For example, India became independent in 1947, and most of the African colonies became independent in the 1960s 5 6
  • 19. 1 The Belgian Empire At the end of the XIX century Controlled colonies Congo (Belgian Congo), Rwanda, Burundi Dates of founding Reasons of founding Economic expansion (extraction of natural resources, including rubber and diamonds), strategic position, religious mission Features of colonies In the Congo, the system of colonial exploitation was particularly pronounced, which led to serious violations of human rights 3 2 4 Colony-Empire Relations The Belgian Empire faced resistance in its colonies, including an uprising in the Congo led by Patrice Lumumba Dates of decolonisation The Belgian Congo became independent in 1960 5 6
  • 20. 1 The Italian Empire In the late XIX - early XX century Controlled colonies Libya, Somalia, Ethiopia (between 1936 and 1941) Dates of founding Reasons of founding Economic expansion, strategic position, desire to increase influence and resources Features of colonies Colonial policies were implemented in Ethiopia, including the Italian program of "racist" policies 3 2 4 Colony-Empire Relations The Italian Empire faced resistance in its colonies, including armed conflicts with local peoples in Ethiopia Dates of decolonisation The decolonization of the Italian colonies occurred after World War II. For example, Ethiopia became independent in 1941, and Libya and Somalia in the 1950s and 1960s, respectively 5 6
  • 21. 1 The Russian Empire At different times, starting from the XVII century Controlled colonies Although most of Russia's colonial activity was concentrated in Asia (Siberia, Central Asia), Russia also had small colonies in the Baltic and America, such as Alaska Dates of founding Reasons of founding The expansion of territory and control over strategic resources, the development of new territories for trade and resource extraction Features of colonies Each colony had its own unique characteristics, but in general the Russian Empire pursued a policy of resource development and exploitation 3 2 4 Colony-Empire Relations There were cases of conflicts and uprisings in America and the Baltic, but in general, Russian rule in these colonies was not as intense as in Asia Dates of decolonisation The decolonization occurred as a result of a number of historical events, including the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 and the First World War. Alaska was sold to the United States in 1867, and in 1917, as a result of the Russian Revolution, the empire collapsed 5 6
  • 22. This is a map In many colonies, national identity and the desire for self-determination and independence began to form. This led to mass movements for independence and decolonization The rise of nationalism Changing economic priorities and increasing needs within the colonial empires themselves contributed to the emergence of new political views on the management and maintenance of their colonies Economic changes After World War II, many colonial empires weakened as a result of the war, and also changed their strategic priorities geopolitical changes
  • 23. Record of the battles in history
  • 25. NATO NATO is an intergovernmental military alliance of 32 member states—30 European and 2 North American. Established in the aftermath of World War II, it's one of the most influential organization in the region and in the world. The latest new joiner is Swedin(2024 March) North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • 26. CSTO Founded in 2002 by former Soviet republics(CIS), currently six member states left in the organization Collective Security Treaty Organization
  • 27. osce The OSCE emerged from the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), a series of meetings held during the Cold War (1973-1975). The OSCE has 57 member states, including Russia, the United States, and Canada The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
  • 28. Europol EUROPOL was established in 1995, Focuses on serious international crime and terrorism within the EU. Key Activities: Information gathering and analysis Joint investigations and operations Supporting member states' law enforcement capabilities Training and expertise exchange The European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation
  • 29. Role of global powers 2.3 In shaping security process
  • 30. Political challenges 1.Rise of Populism and Nationalism: Anti- establishment sentiment and a return to national interests challenge European unity and cooperation. 2.Democratic Backsliding: Erosion of democratic institutions and norms in some member states. 3.Euroscepticism: Discontent with the European Union, sometimes leading to calls for reduced integration or even withdrawal.
  • 32. Overview of Current Military Conflicts in Europe ● - **War in Ukraine:** ● Participants: Ukraine, Russia. ● - **Kosovo:** ● Participants: Kosovo and Serbia. ● -**The Cyprus issue** ● Participants: Turkey, Greece, Cyprus ● - **Nagorno-Karabakh:** ● Participants: Armenia and Azerbaijan. ● -**Transnistria** ● Participants :Moldova, Transnistria, Russia also Ukraine (indirectly involved due to territorial proximity)
  • 34. Key points of the conflict: 1.International reactions 2. Impact on Europe 3. Security and defense 4. Humanitarian crises 5. Political impact The war in Ukraine, which began in 2014 with Russia's annexation of Crimea and the subsequent conflict in eastern Ukraine, significantly escalated in 2022 with Russia's full-scale invasion, has a profound and multifaceted impact on all of Europe.
  • 35. Tension between NATO and Russia
  • 36. Tension between NATO and Russia in recent years has reached levels not seen since the Cold War, especially since 2014 when Russia annexed Crimea, deepening concerns and distrust between the parties. Here are several key aspects of this tension: **Military actions and strategic decisions:** - NATO expansion - Russian military activity - NATO military presence in **Diplomatic and political tension:** - Sanctions against Russia **Perspectives and challenges:** - War in Ukraine - Threat of a new "Cold War":
  • 38. Terrorism remains one of the biggest threats to security in Europe, impacting national policies, international relations, and public opinion. Events in recent decades, including attacks in Madrid, London, Paris, Brussels, Nice, and other cities, have highlighted that terrorism can arise both from outside and within Europe. **Main types of terrorism:** - Islamic extremism: - Right-wing extremism - Left-wing extremism and anarchism - Separatist terrorism **Impact of terrorism on Europe:** - Increased security measures - Political consequences - Social impact - Economic consequences:
  • 39. Threats of Hybrid Warfare
  • 40. Threats of hybrid warfare play a key role in the modern geopolitical landscape, especially in the context of Europe, where such actions can have significant implications for national and regional security. Hybrid warfare is a strategy that combines military, political, economic, civilian, and informational means to achieve strategic goals, often masking the aggressor and its intentions. **Key aspects of hybrid warfare:** - Cyberattacks - Propaganda and disinformation - Economic pressure - Support for internal separatist and radical groups - Use of conventional military mean **Impact of hybrid warfare on Europe:** - Political instability - Information security - Foreign policy influence - EU and NATO unity
  • 41. Migration Crisis, Impact on Regional Security
  • 42. The migration crisis in Europe, which became particularly acute during the significant influx of refugees in 2015 from war-torn countries such as Syria, Afghanistan, and Iraq, has been one of the biggest tests for European politics, society, and security. This crisis has had significant consequences for regional stability, the political landscape, and social cohesion. **Impact of the migration crisis on regional security:** - Political consequences: - Strengthening of right-wing and populist parties - Division among EU countries - Social consequences: - Social integration - Increase in xenophobia and racism - Security challenges: - Border control - Terrorism - Economic consequences: - Impact on the labor market - Social welfare
  • 43. Cybersecurity Threats Cybersecurity threats are becoming increasingly important in a global context as digital technologies penetrate all spheres of life. In Europe, where digital infrastructure is highly developed, cyber threats cause significant concern for both states and private organizations. **Main types of cybersecurity threats:** - Cyberattacks - DDoS attacks - Phishing - APT (Advanced Persistent Threats) **Impact on Europe:** - Economic losses - National security - Trust in digital systems - International relations
  • 44. The geopolitical landscape of Europe has been undergoing significant changes in recent years due to several key events and trends, including Brexit, the strengthening of the European Union, and the formation of new alliances. These events have far-reaching implications for regional politics, economics, and security. Impact of Brexit Political changes Security issues Strengthening of the EU: The European Union is responding to contemporary challenges by strengthening integration and coordination among its members: Economic integration Social policy New alliances and cooperation: Against the backdrop of changes in the global order, Europe is responding by forming new alliances and cooperation: Transatlantic relations Relations with new global power Regional alliances
  • 45. Future challenges and security strategies in Europe: Future challenges for ensuring security in Europe are diverse and complex, covering a wide range of issues from traditional military threats to modern cyber threats and socio-political problems. Here are some key challenges and strategies to overcome them: Future challenges: Geopolitical tensions Terrorism Migration crises Cybersecurity Political instability in the EU Security strategies: Cybersecurity Integration policy Diplomacy and international cooperation
  • 52. Regions role 3.1 In the international relations
  • 53. contents of this template You can delete this slide when you’re done editing the presentation Fonts To view this template correctly in PowerPoint, download and install the fonts we used Used and alternative resources An assortment of graphic resources that are suitable for use in this presentation Thanks slide You must keep it so that proper credits for our design are given Colors All the colors used in this presentation Icons and infographic resources These can be used in the template, and their size and color can be edited Editable presentation theme You can edit the master slides easily. For more info, click here You can visit our sister projects: FREEPIK | FLATICON | STORYSET | WEPIK | VIDEVO For more info: SLIDESGO | BLOG | FAQs
  • 54. 1 table of contents You can describe the topic of the section here SECTION You can describe the topic of the section here SECTION SECTION You can describe the topic of the section here SECTION You can describe the topic of the section here 3 2 4 SECTION You can describe the topic of the section here SECTION You can describe the topic of the section here 5 6
  • 55. Whoa! This can be the part of the presentation where you introduce yourself, write your email…
  • 56. Do you need longer text? Speaking of craters, many of them were named after artists or authors who made significant contributions to their respective fields. Mercury takes a little more than 58 days to complete its rotation, so try to imagine how long days must be there! Since the temperatures are so extreme, albeit not as extreme as in Venus, and the solar radiation is so high, Mercury has been deemed to be non-habitable for humans Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and the smallest one in the entire Solar System. This planet's name has nothing to do with the liquid metal, since Mercury was named after the Roman messenger god. Despite being closer to the Sun than Venus, its temperatures aren't as terribly hot as that planet's. Its surface is quite similar to that of Earth's Moon, which means there are a lot of craters and plains
  • 57. The slide title goes here! Do you know what helps you make your point clear? Lists like this one: ● They’re simple ● You can organize your ideas clearly ● You’ll never forget to buy milk! And the most important thing: the audience won’t miss the point of your presentation
  • 58. Mercury Two ideas Venus Venus has a beautiful name and is the second planet from the Sun. It’s hot and has a poisonous atmosphere Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and the smallest one in the Solar System—it’s only a bit larger than the Moon
  • 59. Mercury Venus Mars Here are three important ideas Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and the smallest in the Solar System Venus has a beautiful name and is the second planet from the Sun Despite being red, Mars is actually a cold place. It’s full of iron oxide dust
  • 60. Four ideas Mars Mars is actually a very cold place Venus Venus is the second planet from the Sun Jupiter Jupiter is the biggest planet in the System Saturn Saturn is a gas giant and has rings
  • 61. Venus Venus is the second planet from the Sun Neptune is the farthest planet Six ideas Mercury Mars is actually a very cold place Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun Saturn Saturn is ringed and a gas giant planet Neptune Mars Jupiter Jupiter is the biggest planet of them all
  • 63. —Someone Famous “This is a quote, words full of wisdom that someone important said and can make the reader get inspired”
  • 64. A picture is worth a thousand words
  • 65. To reinforce the concept, try using an image Images reveal large amounts of data, so remember: use an image instead of a long text. Your audience will appreciate it
  • 66. 4,498,300,000 Big numbers catch your audience’s attention
  • 67. The Sun’s mass compared to Earth’s Jupiter's rotation period 9h 55m 23s 333,000 386,000 Km Distance between Earth and the Moon
  • 68. LET’S USE SOME PERCENTAGES Mercury Venus Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and the smallest of them all Venus has a beautiful name and is the second planet from the Sun Mars Despite being red, Mars is actually a cold place. It’s full of iron oxide dust 50% 75% 25%
  • 69. Computer Mockup You can replace the image on the screen with your own work. Just right-click on it and select “Replace image”
  • 70. Tablet App You can replace the image on the screen with your own work. Just right-click on it and select “Replace image”
  • 71. Mobile App You can replace the image on the screen with your own work. Just right-click on it and select “Replace image”
  • 72. This is a map Venus has a beautiful name and is the second planet from the Sun Albania
  • 73. This is a timeline Mercury is the closest planet Mercury Neptune is far away from us Neptune Mars is full of iron oxide dust Mars Jupiter is the biggest planet Jupiter Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4
  • 74. This is a infographic Mercury is the closest planet Mercury Jupiter is the biggest planet Jupiter Venus is the second planet Venus Mars is full of iron oxide dust Mars Neptune is far away from us Neptune
  • 75. Travel expenses Date Type Description Status 01/07/2023 Money Venus is the second planet from the Sun ✔ 02/07/2023 Credit Card Mars is actually a very cold place ✗ 03/07/2023 Money Jupiter is the biggest planet of them all ✔ 04/07/2023 Money Neptune is far away from Earth ✔
  • 76. You can use this graph Mercury Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and the smallest one Venus Venus has a beautiful name and is the second planet from the Sun Follow the link in the graph to modify its data and then paste the new one here. For more info, click here 50% 50%
  • 77. Our team You can speak a bit about this person here Jenna Doe You can speak a bit about this person here Tim Jimmy You can speak a bit about this person here Peter Smith Ana Scott You can speak a bit about this person here John Doe You can speak a bit about this person here
  • 78. This is a infographic Jupiter is a gas giant and the biggest planet in the System Jupiter Despite being red, Mars is actually a cold place Mars Venus has a beautiful name and is the second planet Venus Saturn is the second-largest planet in the Solar System Saturn Earth 1 2 3 4
  • 79. VENUS MERCURY Venus has a beautiful name and is the second planet from the Sun Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and the smallest in the Solar System This is a graph Follow the link in the graph to modify its data and then paste the new one here. For more info, click here
  • 80. You can use a timeline Mercury is the closest planet 2xxx Neptune is far away from us 2xxx Mars is a very cold place 2xxx Venus is the second planet 2xxx Jupiter is a big planet 2xxx 1 2 3 4 5
  • 81. NEPTUNE Neptune is far away from Earth Venus is the second planet from the Sun Reviewing concepts is a good idea MERCURY Mars is actually a very cold place Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun SATURN Saturn is ringed and a gas giant planet VENUS MARS JUPITER Jupiter is the biggest planet of them all
  • 82. VENUS Two ideas MERCURY Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and the smallest one in the Solar System—it’s only a bit larger than the Moon Venus has a beautiful name and is the second planet from the Sun. It’s hot and has a poisonous atmosphere
  • 83. Travel planner Destination: Albania Places to see: Day 1 Venus is the second planet from the Sun Day 2 Mars is actually a very cold place Day 3 Neptune is far away from Earth Expenses: $50,000 Notes: Jupiter is the biggest planet of them all
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  • 88. Resources Did you like the resources on this template? Get them for free at our other websites ● Breathtaking hawaii landscape with ocean ● Landscape of a lake surrounded by mountains
  • 89. You can easily resize these resources without losing quality. To change the color, just ungroup the resource and click on the object you want to change. Then, click on the paint bucket and select the color you want. Group the resource again when you’re done. You can also look for more infographics on Slidesgo. Use our editable graphic resources...
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  • 93. JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL PHASE 1 Task 1 Task 2 JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE PHASE 1 PHASE 2 Task 1 Task 2 Task 1 Task 2
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