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The Rural Idyll: Myth or Reality?   placemaking and placebranding  strategies on rural development   Gerard van Keken *  ReMarkable Identity
The rural idyll: Myth or Reality?
Content 1. Place :  globalisation  and  localisation 2. “Who wants to be a  rural resident ?” 3. Placebranding : what and how 4. Placemaking : what and how 5. Strategies  on placebranding and placemaking 6. Some  concluding thoughts
Project-/eventmanager Researcher Teacher Netherlands/China Ph.d Erasmus University Rotterdam on identity, placebranding/placemaking x-mas 09 ReMarkable Identity/Gerard van Keken
1.  Place :  globalisation  and  localisation From here it  looks beautiful I don’t know why we left … .. For vital and sustainable areas (and the earth)
Some perspectives on my presentation today
1. Place :  globalisation  and  localisation Paris    New York   Shanghai Metropolitan megacities
1. Place :  globalisation  and  localisation Exhibition: “Paris - New York - Shanghai” 19th, 20st & 21st Century By Hans Eijkelboom (photographer)  f.i. Foam Amsterdam
1. Place :  globalisation  and  localisation Source: Hans Eijkelboom
1. Place :  globalisation  and  localisation Source: Hans Eijkelboom
1. Place :  globalisation  and  localisation Source: Hans Eijkelboom
1. Place :  globalisation  and  localisation His point: Unique individuals, homogenising clothing styles in cities that become more and more  similar   at the decor of  brand shop &  foodstores
1. Place :  globalisation  and  localisation The movie ‘Babel’ In: Marocco, Japan, Mexico & US languages: Arabic, English, Spanish en Japanese Events that are ‘inter- connected’ like the  Butterfly-effect
1. Place :  globalisation  and  localisation Globalization& identity: Placelessness Today: Place matters (again)
Place :  globalisation  and  localisation The rural must be considered at what is happening in the cities  & also on ideas in society on ‘what is rural’
1. Place :  globalisation  and  localisation Contrasts: Core vs. periphery city vs.  countryside
1. Place :  globalisation  and  localisation FAST world   vs. SLOW world
1. Place :  globalisation  and  localisation Modern vs Traditional
1. Place :  globalisation  and  localisation Crime, poverty, homelessness vs. Problem free
1. Place :  globalisation  and  localisation Polluted congested dirty cities  vs.  More natural,  quiet places
1. Place :  globalisation  and  localisation Rural villages in Neth.: today and 50, 100 years ago at first sight no change but things did change !
1. Place :  globalisation  and  localisation social representation of the rural: If people have these ideas of the rural, you can do something with it, take advantage of it!!!!!
1. Place :  globalisation  and  localisation Localization: let us not forget that people’s lives are conducted in localized sets of place “ I love the local when it enables you to see the global, and I love the local when you can see it from the global” (Virilio, 1999: 112)
1. Place :  globalisation  and  localisation Resumé: places  are more, or less  under the influence  of both global and  local developments The local-global nexus (Milne & Ateljevic, 2001)
1. Place :  globalisation  and  localisation The rural must be considered in relation to the urban and what is happening there Globalization affects localization, but also the other way around  Identity, culture and history make places to what they are, but…… An important question is: “ Where is the sense of place?” Two strategies to enhance sense of place
Placebranding & Placemaking
2. Who wants to be a rural resident? A knowledge break on EU Myths and strategies for placebranding and placemaking
RURAL RESIDENT ?
Who wants to be a rural resident? The rules Take a pen and the paper with 15 questions 15 seconds to think on every question Simple: MYTH (X) or REALITY (X)? After 15 questions, we will look at the correct answers
Question 1 Rural areas cover 76 percent of Europe´s land surface MYTH or REALITY?
Question 2 Languages are dying at a dramatic rate, from an estimated  15.000 just 100 years ago to some 7.000 today !  MYTH or REALITY ?
The World Population is More Urban Than Rural  MYTH or REALITY? Question 3
Question 4 90 million pigs are reared annually for meat in the EU MYTH or REALITY?
Question 5 So far fourteen countries have at least one officially  accredited Cittaslow community.  MYTH  or  REALITY?
Question 6 The percentage of the total labour force in EU working in  agriculture, forestry and fishing is 9,1%.  MYTH or REALITY?
Question 7 The EU has approximately 500 million inhabitants MYTH or REALITY?
Question 8 Our food now travels an average of 1.500 miles  before ending up on our plates.  MYTH or REALITY ?
Question 9 There are almost 50 million agricultural companies  in the EU. MYTH or REALITY?
Question 10 Organic farming area covers 7.8% of the total  utilised agricultural area in the EU. MYTH or REALITY?
Question 11 Almost 60% of the population of the EU, in 27 countries lives in rural areas. MYTH or REALITY?
Question 12 The yearly budget of the EU for their policies is  more than 120 billion euro. MYTH or REALITY?
Question 13 The slow food organisation has members in 132 countries   and more than 100.000 members. MYTH or REALITY?
Question 14 The share of Agriculture to the GDP of the EU is 2,5%. MYTH or REALITY?
Question 15 The common agricultural policy of the EU represents  30%  of the EU's total spending. MYTH or REALITY?
2. Who wants to be a rural resident? The answers…….are p.s. if you trust yourself correct them yourself If not…ask your neighbour !
3. Placebranding: what & how
3. Placebranding :  what and how Place: Calais
3. Place branding : what and how Pas-de-Calais,  Really, there is another paradise  !
3. Place branding : what and how Pas-de-Calais Côte Opale Le Pays Vert   Artois, terre d’histoire
3. Place branding : what and how But Calais is also: Calais – Dover the harbour
3. Place branding : what and how And Calais is also  the movie: “Welcome”
3. Placebranding : what and how Placebranding is: not an easy job !  is more than a new logo, slogan (more than just communication) a (long term) process a place brand is a  representation of identity , building a favourable  internal  (with those who deliver the experience) and  external  (with visitors)  image   leading to brand satisfaction and loyalty; name awareness; perceived quality; and other favourable brand associations (Govers & Go, 2009).
Place Brand Essence Identity Experience Concept Value Match Place Brand Analysis Perceived Identity Perceived Image Projected Image Place Brand Implementation Construction Communication Cooperation Source: Govers & Go, 2009 3. Placebranding :  what and how
3. Placebranding : what and how www.placebrandz.com
3. Placebranding : what and how In steps www.placebrandz.com
3. Placebranding : what and how Step 1 : Vision, mission, Objectives WHAT is the shared vision? & the mission  &  objectives building (holiday) houses * creating jobs (or demolish) ?
3. Placebranding : what and how Step 2 : Place brand Analysis  1. Perceived identity 2. Perceived image 3. Projected identity Coastal feeling of sea and beach Battle against the water Polderprospects 1. Enjoying   1. Space 1. Admiration 2. Freedom   2. Quiet 2. Wildness 3. Quiet   3. freedom 3. Respect Coastal feeling of sea and beach Fishery & seafood Small towns & villages at the coast 1. Quiet   1. Quiet 1. Quiet 2. Space   2. Freedom 2. Nature 3. Freedom   3. Mussels 3. Thunderstor Zeeland
3. Placebranding : what and how Step 3 : Design Place brand essence grounded in the brand Identity = the brand name, values, narrative, visual identity Welsh brand values
3. Placebranding : what and how Step 4 :   Place brand Implementation Construction Cooperation Communication
4. Placemaking : what and how What is place?  Place (topos) was  according to Aristoteles,  the dimension of where,  in relation between men and environment Globalization: place doesn’t matter Now: place matters again
4. Placemaking : what and how About placemaking:  Placemaking is about the ways that people create a sense of place for themselves from networks of exchange, webs of affection and material landscapes (MacKay & Brady, 2005). Simply stated: how do you create a place where it feels good
4. Placemaking : what and how Placemaking: human scale central important for local economic development policy-making since reassertion of local interests and distinctiveness can help develop a competitive edge in the market place (Dredge & Jenkins, 2003)
4. Placemaking : what and how Origin of placemaking: PPS (project for public spaces): “It’s hard to create a space that will not attract people, what is remarkable, is how often this has been accomplished” -  William H. Whyte
4. Placemaking : what and how Place-making strategy : Elements of identity that can be used for a (renewed) construction of identity  Govers & Go, 2009 Past Symbolism Past Behavior Communi-cation Great events/ Great heroes Food / Architecture / Arts / Literature / Popular culture Language / Traditions / Rituals / Folk Size Physical Appearance Inner Mentality Location History Coloring elements Changing Signifiers Semi-static Structural
4. Placemaking : what and how ‘ placemaking’  is the realisation, maintenance and development of a sustainable environment for both residents and visitors in the physical, social en virtual construction of places, with a special focus on the sense of place and distinctive features of the place’s identity
4. Placemaking :  what and how Transformations for (VITAL) RURAL AREAS: Virtual level Symbolic level (buy or sell rural Life) Material level: e.g. B&B
5. Strategies  on placebranding and placemaking Some ideas/concepts for values, brands, events for further development, with a focus on: - ‘Agri-culture’: ‘cultivation of the land’ (regional) products Cultures at the rural countryside  Quality of life Entrepreneurs
Turin, Italy ( not so rural) City of….? Fiat Juventus Winterolympics 2006 & Salon del Gusto 5. Strategies  on placebranding and placemaking
Slow food (origins Italy), now worldwide (132 counties, 100.000 m. Slow …. -cities, life, management sex Salon del Gusto  2008: 180.000 vis. Slow Fish Gastronomic Univ. 5. Strategies  on placebranding and placemaking
What can you do with Garlic?  5. Strategies  on placebranding and placemaking
Gilroy (US), Garlic Capital of the world Garlic Festival Iconisation of garlic Foodscapes & food themed place identities 5. Strategies  on placebranding and placemaking
Bra, Italy cheese festival, yearly in september, 150.000 visitors 5. Strategies  on placebranding and placemaking
Bra is also one of the founders of the Cittaslow movement  International network of Slow cities, since 1999 aims  creating space for "the good, slow life”  a sustainable (and protecting) environment  quality food, music and building culture promoting local goods and products the uniqueness of cities 5. Strategies  on placebranding and placemaking
Norway  Stockfish, Bergen, Lofoten International Stockfish Festival 5. Strategies  on placebranding and placemaking
Artichoke Festival in Benicarló (Alcachofa, Spain)  the traditional - a thousand and one different kinds of –  artichoke tastings. Grilled, fried, in omelettes or fiestas Yearly in January 5. Strategies  on placebranding and placemaking
The Taste of Zeêland, since 2000 5. Strategies  on placebranding and placemaking
Regional food products as identity- constructs Sense of pride of locals Meeting the other (host-guest) Meeting ‘otherness’ in food, in people,  their habits, their traditions, their culture Marketing use A memorable experience 5. Strategies  on placebranding and placemaking
Fashion(show)- design contest “ Design a new outfit for today’s wear inspired by Zeeland’s traditional  folkloristic  Costumes ” 5. Strategies  on placebranding and placemaking
5. Strategies  on placebranding and placemaking Possibilities are endless, but you need a strategy Past Symbolism Past Behavior Communi-cation Great events/ Great heroes Food / Architecture / Arts / Literature / Popular culture Language / Traditions / Rituals / Folk Size Physical Appearance Inner Mentality Location History Coloring elements Changing Signifiers Semi-static Structural
6. Some concluding thoughts   Shrink the buzzword Not just a shrinking Population But shrink…on
6. Some concluding thoughts Financial crisis caused/causes/will cause: Shrinking budgets Shrinking authorities Shrink in civil servants Shrink in rules Shrink in consuming Shrink in hardware :
6. Some concluding thoughts Space needed for: Entrepreneurs Creativity Ideas/action in soft- & orgware Collaboration Civic culture Human scale & sense of place Quality (of life)
6. Some concluding thoughts The Rural Idyll: Myth or Reality?
6. Some concluding thoughts From a resident’s and visitor’s  perspective the rural idyll can be a myth
6. Some concluding thoughts From the resident’s & the visitor’s perspective  characteristic places  can be rural idylls if they have (symbolic) value
6. Some concluding thoughts Dutch TV program: ‘Farmer looking for a wife’,  creates high  symbolic value for the rural countryside
Thank you for inviting me, your attention Any questions, suggestions, remarks, complaints (except about the quiz)?

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the rural idyll: placemaking and placebranding strategies on rural development - Gerard van Keken

  • 1. The Rural Idyll: Myth or Reality?   placemaking and placebranding  strategies on rural development Gerard van Keken * ReMarkable Identity
  • 2. The rural idyll: Myth or Reality?
  • 3. Content 1. Place : globalisation and localisation 2. “Who wants to be a rural resident ?” 3. Placebranding : what and how 4. Placemaking : what and how 5. Strategies on placebranding and placemaking 6. Some concluding thoughts
  • 4. Project-/eventmanager Researcher Teacher Netherlands/China Ph.d Erasmus University Rotterdam on identity, placebranding/placemaking x-mas 09 ReMarkable Identity/Gerard van Keken
  • 5. 1. Place : globalisation and localisation From here it looks beautiful I don’t know why we left … .. For vital and sustainable areas (and the earth)
  • 6. Some perspectives on my presentation today
  • 7. 1. Place : globalisation and localisation Paris New York Shanghai Metropolitan megacities
  • 8. 1. Place : globalisation and localisation Exhibition: “Paris - New York - Shanghai” 19th, 20st & 21st Century By Hans Eijkelboom (photographer) f.i. Foam Amsterdam
  • 9. 1. Place : globalisation and localisation Source: Hans Eijkelboom
  • 10. 1. Place : globalisation and localisation Source: Hans Eijkelboom
  • 11. 1. Place : globalisation and localisation Source: Hans Eijkelboom
  • 12. 1. Place : globalisation and localisation His point: Unique individuals, homogenising clothing styles in cities that become more and more similar at the decor of brand shop & foodstores
  • 13. 1. Place : globalisation and localisation The movie ‘Babel’ In: Marocco, Japan, Mexico & US languages: Arabic, English, Spanish en Japanese Events that are ‘inter- connected’ like the Butterfly-effect
  • 14. 1. Place : globalisation and localisation Globalization& identity: Placelessness Today: Place matters (again)
  • 15. Place : globalisation and localisation The rural must be considered at what is happening in the cities & also on ideas in society on ‘what is rural’
  • 16. 1. Place : globalisation and localisation Contrasts: Core vs. periphery city vs. countryside
  • 17. 1. Place : globalisation and localisation FAST world vs. SLOW world
  • 18. 1. Place : globalisation and localisation Modern vs Traditional
  • 19. 1. Place : globalisation and localisation Crime, poverty, homelessness vs. Problem free
  • 20. 1. Place : globalisation and localisation Polluted congested dirty cities vs. More natural, quiet places
  • 21. 1. Place : globalisation and localisation Rural villages in Neth.: today and 50, 100 years ago at first sight no change but things did change !
  • 22. 1. Place : globalisation and localisation social representation of the rural: If people have these ideas of the rural, you can do something with it, take advantage of it!!!!!
  • 23. 1. Place : globalisation and localisation Localization: let us not forget that people’s lives are conducted in localized sets of place “ I love the local when it enables you to see the global, and I love the local when you can see it from the global” (Virilio, 1999: 112)
  • 24. 1. Place : globalisation and localisation Resumé: places are more, or less under the influence of both global and local developments The local-global nexus (Milne & Ateljevic, 2001)
  • 25. 1. Place : globalisation and localisation The rural must be considered in relation to the urban and what is happening there Globalization affects localization, but also the other way around Identity, culture and history make places to what they are, but…… An important question is: “ Where is the sense of place?” Two strategies to enhance sense of place
  • 27. 2. Who wants to be a rural resident? A knowledge break on EU Myths and strategies for placebranding and placemaking
  • 29. Who wants to be a rural resident? The rules Take a pen and the paper with 15 questions 15 seconds to think on every question Simple: MYTH (X) or REALITY (X)? After 15 questions, we will look at the correct answers
  • 30. Question 1 Rural areas cover 76 percent of Europe´s land surface MYTH or REALITY?
  • 31. Question 2 Languages are dying at a dramatic rate, from an estimated 15.000 just 100 years ago to some 7.000 today ! MYTH or REALITY ?
  • 32. The World Population is More Urban Than Rural MYTH or REALITY? Question 3
  • 33. Question 4 90 million pigs are reared annually for meat in the EU MYTH or REALITY?
  • 34. Question 5 So far fourteen countries have at least one officially accredited Cittaslow community. MYTH or REALITY?
  • 35. Question 6 The percentage of the total labour force in EU working in agriculture, forestry and fishing is 9,1%. MYTH or REALITY?
  • 36. Question 7 The EU has approximately 500 million inhabitants MYTH or REALITY?
  • 37. Question 8 Our food now travels an average of 1.500 miles before ending up on our plates. MYTH or REALITY ?
  • 38. Question 9 There are almost 50 million agricultural companies in the EU. MYTH or REALITY?
  • 39. Question 10 Organic farming area covers 7.8% of the total utilised agricultural area in the EU. MYTH or REALITY?
  • 40. Question 11 Almost 60% of the population of the EU, in 27 countries lives in rural areas. MYTH or REALITY?
  • 41. Question 12 The yearly budget of the EU for their policies is more than 120 billion euro. MYTH or REALITY?
  • 42. Question 13 The slow food organisation has members in 132 countries and more than 100.000 members. MYTH or REALITY?
  • 43. Question 14 The share of Agriculture to the GDP of the EU is 2,5%. MYTH or REALITY?
  • 44. Question 15 The common agricultural policy of the EU represents 30% of the EU's total spending. MYTH or REALITY?
  • 45. 2. Who wants to be a rural resident? The answers…….are p.s. if you trust yourself correct them yourself If not…ask your neighbour !
  • 47. 3. Placebranding : what and how Place: Calais
  • 48. 3. Place branding : what and how Pas-de-Calais, Really, there is another paradise !
  • 49. 3. Place branding : what and how Pas-de-Calais Côte Opale Le Pays Vert Artois, terre d’histoire
  • 50. 3. Place branding : what and how But Calais is also: Calais – Dover the harbour
  • 51. 3. Place branding : what and how And Calais is also the movie: “Welcome”
  • 52. 3. Placebranding : what and how Placebranding is: not an easy job ! is more than a new logo, slogan (more than just communication) a (long term) process a place brand is a representation of identity , building a favourable internal (with those who deliver the experience) and external (with visitors) image leading to brand satisfaction and loyalty; name awareness; perceived quality; and other favourable brand associations (Govers & Go, 2009).
  • 53. Place Brand Essence Identity Experience Concept Value Match Place Brand Analysis Perceived Identity Perceived Image Projected Image Place Brand Implementation Construction Communication Cooperation Source: Govers & Go, 2009 3. Placebranding : what and how
  • 54. 3. Placebranding : what and how www.placebrandz.com
  • 55. 3. Placebranding : what and how In steps www.placebrandz.com
  • 56. 3. Placebranding : what and how Step 1 : Vision, mission, Objectives WHAT is the shared vision? & the mission & objectives building (holiday) houses * creating jobs (or demolish) ?
  • 57. 3. Placebranding : what and how Step 2 : Place brand Analysis 1. Perceived identity 2. Perceived image 3. Projected identity Coastal feeling of sea and beach Battle against the water Polderprospects 1. Enjoying 1. Space 1. Admiration 2. Freedom 2. Quiet 2. Wildness 3. Quiet 3. freedom 3. Respect Coastal feeling of sea and beach Fishery & seafood Small towns & villages at the coast 1. Quiet 1. Quiet 1. Quiet 2. Space 2. Freedom 2. Nature 3. Freedom 3. Mussels 3. Thunderstor Zeeland
  • 58. 3. Placebranding : what and how Step 3 : Design Place brand essence grounded in the brand Identity = the brand name, values, narrative, visual identity Welsh brand values
  • 59. 3. Placebranding : what and how Step 4 : Place brand Implementation Construction Cooperation Communication
  • 60. 4. Placemaking : what and how What is place? Place (topos) was according to Aristoteles, the dimension of where, in relation between men and environment Globalization: place doesn’t matter Now: place matters again
  • 61. 4. Placemaking : what and how About placemaking: Placemaking is about the ways that people create a sense of place for themselves from networks of exchange, webs of affection and material landscapes (MacKay & Brady, 2005). Simply stated: how do you create a place where it feels good
  • 62. 4. Placemaking : what and how Placemaking: human scale central important for local economic development policy-making since reassertion of local interests and distinctiveness can help develop a competitive edge in the market place (Dredge & Jenkins, 2003)
  • 63. 4. Placemaking : what and how Origin of placemaking: PPS (project for public spaces): “It’s hard to create a space that will not attract people, what is remarkable, is how often this has been accomplished” - William H. Whyte
  • 64. 4. Placemaking : what and how Place-making strategy : Elements of identity that can be used for a (renewed) construction of identity Govers & Go, 2009 Past Symbolism Past Behavior Communi-cation Great events/ Great heroes Food / Architecture / Arts / Literature / Popular culture Language / Traditions / Rituals / Folk Size Physical Appearance Inner Mentality Location History Coloring elements Changing Signifiers Semi-static Structural
  • 65. 4. Placemaking : what and how ‘ placemaking’ is the realisation, maintenance and development of a sustainable environment for both residents and visitors in the physical, social en virtual construction of places, with a special focus on the sense of place and distinctive features of the place’s identity
  • 66. 4. Placemaking : what and how Transformations for (VITAL) RURAL AREAS: Virtual level Symbolic level (buy or sell rural Life) Material level: e.g. B&B
  • 67. 5. Strategies on placebranding and placemaking Some ideas/concepts for values, brands, events for further development, with a focus on: - ‘Agri-culture’: ‘cultivation of the land’ (regional) products Cultures at the rural countryside Quality of life Entrepreneurs
  • 68. Turin, Italy ( not so rural) City of….? Fiat Juventus Winterolympics 2006 & Salon del Gusto 5. Strategies on placebranding and placemaking
  • 69. Slow food (origins Italy), now worldwide (132 counties, 100.000 m. Slow …. -cities, life, management sex Salon del Gusto 2008: 180.000 vis. Slow Fish Gastronomic Univ. 5. Strategies on placebranding and placemaking
  • 70. What can you do with Garlic? 5. Strategies on placebranding and placemaking
  • 71. Gilroy (US), Garlic Capital of the world Garlic Festival Iconisation of garlic Foodscapes & food themed place identities 5. Strategies on placebranding and placemaking
  • 72. Bra, Italy cheese festival, yearly in september, 150.000 visitors 5. Strategies on placebranding and placemaking
  • 73. Bra is also one of the founders of the Cittaslow movement International network of Slow cities, since 1999 aims creating space for "the good, slow life” a sustainable (and protecting) environment quality food, music and building culture promoting local goods and products the uniqueness of cities 5. Strategies on placebranding and placemaking
  • 74. Norway Stockfish, Bergen, Lofoten International Stockfish Festival 5. Strategies on placebranding and placemaking
  • 75. Artichoke Festival in Benicarló (Alcachofa, Spain) the traditional - a thousand and one different kinds of – artichoke tastings. Grilled, fried, in omelettes or fiestas Yearly in January 5. Strategies on placebranding and placemaking
  • 76. The Taste of Zeêland, since 2000 5. Strategies on placebranding and placemaking
  • 77. Regional food products as identity- constructs Sense of pride of locals Meeting the other (host-guest) Meeting ‘otherness’ in food, in people, their habits, their traditions, their culture Marketing use A memorable experience 5. Strategies on placebranding and placemaking
  • 78. Fashion(show)- design contest “ Design a new outfit for today’s wear inspired by Zeeland’s traditional folkloristic Costumes ” 5. Strategies on placebranding and placemaking
  • 79. 5. Strategies on placebranding and placemaking Possibilities are endless, but you need a strategy Past Symbolism Past Behavior Communi-cation Great events/ Great heroes Food / Architecture / Arts / Literature / Popular culture Language / Traditions / Rituals / Folk Size Physical Appearance Inner Mentality Location History Coloring elements Changing Signifiers Semi-static Structural
  • 80. 6. Some concluding thoughts Shrink the buzzword Not just a shrinking Population But shrink…on
  • 81. 6. Some concluding thoughts Financial crisis caused/causes/will cause: Shrinking budgets Shrinking authorities Shrink in civil servants Shrink in rules Shrink in consuming Shrink in hardware :
  • 82. 6. Some concluding thoughts Space needed for: Entrepreneurs Creativity Ideas/action in soft- & orgware Collaboration Civic culture Human scale & sense of place Quality (of life)
  • 83. 6. Some concluding thoughts The Rural Idyll: Myth or Reality?
  • 84. 6. Some concluding thoughts From a resident’s and visitor’s perspective the rural idyll can be a myth
  • 85. 6. Some concluding thoughts From the resident’s & the visitor’s perspective characteristic places can be rural idylls if they have (symbolic) value
  • 86. 6. Some concluding thoughts Dutch TV program: ‘Farmer looking for a wife’, creates high symbolic value for the rural countryside
  • 87. Thank you for inviting me, your attention Any questions, suggestions, remarks, complaints (except about the quiz)?