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SCHISTOSOMIASIS - A NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASE
SCHISTOMOSA HEAMATOBIUM
Presented by- DEBDATTA GHOSH
B.Sc. LIFE SCIENCES
4TH SEMESTER
22583073
BLOOD FLUKES
Schistosomes
Schistosomes are dioecious, (sexes are
separate) trematodes, which lead to
Schistosomiasis (bilharziasis).
Schistosomiasis is a water-borne disease
constituting an important public health
problem and affecting millions of persons in
Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
It is estimated that over 100 milion people are
infected with S. haematobium, S. mansoni,
and S. japonicum each.
Two other species of Schistosoma
parasitizing humans are S. mekongi and S.
intercalatum.
Features distinguishing schistosomes
from other trematodes
Schistosomes differ from the hermaphroditic trematodes
in many aspects.
• They are unisexual (diecious).
• They lack a muscular pharynx.
• Their intestinal caeca reunite after bifurcation to form a
single canal.
• They produce non-operculated eggs.
• They have no redia stage in larval development.
• The cercariae have forked tails and infect by
penetrating the unbroken skin of definitive hosts.
SCHISTOSOMA HEAMATOBIUM
History and Distribution
This vesical blood fluke, formerly known as Bilharzia haematobium, has been endemic in
the Nile valley in Egypt for millenia. Its eggs have been found in the renal pelvis of an
Egyptian mummy dating from 1,250–1,000 BC. Schistosome antigens have been identified
by enzyme linked immuno sorbant assay (ELISA) in Egyptian mummies of the Predynastic
period, 3,100 BC.
The adult worm was described in 1851 by Bilharz in Cairo. Its life cycle, including the larval
stage in the snail, was worked out by Leiper in 1915 in Egypt.
Although maximally entrenched in the Nile valley, S. haematobium is also endemic in most
parts of Africa and in West Asia.
An isolated focus of endemicity in India was identified in Ratnagiri, south of Mumbai by
Gadgil and Shah in 1952.
About 200 million persons are at a risk of infection and 90 million are infected by S.
haematobium globally.
Habitat
The adult worms live in the vesical and pelvic plexuses of veins
Adult worm
The male is 10–15 mm long by 1 mm thick
and covered by a finely tuberculated
cuticle.
It has 2 muscular suckers, the oral sucker
being small and the ventral sucker large
and prominent. Beginning immediately
behind the ventral sucker and extending
to the caudal end is the gynecophoric
canal, in which the female worm is held
The adult female is long and slender, 20
mm by 0.25 mm with the cuticular
tubercles confined to the two ends.
The gravid worm contains 20–30 eggs in
its uterus at one time and may pass up to
300 eggs a day.
Egg
The eggs are ovoid, about 150 µm by 50
µm, nonoperculated, with a brownish
yellow transparent shell carrying a
terminal spine at one pole; the terminal
spine being characteristic of the species .
Mechanism of Egg Expulsion
The eggs are laid usually in the small venules of
the vesical and pelvic plexuses, though
sometimes they are laid in the mesenteric portal
system, pulmonary arterioles, and other ectopic
sites.
The eggs are laid one behind the other with the
spine pointing posteriorly
From the venules, the eggs make their way
through the vesical wall by the piercing action of
the spine, assisted by the mounting pressure
within the venules and a lytic substance released
by the eggs.
The eggs pass into the lumen of the urinary
bladder together with some extravasated blood.
They are discharged in the urine, particularly
towards the end of micturition.
For some unknown reasons, the eggs are passed
in urine more during midday than at any other
time of the day.
The eggs laid in ectopic sites generally die and
evoke local tissue reactions. They may be found,
for instance in rectal biopsies, but are seldom
passed live in feces.
Development in Snail
Inside the snail, the miracidia lose
their cilia and in about 4–8 weeks,
successively pass through the
stages of the first and second
generation sporocysts
Large number of cercariae are
produced by asexual reproduction
within the second generation
sporocyst.
The cercaria has an elongated ovoid
body and forked tail (furcocercous
cercaria) .
The cercariae escape from the snail.
Swarms of cercariae swim about in
water for 1–3 days. If during that
period they come into contact with
persons bathing or wading in the
water, they penetrate through their
unbroken skin. Skin penetration is
facilitated by lytic substances
secreted by penetration glands
present in the cercaria.
S. heamatobium passes its
life cycle in 2 hosts.
Definitive host: Humans are
the only natural definitive
hosts. No animal reservoir is
known.
Intermediate host: Fresh
water snails.
Infective form: Cercaria larva
The eggs that are passed
in urine are embryonated
and hatch in water under
suitable conditions to
release the free living
ciliated miracidia.
Miracidia swim about in
water and on
encountering a suitable
intermediate host,
penetrate into its tissues
and reach its liver . The
intermediate hosts are
snails of Bulinus species in
Africa. In India, the
intermediate host is the
limpet, Ferrisia tenuis.
Development in Man
On entering the skin, the cercariae shed
their tails and become schistosomulae
which enter the peripheral venules.
They then start a long migration, through
the vena cava into the right side of the
heart, the pulmonary circulation, the left
side of the heart, and the systemic
circulation, ultimately reaching the liver.
In the intrahepatic portal veins, the
schistosomulae grow and become
sexually differentiated adolescents
about 20 days after skin
penetration.They then start migrating
against the blood stream into the
inferior mesenteric veins, ultimately
reaching the vesical and pelvic venous
plexuses, where they mature, mate, and
begin laying eggs.
Eggs start appearing in urine usually 10–
12 weeks after cercarial penetration.
The adult worms may live for 20–30
years.
PATHOGENECITY
Clinical illness caused by schistosomes can be classified
depending on the stages in the evolution of the infection,
as follows:
Skin penetration and incubation period
Egg deposition and extrusion
Tissue proliferation and repair.
The clinical features during the incubation
period may be local cercarial dermatitis or general
anaphylactic or toxic symptoms.
Cercarial dermatitis consists of transient itching and
petechial lesions at the site of entry of the cercariae
(swimmer’s itch)
This is seen more often in visitors to endemic areas than in locals who may be immune due to
repeated contacts.
It is particularly severe when infection occurs with cercariae of nonhuman schistosomes.
Anaphylactic or toxic symptoms include fever, headache, malaise, and urticaria.
This is accompanied by leucocytosis, eosinophilia, enlarged tender liver, and a palpable spleen.
This condition is more common in infection with S. japonicum (Katayama fever).
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
Clinical features during oviposition include painless terminal hematuria (endemic
hematuria)
Hematuria is initially microscopic, but becomes gross, if infection is heavy.
Most patients develop frequency of micturition and burning.
Cystoscopy shows hyperplasia and inflammation of bladder mucosa, with minute papular
or vesicular lesions.
Clinical features during tissue proliferation and repair
In the chronic stage, there is generalized hyperplasia and fibrosis of the vesical mucosa
with a granular appearance (sandy patch).
At the sites of deposition of the eggs, dense infiltration with lymphocytes, plasma cells,
and eosinophils leads to pseudoabscesses.
Initially, the trigone is involved, but ultimately the entire mucosa becomes inflamed,
thickened, and ulcerated.
Secondary bacterial infection leads to chronic cystitis. Calculi form in the bladder due to
deposition of oxalate and uric acid crystals around the eggs and blood clots. There may
be obstructive hyperplasia of the ureters and urethra (hydroureter).
Chronic schistosomiasis has been associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the
bladder. Such malignancy is detected in a younger age group as compared to transitional
cell carcinoma of the bladder.
In fact, S. haematobium is now classified as a human carcinogen.
Importantly, bladder cancer is a frequent and
dire compli cation of chronic UGS. The
incidence of SCC associated to UGS is
estimated in 3–4 cases per 100,000 .
Untreated patients often develop
schistosome-related bladder cancer. The tu
mors are found in a relatively younger age
group, commonly present as well
differentiated SCC locally advanced and have
poor overall survival .
The severity and frequency of UGS se quelae
are related to the intensity and duration of
the infection. Genetic alterations,
chromosomal aberrations, and cytological
changes have been described in carcinomas
associ ated with UGS .
N-nitroso compounds have been implicated
as tentative etiologic agents in the process of
bladder carcinogenesis.
Elevated levels of DNA alkylation damage in
carcinomas associated with UGS and a high
frequency of G to A transitions in the H-ras gene
and in the CpG sequences of the p53 tumor
suppressor gene have also been reported.
These outcomes indicate that UGS-associated SCC
arises through a progressive accumulation of
genetic changes in epithelial cells. Positive
correlation between UGS and increased the levels
of oxidative stress accompanied by continuous DNA
damage and repair in urothelial carcinomas has
been observed by several groups.
More recently, it have been shown that schisto
some eggs co-cultured with informative human cell
lines promote proliferation of the urothelial cells
(HCV29 cell line) but inhibit cholangiocytes (H69
cells).
Moreover, the TP53 pathway was signi icantly
downregulated, and the estrogen receptor was
predicted to be downregulated in urothelial cells
exposed only to S. haematobium but not S. mansoni
eggs
MALIGNANCY
SCHISTOSOMA HEAMATOBIUM life cycle  .pdf
SCHISTOSOMA HEAMATOBIUM life cycle  .pdf
SCHISTOSOMA HEAMATOBIUM life cycle  .pdf

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SCHISTOSOMA HEAMATOBIUM life cycle .pdf

  • 1. SCHISTOSOMIASIS - A NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASE SCHISTOMOSA HEAMATOBIUM Presented by- DEBDATTA GHOSH B.Sc. LIFE SCIENCES 4TH SEMESTER 22583073
  • 2. BLOOD FLUKES Schistosomes Schistosomes are dioecious, (sexes are separate) trematodes, which lead to Schistosomiasis (bilharziasis). Schistosomiasis is a water-borne disease constituting an important public health problem and affecting millions of persons in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. It is estimated that over 100 milion people are infected with S. haematobium, S. mansoni, and S. japonicum each. Two other species of Schistosoma parasitizing humans are S. mekongi and S. intercalatum.
  • 3. Features distinguishing schistosomes from other trematodes Schistosomes differ from the hermaphroditic trematodes in many aspects. • They are unisexual (diecious). • They lack a muscular pharynx. • Their intestinal caeca reunite after bifurcation to form a single canal. • They produce non-operculated eggs. • They have no redia stage in larval development. • The cercariae have forked tails and infect by penetrating the unbroken skin of definitive hosts.
  • 5. History and Distribution This vesical blood fluke, formerly known as Bilharzia haematobium, has been endemic in the Nile valley in Egypt for millenia. Its eggs have been found in the renal pelvis of an Egyptian mummy dating from 1,250–1,000 BC. Schistosome antigens have been identified by enzyme linked immuno sorbant assay (ELISA) in Egyptian mummies of the Predynastic period, 3,100 BC. The adult worm was described in 1851 by Bilharz in Cairo. Its life cycle, including the larval stage in the snail, was worked out by Leiper in 1915 in Egypt. Although maximally entrenched in the Nile valley, S. haematobium is also endemic in most parts of Africa and in West Asia. An isolated focus of endemicity in India was identified in Ratnagiri, south of Mumbai by Gadgil and Shah in 1952. About 200 million persons are at a risk of infection and 90 million are infected by S. haematobium globally. Habitat The adult worms live in the vesical and pelvic plexuses of veins
  • 6. Adult worm The male is 10–15 mm long by 1 mm thick and covered by a finely tuberculated cuticle. It has 2 muscular suckers, the oral sucker being small and the ventral sucker large and prominent. Beginning immediately behind the ventral sucker and extending to the caudal end is the gynecophoric canal, in which the female worm is held The adult female is long and slender, 20 mm by 0.25 mm with the cuticular tubercles confined to the two ends. The gravid worm contains 20–30 eggs in its uterus at one time and may pass up to 300 eggs a day. Egg The eggs are ovoid, about 150 µm by 50 µm, nonoperculated, with a brownish yellow transparent shell carrying a terminal spine at one pole; the terminal spine being characteristic of the species . Mechanism of Egg Expulsion The eggs are laid usually in the small venules of the vesical and pelvic plexuses, though sometimes they are laid in the mesenteric portal system, pulmonary arterioles, and other ectopic sites. The eggs are laid one behind the other with the spine pointing posteriorly From the venules, the eggs make their way through the vesical wall by the piercing action of the spine, assisted by the mounting pressure within the venules and a lytic substance released by the eggs. The eggs pass into the lumen of the urinary bladder together with some extravasated blood. They are discharged in the urine, particularly towards the end of micturition. For some unknown reasons, the eggs are passed in urine more during midday than at any other time of the day. The eggs laid in ectopic sites generally die and evoke local tissue reactions. They may be found, for instance in rectal biopsies, but are seldom passed live in feces.
  • 7. Development in Snail Inside the snail, the miracidia lose their cilia and in about 4–8 weeks, successively pass through the stages of the first and second generation sporocysts Large number of cercariae are produced by asexual reproduction within the second generation sporocyst. The cercaria has an elongated ovoid body and forked tail (furcocercous cercaria) . The cercariae escape from the snail. Swarms of cercariae swim about in water for 1–3 days. If during that period they come into contact with persons bathing or wading in the water, they penetrate through their unbroken skin. Skin penetration is facilitated by lytic substances secreted by penetration glands present in the cercaria. S. heamatobium passes its life cycle in 2 hosts. Definitive host: Humans are the only natural definitive hosts. No animal reservoir is known. Intermediate host: Fresh water snails. Infective form: Cercaria larva The eggs that are passed in urine are embryonated and hatch in water under suitable conditions to release the free living ciliated miracidia. Miracidia swim about in water and on encountering a suitable intermediate host, penetrate into its tissues and reach its liver . The intermediate hosts are snails of Bulinus species in Africa. In India, the intermediate host is the limpet, Ferrisia tenuis. Development in Man On entering the skin, the cercariae shed their tails and become schistosomulae which enter the peripheral venules. They then start a long migration, through the vena cava into the right side of the heart, the pulmonary circulation, the left side of the heart, and the systemic circulation, ultimately reaching the liver. In the intrahepatic portal veins, the schistosomulae grow and become sexually differentiated adolescents about 20 days after skin penetration.They then start migrating against the blood stream into the inferior mesenteric veins, ultimately reaching the vesical and pelvic venous plexuses, where they mature, mate, and begin laying eggs. Eggs start appearing in urine usually 10– 12 weeks after cercarial penetration. The adult worms may live for 20–30 years.
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  • 9. PATHOGENECITY Clinical illness caused by schistosomes can be classified depending on the stages in the evolution of the infection, as follows: Skin penetration and incubation period Egg deposition and extrusion Tissue proliferation and repair. The clinical features during the incubation period may be local cercarial dermatitis or general anaphylactic or toxic symptoms. Cercarial dermatitis consists of transient itching and petechial lesions at the site of entry of the cercariae (swimmer’s itch) This is seen more often in visitors to endemic areas than in locals who may be immune due to repeated contacts. It is particularly severe when infection occurs with cercariae of nonhuman schistosomes. Anaphylactic or toxic symptoms include fever, headache, malaise, and urticaria. This is accompanied by leucocytosis, eosinophilia, enlarged tender liver, and a palpable spleen. This condition is more common in infection with S. japonicum (Katayama fever).
  • 10. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Clinical features during oviposition include painless terminal hematuria (endemic hematuria) Hematuria is initially microscopic, but becomes gross, if infection is heavy. Most patients develop frequency of micturition and burning. Cystoscopy shows hyperplasia and inflammation of bladder mucosa, with minute papular or vesicular lesions. Clinical features during tissue proliferation and repair In the chronic stage, there is generalized hyperplasia and fibrosis of the vesical mucosa with a granular appearance (sandy patch). At the sites of deposition of the eggs, dense infiltration with lymphocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils leads to pseudoabscesses. Initially, the trigone is involved, but ultimately the entire mucosa becomes inflamed, thickened, and ulcerated. Secondary bacterial infection leads to chronic cystitis. Calculi form in the bladder due to deposition of oxalate and uric acid crystals around the eggs and blood clots. There may be obstructive hyperplasia of the ureters and urethra (hydroureter). Chronic schistosomiasis has been associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. Such malignancy is detected in a younger age group as compared to transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. In fact, S. haematobium is now classified as a human carcinogen.
  • 11. Importantly, bladder cancer is a frequent and dire compli cation of chronic UGS. The incidence of SCC associated to UGS is estimated in 3–4 cases per 100,000 . Untreated patients often develop schistosome-related bladder cancer. The tu mors are found in a relatively younger age group, commonly present as well differentiated SCC locally advanced and have poor overall survival . The severity and frequency of UGS se quelae are related to the intensity and duration of the infection. Genetic alterations, chromosomal aberrations, and cytological changes have been described in carcinomas associ ated with UGS . N-nitroso compounds have been implicated as tentative etiologic agents in the process of bladder carcinogenesis. Elevated levels of DNA alkylation damage in carcinomas associated with UGS and a high frequency of G to A transitions in the H-ras gene and in the CpG sequences of the p53 tumor suppressor gene have also been reported. These outcomes indicate that UGS-associated SCC arises through a progressive accumulation of genetic changes in epithelial cells. Positive correlation between UGS and increased the levels of oxidative stress accompanied by continuous DNA damage and repair in urothelial carcinomas has been observed by several groups. More recently, it have been shown that schisto some eggs co-cultured with informative human cell lines promote proliferation of the urothelial cells (HCV29 cell line) but inhibit cholangiocytes (H69 cells). Moreover, the TP53 pathway was signi icantly downregulated, and the estrogen receptor was predicted to be downregulated in urothelial cells exposed only to S. haematobium but not S. mansoni eggs MALIGNANCY