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Radiographic Artifacts
Dr.Amandeep
L2013V40M
Department Of Veterianry Medicine
GADVASU
Introduction
 Structure or appearance that is not normally present
on the radiograph and is produced by artificial means
Detrimental to interpretation by decreasing
visualization or altering the appearance of area of
interest
Classification
• Processing
• Exposure
• Handling & Storage
Classification
 Simplify by dividing them into two broad categories:
◦ those that involve the entire film
◦ those that are localized to one or more areas on the
film
Various Artifacts
Improper Exposure
a. White radiograph
Too low mAs or kvp
Under estimated body part measurement
Inc FFD
b. Dark radiograph
Too high mAs or kVp
Over estimated body part measurementde
Dec FFD
Prevention
• Check settings
• Tube to film distance
• Body part measurement
• Avoid use of exhausted developer
Improper developing
a. Too dark b. Too light
– Film may have been in
the developer too long
– Developer temperature
may be too high
– Check the temperature of
the developer and adjust
time accordingly if hand
processing is done.
– Film may not have been
in the developer long
enough
– Developer temperature
may be too low & time
was not adjusted
accordingly
– Exhausted developer-
chemicals
c. Unevenly developed
– Chemical levels are uneven resulting in uneven
levels of developing and fixing
– Generally seen at top of the film when using hand
processing
– May also see uneven developing if the chemicals
are not stirred prior to use (hand processing)
Chemicals not Stirred
white
streaky
appearance
over the entire
film
Uneven Chemical Levels
not exposed, is developed,
and not fixed
not exposed, developed,
and partially fixed
exposed, developed, and
fixed
not exposed, but is
developed and fixed
d. Brown stains
Fog
• Any additional
unwanted density that
results in a gray film
• Loss of contrast which in
turn affects the image detail
Causes
• Excessive pressure
• Heat- film should be stored at <68 F
• Light- from outside source or safelight
• Humidity- should be 30-50%
• Chemical- over developing
• Old film
• Certain gases
• Scatter radiation
Prevention
• Store film in cool place with moderate humidity
• Store vertically & not stack.
• Check for any light leaks
• Safelight must be at proper spectrum & proper
distance from counter
• Use a grid when necessary
Improper Screen-Film Combination
• Results in poor quality images
• Given screen will emit a certain light spectrum
• Chosen film must be sensitive to that spectrum
• Films and screens are often classified as “blue” or
“green” & they must match
Grids
• If body part is greater than 10cm thick
• Grid must be leveled, within its focal zone & aligned
with beam
• Grids may be portable, or mounted permanently
beneath the table
Grid alignment
Grid alignment
Upside down grid
This results in extreme loss of
primary radiation at the
periphery, with near normal
transmission at the center.
Grid cut off
• Grid is not aligned with beam
• Results in absorption of primary radiation
• Image is too light and there is poor contrast
• Grid lines are visible as numerous very narrow
parallel lines
Too light and grid lines seen
Motion
• Image is blurred
• Resolution is poor
• May be motion of patient, tube, or cassette
• Problem especially with non-sedated animals
• Panting causes patient motion
Motion blurrness
blurry appearance edges are
unsharp
Prevention
• Sedate the animal
• Proper restraint
• Avoid hand holding cassettes
• NEVER hand hold x-ray unit
Screen/Cassette Abnormalities
• Old cassettes
– decreased
film-screen contact
=decreased detail
• Screen craze
– small cracks
throughout the screen-
these areas are underexposed
Double Exposures
• Film is darker than a single exposure
• May be the same image
– inadvertent double click.
– animal has not moved.
• May be two separate images
– generally a film is exposed, forgotten & not
developed, then exposed again
Double exposure
IMAGE OFF CENTRE
• using the bucky
– not pushed in all the way
– concurrent grid cutoff
• table top
– image not centered on the film
– will cause no problem with the image
TABLE TOP AND BUCKY NOT PUSHED IN
Localized Artifacts
Static Electricity
• two patterns-smudge and tree
• black marks on the film
• electrons are passed to the film during
handling therefore exposing the film
• common problem especially in cold dry
climates
STATIC ELECTRICITY
Avoiding Static Electricity
• maintain moderate humidity in the area
• do not slide the film across surfaces-this
excites electrons
• clean screens with a cleaner containing an
anti-static agent
Debris
• May be associated with the screen, on the cassette
or grid, or on the table or collimator window
• These are white artifacts
• Closer the debris is to the film, the sharper its
margins will appear
• Common debris includes hair, and dust particles
• Sometimes air is trapped on film
Rough Handling
• Black “crescent” marks
– film has been creased prior to processing
– very common problem
• White “crescent” marks
– similar cause to black marks but more severe
– termed “SOLARISATION”
Chemical Spills
• Streaks, spills or fingerprints
• Color will depend on specific chemical(s)
involved
• Developer causes black stains
• Fixer causes white stains
• Improper rinsing causes brown stains
Localized Fog-Light Leaks
• Common problem causing black areas (exposed)
• Multiple potential sources
– storage bin light leak
– cassette light leak
– light turned on during the time the film is being fed
into the processor
Localized Fog-Pressure
• Dark gray or black artifact
• Localized pressure applied to the film
• May be a result of rough handling
• Margins are often irregular and fuzzy
PRESSURE FOG AND EMULSION SCRATCHES
Objects Within the Beam
• Not related to the primary image
• Decreased the quality of the image
• Common sources include the whip on portable
machines, restraining devices, iv lines, ECG leads,
ET tubes, etc
Kissing Defect
• Can occur with
automatic or manual developing
• 2 films completely or
partially stick together
• Films are not properly processed
• Can see the outline of one
film on the other
Manual Restraint Artifacts
• Hands in the primary beam
• Gloved hands in the primary beam
• Remember that lead gloves do not
protect your hands within the
primary beam-they only protect
from scatter
Improper Positioning
• Animal not properly positioned
• Body parts such as front or hind legs
superimposed over thorax or abdomen
• Compromises radiographic evaluation
• Positioning is generally more difficult without
sedation
Thanks 

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Radiographic Artifacts In Animals By Dr.Amandeep GADVASU

  • 2. Introduction  Structure or appearance that is not normally present on the radiograph and is produced by artificial means Detrimental to interpretation by decreasing visualization or altering the appearance of area of interest
  • 4. Classification  Simplify by dividing them into two broad categories: ◦ those that involve the entire film ◦ those that are localized to one or more areas on the film
  • 7. a. White radiograph Too low mAs or kvp Under estimated body part measurement Inc FFD
  • 8. b. Dark radiograph Too high mAs or kVp Over estimated body part measurementde Dec FFD
  • 9. Prevention • Check settings • Tube to film distance • Body part measurement • Avoid use of exhausted developer
  • 11. a. Too dark b. Too light – Film may have been in the developer too long – Developer temperature may be too high – Check the temperature of the developer and adjust time accordingly if hand processing is done. – Film may not have been in the developer long enough – Developer temperature may be too low & time was not adjusted accordingly – Exhausted developer- chemicals
  • 12. c. Unevenly developed – Chemical levels are uneven resulting in uneven levels of developing and fixing – Generally seen at top of the film when using hand processing – May also see uneven developing if the chemicals are not stirred prior to use (hand processing)
  • 14. Uneven Chemical Levels not exposed, is developed, and not fixed not exposed, developed, and partially fixed exposed, developed, and fixed not exposed, but is developed and fixed
  • 16. Fog • Any additional unwanted density that results in a gray film • Loss of contrast which in turn affects the image detail
  • 17. Causes • Excessive pressure • Heat- film should be stored at <68 F • Light- from outside source or safelight • Humidity- should be 30-50% • Chemical- over developing • Old film • Certain gases • Scatter radiation
  • 18. Prevention • Store film in cool place with moderate humidity • Store vertically & not stack. • Check for any light leaks • Safelight must be at proper spectrum & proper distance from counter • Use a grid when necessary
  • 19. Improper Screen-Film Combination • Results in poor quality images • Given screen will emit a certain light spectrum • Chosen film must be sensitive to that spectrum • Films and screens are often classified as “blue” or “green” & they must match
  • 20. Grids • If body part is greater than 10cm thick • Grid must be leveled, within its focal zone & aligned with beam • Grids may be portable, or mounted permanently beneath the table
  • 22. Grid alignment Upside down grid This results in extreme loss of primary radiation at the periphery, with near normal transmission at the center.
  • 23. Grid cut off • Grid is not aligned with beam • Results in absorption of primary radiation • Image is too light and there is poor contrast • Grid lines are visible as numerous very narrow parallel lines
  • 24. Too light and grid lines seen
  • 25. Motion • Image is blurred • Resolution is poor • May be motion of patient, tube, or cassette • Problem especially with non-sedated animals • Panting causes patient motion
  • 27. Prevention • Sedate the animal • Proper restraint • Avoid hand holding cassettes • NEVER hand hold x-ray unit
  • 28. Screen/Cassette Abnormalities • Old cassettes – decreased film-screen contact =decreased detail • Screen craze – small cracks throughout the screen- these areas are underexposed
  • 29. Double Exposures • Film is darker than a single exposure • May be the same image – inadvertent double click. – animal has not moved. • May be two separate images – generally a film is exposed, forgotten & not developed, then exposed again
  • 31. IMAGE OFF CENTRE • using the bucky – not pushed in all the way – concurrent grid cutoff • table top – image not centered on the film – will cause no problem with the image
  • 32. TABLE TOP AND BUCKY NOT PUSHED IN
  • 34. Static Electricity • two patterns-smudge and tree • black marks on the film • electrons are passed to the film during handling therefore exposing the film • common problem especially in cold dry climates
  • 36.
  • 37. Avoiding Static Electricity • maintain moderate humidity in the area • do not slide the film across surfaces-this excites electrons • clean screens with a cleaner containing an anti-static agent
  • 38. Debris • May be associated with the screen, on the cassette or grid, or on the table or collimator window • These are white artifacts • Closer the debris is to the film, the sharper its margins will appear • Common debris includes hair, and dust particles • Sometimes air is trapped on film
  • 39.
  • 40. Rough Handling • Black “crescent” marks – film has been creased prior to processing – very common problem • White “crescent” marks – similar cause to black marks but more severe – termed “SOLARISATION”
  • 41.
  • 42. Chemical Spills • Streaks, spills or fingerprints • Color will depend on specific chemical(s) involved • Developer causes black stains • Fixer causes white stains • Improper rinsing causes brown stains
  • 43.
  • 44. Localized Fog-Light Leaks • Common problem causing black areas (exposed) • Multiple potential sources – storage bin light leak – cassette light leak – light turned on during the time the film is being fed into the processor
  • 45.
  • 46. Localized Fog-Pressure • Dark gray or black artifact • Localized pressure applied to the film • May be a result of rough handling • Margins are often irregular and fuzzy
  • 47. PRESSURE FOG AND EMULSION SCRATCHES
  • 48. Objects Within the Beam • Not related to the primary image • Decreased the quality of the image • Common sources include the whip on portable machines, restraining devices, iv lines, ECG leads, ET tubes, etc
  • 49.
  • 50. Kissing Defect • Can occur with automatic or manual developing • 2 films completely or partially stick together • Films are not properly processed • Can see the outline of one film on the other
  • 51. Manual Restraint Artifacts • Hands in the primary beam • Gloved hands in the primary beam
  • 52. • Remember that lead gloves do not protect your hands within the primary beam-they only protect from scatter
  • 53. Improper Positioning • Animal not properly positioned • Body parts such as front or hind legs superimposed over thorax or abdomen • Compromises radiographic evaluation • Positioning is generally more difficult without sedation
  • 54.