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The use of online tools to improve the
written production skill in L2 during
the pandemic of Covid-19: a case study
in a school from Osorno
Author:
Valentina Danae Guzmán Soto
Tutor:
Soledad Sandoval
Agenda
 Introduction
 Literature Review
 Methodology
 Results and Discussion
 Conclusions
 References
Introduction
The Use of Online
Tools to Improve the
Written Production Skill
during the Pandemic
Online Tools &
Writing
Emergency
Remote Teaching
(ERT)
Chilean Context
Literature Review
Emergency Remote Teaching
A provisional shift of the way of teaching, as it was known due to problematic
situations; a temporary shift of instructional delivery to an alternate delivery mode
due to crisis circumstances (Hodges et al., 2020).
Fully remote
teaching
solutions for
instruction or
education
Face-to-face;
blended or
hybrid
courses
Return to on-
site format
once the
crisis or
emergency
has abated
The Chilean Context
 Schools with Internet access
attended lessons using online
platforms
 Rural schools without Internet kept
the learning process using printed
material
 MINEDUC provided resources such
as learning online platforms, digital
school libraries, school texts, online
conferences for school members
limited access
to resources,
reduced
distribution of
these, training
was not
available for all
teachers
Emerging problems
The Chilean Context (cont.)
Teachers
 26% conducted videoconference
classes
 25% used learning platforms
 20% used worksheets, specifically
printed material
 70% of teachers declared they felt
“reasonably capable” or “highly
capable”
 A minority of students
connected to virtual
lessons regularly
 Students lacked effective
learning in virtual lessons
Education 2020, (2020)
Tu Clase Tu País (2020)
Digital Skills
Literature Review
Online Tool
An online tool can be any
program, platform, or technology
media that requires an Internet
connection to work. These tools
increase the teacher’s potential to
convey knowledge to students
and increase the capability of
students to have access to that
knowledge (Wuttikrikunlaya et
al., 2018).
Teacher readiness
to use ICTs for
teaching is a
multi-faceted and
complex matter
(Park & Son,
2020)
Table 1 Online Tools for Language Teaching (Son 2011)
1. Learning/content management systems (LMSs/CMSs)
2. Communication
3.Social networking and bookmarking
4. Blogs and wikis
5. Presentation
6. Resource sharing
7. Website creation
8. Web exercise creation
9. Web search engines
10. Dictionaries and concordancers
Categories
Literature Review
Written Production Skill
It is difficult to
learn since is not
a simple cognitive
activity (Dhanya
et al., 2019)
It requires complex
mental processes
which imply
“careful thought,
discipline, and
concentration”
(Grami, 2010, p. 9).
Another obstacle is
the non-existence of
kinesics
communication while
trying to communicate
an idea through a
written text (Cole &
Feng, 2015).
Methodology
APPROACH
MIXED
METHOD
CASE STUDY
COLLECTION OF
QUALITATIVE AND
QUANTITATIVE
DATA
General Objective
 To analyze the students’ and teachers’ use of online tools during the pandemic of Covid 19
to practice the writing skill, and thereby gain insights into what learning platforms can be
useful for learners to become more effective writers in the L2.
Research questions (Specific objectives):
To what extent did students use online tools during the pandemic of Covid 19 to improve their
writing skills?
To what extent did teachers use online tools during the pandemic of Covid 19 to improve the writing
skills of their students?
What learning platforms are useful for learners to improve their writing performance in the L2?
Participants and Instruments
A semi-private school from Osorno
Sample A - Survey
Two different English
classrooms (40 students)
10th grade students
15 - 16 years old
Sample B - Semi-structured
Interview
2 English Teachers
1 novice and 1 experienced
teacher
Results and Discussion
Attainment of the general objective:
Their written production skill was
affected negatively due to the school
curricular prioritization
They had scarce resources available
such as a computer, a stable Internet
connection, or a suitable place to
study
Teachers
Students
Teachers found hard to learn
new methodologies
Teachers lacked expertise in
the usage of online tools
The writing activities were left
aside
Results and Discussion
Answering the research question N° 1: Students’ use of online tools to develop
their writing skill in EFL during ERT
83.3% thought that the use of
virtual tools helps foster the
learning of English
 34.1% of students considered that
they improved the most in their
writing skill
Students participated more with the
use of online tools specially in the
chat boxes
N°1:
Listening
N°2:
Writing
N°3:
Reading
N°4:
Speaking
The order among the most and least-
used skills is the following:
Theme 1: Online tools used during the ERT
Teacher A: Las herramientas que utilizamos principalmente fueron la que nos entregó la
institución que era el Google Classroom y Meet. Durante un tiempo estuvimos tratando
de utilizar WebClass…
Excerpt 1 & 2 – Taken from Teachers’Interviews
Teacher B: …Independientemente que acá en el colegio hayan trabajado con Meet. Yo
ocupé Zoom porque lo encuentro mucho más fácil de usar y es mucho más rápido. En las
plataformas institucionales, tenemos WebClass…
Answering the research question N° 2: Teachers’ use of online tools to develop
the writing skill in EFL during ERT
 There emerged 4 different topics in the teachers’ Interviews Answers
Theme 2: Types of activities developed during the online sessions
Excerpt 6 – Taken from Teacher B’s Interview
 Through virtual games and gamification platforms, students were much more
motivated to participate in classes (Kapp , 2012; Araya et al., 2019)
Teacher A: …usaba plataformas como
Kahoot. Recuerdo que jugamos harto
con Pictionary en línea donde ellos se
conectaban en una sala virtual. …se
notaba una actitud de intentar participar
y de hacer las actividades.
65.9%
53.7%
61%
Figure 7 – Students’answers regarding the types of the English
writing activities developed during the ERT
 Writing texts
 Writing answers
 Complete charts
Theme 3: Improving students’ writing skills
 Teachers did not have any training in virtual
lessons
 Students lacked motivation
 In response to this, teachers used more interactive
platforms to catch their interest
 Students participated more and their attendance to
online lessons was more regular and interactive
 Students started using the chat boxes of the video
conferencing platforms to give written answers
A stress-free and
protected environment
helps students to enhance
their creativity and
performance while
writing (Bilal et al.,
2013).
Theme 4: Collaborative Work
 Teachers considered that collaborative
work didn't have a good performance
 Writing is regularly seen as a more
individual kind of task
 Teacher A talked about the negative sense
of competition that emerged from gaming
apps
 Teacher B said that some classes got out
of control when they met in virtual groups
 In contrast: 59.5% of students considered
that virtual tools increased collaborative
work; meanwhile, 40.5% of them
disagreed
Figure 1 – Students’answers regarding if online tools
increased the collaborative work
• Answering the research question N° 3: Useful online tools for students to
improve the writing performance in EFL
Teacher A: Para hacer el Quiz usaba plataformas como Kahoot... Respecto de la actitud
de los estudiantes, se notaba una actitud de intentar participar y de hacer las actividades.
Excerpt 17 – Taken from Teacher A’s Interview
Teacher B: … trabajé con Kahoot, Mentimeter, …, Wordwall, Nearpod y Genially. A
los chicos les encantaban, ellos participaban un montón dentro de la clase de inglés,
más no sé si en las otras clases se conectaban tanto como se conectaban conmigo. Pero
según la retroalimentación que recibí era porque yo les hacía juegos y actividades
entretenidas en la clase.
Excerpt 18 – Taken from Teacher B’s Interview
Conclusions
Students had one perception of their own writing skills, but the teachers and the
interview demonstrated the opposite
The school’s prioritization could have considered the inclusion of productive skills
more frequently since technology provides many tools for promoting writing.
It is quite probable that students have considerable knowledge gaps regarding their
English learning process, particularly the development of their writing skill
Online tools can help students to be motivated and engaged during lessons and allow
to keep written communication
The concept of online teaching to practice the writing skill should be seen as an
opportunity to complement traditional lessons
References
Dhanya, M., & Alamelu, C. (2019). Factors influencing the acquisition of writing skills. International
Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, 8(7), 259-263.
Education 2020. (2020). Results report #EstamosConectados - Testimonies and experiences of
educational communities in the face of the health crisis. Santiago. Retrieved from:
http://oped.educacion.uc.cl/website/images/sitio/formacion/estudios/estudios/estudios%20ense%C3%B1
anza%20remota/E2020_abril_Estamos_conectados_N1_Informe-Final.pdf.
Grami. G.M.A., (2010) The effects of integrating peer feedback into university–level ESL Writing
curriculum Retrieved from https://theses.ncl.ac.uk/dspace/bitstream/10443/933/1/gr ami.
Cole, J., & Feng, J. (2015). Effective Strategies for Improving Writing Skills of Elementary English
Language Learners. Online Submission.
References
Hodges, C. B., Moore, S., Lockee, B. B., Trust, T., & Bond, M. A. (2020). The difference between
emergency remote teaching and online learning. https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/104648
Ministerio de Educación de Chile (2020). Fundamentación de la Priorización Curricular. Santiago:
Ministerio de Educación de Chile.
Park, M., & Son, J. B. (2020). Pre-service EFL teachers’ readiness in computer-assisted language
learning and teaching. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 1-15.
Son, J. B. (2011). Online tools for language teaching. TESL-EJ, 15(1), 1-12.
Tu Clase Tu País. (2020). Study: Radiography of remote learning in Chile. Your class. 2-25. Retrieved
from: https://www.tuclase.cl/wpcontent/uploads/2020/2007/Radiograf%C2023%ADa-del-Aprendizaje-
en-Chile-.pdf.

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PPT - Oral Defense - English Pedagogy defense

  • 1. The use of online tools to improve the written production skill in L2 during the pandemic of Covid-19: a case study in a school from Osorno Author: Valentina Danae Guzmán Soto Tutor: Soledad Sandoval
  • 2. Agenda  Introduction  Literature Review  Methodology  Results and Discussion  Conclusions  References
  • 3. Introduction The Use of Online Tools to Improve the Written Production Skill during the Pandemic Online Tools & Writing Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) Chilean Context
  • 4. Literature Review Emergency Remote Teaching A provisional shift of the way of teaching, as it was known due to problematic situations; a temporary shift of instructional delivery to an alternate delivery mode due to crisis circumstances (Hodges et al., 2020). Fully remote teaching solutions for instruction or education Face-to-face; blended or hybrid courses Return to on- site format once the crisis or emergency has abated
  • 5. The Chilean Context  Schools with Internet access attended lessons using online platforms  Rural schools without Internet kept the learning process using printed material  MINEDUC provided resources such as learning online platforms, digital school libraries, school texts, online conferences for school members limited access to resources, reduced distribution of these, training was not available for all teachers Emerging problems
  • 6. The Chilean Context (cont.) Teachers  26% conducted videoconference classes  25% used learning platforms  20% used worksheets, specifically printed material  70% of teachers declared they felt “reasonably capable” or “highly capable”  A minority of students connected to virtual lessons regularly  Students lacked effective learning in virtual lessons Education 2020, (2020) Tu Clase Tu País (2020) Digital Skills
  • 7. Literature Review Online Tool An online tool can be any program, platform, or technology media that requires an Internet connection to work. These tools increase the teacher’s potential to convey knowledge to students and increase the capability of students to have access to that knowledge (Wuttikrikunlaya et al., 2018). Teacher readiness to use ICTs for teaching is a multi-faceted and complex matter (Park & Son, 2020)
  • 8. Table 1 Online Tools for Language Teaching (Son 2011) 1. Learning/content management systems (LMSs/CMSs) 2. Communication 3.Social networking and bookmarking 4. Blogs and wikis 5. Presentation 6. Resource sharing 7. Website creation 8. Web exercise creation 9. Web search engines 10. Dictionaries and concordancers Categories
  • 9. Literature Review Written Production Skill It is difficult to learn since is not a simple cognitive activity (Dhanya et al., 2019) It requires complex mental processes which imply “careful thought, discipline, and concentration” (Grami, 2010, p. 9). Another obstacle is the non-existence of kinesics communication while trying to communicate an idea through a written text (Cole & Feng, 2015).
  • 11. General Objective  To analyze the students’ and teachers’ use of online tools during the pandemic of Covid 19 to practice the writing skill, and thereby gain insights into what learning platforms can be useful for learners to become more effective writers in the L2. Research questions (Specific objectives): To what extent did students use online tools during the pandemic of Covid 19 to improve their writing skills? To what extent did teachers use online tools during the pandemic of Covid 19 to improve the writing skills of their students? What learning platforms are useful for learners to improve their writing performance in the L2?
  • 12. Participants and Instruments A semi-private school from Osorno Sample A - Survey Two different English classrooms (40 students) 10th grade students 15 - 16 years old Sample B - Semi-structured Interview 2 English Teachers 1 novice and 1 experienced teacher
  • 13. Results and Discussion Attainment of the general objective: Their written production skill was affected negatively due to the school curricular prioritization They had scarce resources available such as a computer, a stable Internet connection, or a suitable place to study Teachers Students Teachers found hard to learn new methodologies Teachers lacked expertise in the usage of online tools The writing activities were left aside
  • 14. Results and Discussion Answering the research question N° 1: Students’ use of online tools to develop their writing skill in EFL during ERT 83.3% thought that the use of virtual tools helps foster the learning of English  34.1% of students considered that they improved the most in their writing skill Students participated more with the use of online tools specially in the chat boxes N°1: Listening N°2: Writing N°3: Reading N°4: Speaking The order among the most and least- used skills is the following:
  • 15. Theme 1: Online tools used during the ERT Teacher A: Las herramientas que utilizamos principalmente fueron la que nos entregó la institución que era el Google Classroom y Meet. Durante un tiempo estuvimos tratando de utilizar WebClass… Excerpt 1 & 2 – Taken from Teachers’Interviews Teacher B: …Independientemente que acá en el colegio hayan trabajado con Meet. Yo ocupé Zoom porque lo encuentro mucho más fácil de usar y es mucho más rápido. En las plataformas institucionales, tenemos WebClass… Answering the research question N° 2: Teachers’ use of online tools to develop the writing skill in EFL during ERT  There emerged 4 different topics in the teachers’ Interviews Answers
  • 16. Theme 2: Types of activities developed during the online sessions Excerpt 6 – Taken from Teacher B’s Interview  Through virtual games and gamification platforms, students were much more motivated to participate in classes (Kapp , 2012; Araya et al., 2019) Teacher A: …usaba plataformas como Kahoot. Recuerdo que jugamos harto con Pictionary en línea donde ellos se conectaban en una sala virtual. …se notaba una actitud de intentar participar y de hacer las actividades. 65.9% 53.7% 61% Figure 7 – Students’answers regarding the types of the English writing activities developed during the ERT  Writing texts  Writing answers  Complete charts
  • 17. Theme 3: Improving students’ writing skills  Teachers did not have any training in virtual lessons  Students lacked motivation  In response to this, teachers used more interactive platforms to catch their interest  Students participated more and their attendance to online lessons was more regular and interactive  Students started using the chat boxes of the video conferencing platforms to give written answers A stress-free and protected environment helps students to enhance their creativity and performance while writing (Bilal et al., 2013).
  • 18. Theme 4: Collaborative Work  Teachers considered that collaborative work didn't have a good performance  Writing is regularly seen as a more individual kind of task  Teacher A talked about the negative sense of competition that emerged from gaming apps  Teacher B said that some classes got out of control when they met in virtual groups  In contrast: 59.5% of students considered that virtual tools increased collaborative work; meanwhile, 40.5% of them disagreed Figure 1 – Students’answers regarding if online tools increased the collaborative work
  • 19. • Answering the research question N° 3: Useful online tools for students to improve the writing performance in EFL Teacher A: Para hacer el Quiz usaba plataformas como Kahoot... Respecto de la actitud de los estudiantes, se notaba una actitud de intentar participar y de hacer las actividades. Excerpt 17 – Taken from Teacher A’s Interview Teacher B: … trabajé con Kahoot, Mentimeter, …, Wordwall, Nearpod y Genially. A los chicos les encantaban, ellos participaban un montón dentro de la clase de inglés, más no sé si en las otras clases se conectaban tanto como se conectaban conmigo. Pero según la retroalimentación que recibí era porque yo les hacía juegos y actividades entretenidas en la clase. Excerpt 18 – Taken from Teacher B’s Interview
  • 20. Conclusions Students had one perception of their own writing skills, but the teachers and the interview demonstrated the opposite The school’s prioritization could have considered the inclusion of productive skills more frequently since technology provides many tools for promoting writing. It is quite probable that students have considerable knowledge gaps regarding their English learning process, particularly the development of their writing skill Online tools can help students to be motivated and engaged during lessons and allow to keep written communication The concept of online teaching to practice the writing skill should be seen as an opportunity to complement traditional lessons
  • 21. References Dhanya, M., & Alamelu, C. (2019). Factors influencing the acquisition of writing skills. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, 8(7), 259-263. Education 2020. (2020). Results report #EstamosConectados - Testimonies and experiences of educational communities in the face of the health crisis. Santiago. Retrieved from: http://oped.educacion.uc.cl/website/images/sitio/formacion/estudios/estudios/estudios%20ense%C3%B1 anza%20remota/E2020_abril_Estamos_conectados_N1_Informe-Final.pdf. Grami. G.M.A., (2010) The effects of integrating peer feedback into university–level ESL Writing curriculum Retrieved from https://theses.ncl.ac.uk/dspace/bitstream/10443/933/1/gr ami. Cole, J., & Feng, J. (2015). Effective Strategies for Improving Writing Skills of Elementary English Language Learners. Online Submission.
  • 22. References Hodges, C. B., Moore, S., Lockee, B. B., Trust, T., & Bond, M. A. (2020). The difference between emergency remote teaching and online learning. https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/104648 Ministerio de Educación de Chile (2020). Fundamentación de la Priorización Curricular. Santiago: Ministerio de Educación de Chile. Park, M., & Son, J. B. (2020). Pre-service EFL teachers’ readiness in computer-assisted language learning and teaching. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 1-15. Son, J. B. (2011). Online tools for language teaching. TESL-EJ, 15(1), 1-12. Tu Clase Tu País. (2020). Study: Radiography of remote learning in Chile. Your class. 2-25. Retrieved from: https://www.tuclase.cl/wpcontent/uploads/2020/2007/Radiograf%C2023%ADa-del-Aprendizaje- en-Chile-.pdf.