COMPUTER APPLICATION                 LITERATURE REVIEWGROUP MEMBERS: SARAH KHAIRUDDIN 0713976                 ESLAM ABDURA...
Part A: Summary       In this article, “An Investigation of Communicative of ESL Students Using ElectronicDiscussion Board...
They were given 3 activities to discuss about with their partners. Students’ messages were savedusing RTF (rich-text-forma...
Part B: Relate the research article to any of the underlined aspects mentioned in the historyof CALL.       The article ab...
learner to be more competent at language learning. Kern’s (1995) study showed that studentsproduce more sentences and lear...
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literature review

  1. 1. COMPUTER APPLICATION LITERATURE REVIEWGROUP MEMBERS: SARAH KHAIRUDDIN 0713976 ESLAM ABDURABU 0614532 NURUL DIANA MD. RABI 0634264 NORAINI MOHD NOOR 0728928COURSE CODE: ENGL 4740SECTION :1INSTRUCTOR : DR. ROZINA ABDUL GHANI 1
  2. 2. Part A: Summary In this article, “An Investigation of Communicative of ESL Students Using ElectronicDiscussion Board”, the researchers, “Shenghua Zha, Paul Kelly, MeeAeng KO Park, and GailFitzGerald”, wanted to investigate students’ communication competence in a computer-mediatedcommunication environment and the effect of using technology specifically the internet in spitethe traditional methods such as drilling and practice. Because of the internet become more accessible, computer-mediated interactions betweenusers in different locations were increased. In this research, the researchers used an ElectronicDiscussion Board to encourage natural language learning environment by promoting socialinteraction and creating a real discourse community among learners. Throughout the research,learners were been given an equal opportunity to participate and students tend to take an activerole when they used CMC (computer-mediated-communication) rather than through face-to-facecommunication. Studies done by Singhal (1998) and Warschauer (1996) suggest that bothlearners’ knowledge and language production increase through online interaction. Students maytake a more active role in CMC than they do in face-to-face classroom communication (Chun,1994). Another study done by St. John and Cash (1995) reports two benefit of using peerinteraction in online second language learning. First, the learner will be able to correct lexicalmistakes and second the learner’s pragmatics competence will be quickly improved. This study involved 28 ESL studends in grade2-5 from 7 classes in 6 elementary schoolswith different background and all of them are learning English as their second language.Students from the same school were located separately to join another discussion group and theywere interacting using an electronic discussion board in discussing and sharing about something. 2
  3. 3. They were given 3 activities to discuss about with their partners. Students’ messages were savedusing RTF (rich-text-format) and later on it is imported into Nvivo 2.0 (qualitative softwareanalysis). 19 competence indicators from 4 areas were used as coding nodes. After codingprocess was done, children’s messages for three activities were further analyzed using bothquantitative and qualitative procedures. After finalized the data, researchers narrowed the findings into 3 goals. The first goal isto use English to participate in Social Interaction, secondly to use English for personalexpression and enjoyment, and thirdly to use an appropriate English variety, register, genreaccording to the audience, purpose, and settings. These goals were achieved differently bystudents and there were some factors that leading to these goals. Some students choose differentkind of writing styles based on who they were spoken to. Researchers also concluded that usingan electronic discussion board can provide equal opportunity and facilitate students in usingdifferent language styles whether formal or informal. The implication of this study presents several guidelines for ESL teachers for effectiveuse of electronic discussion boards to assist and improve ESL student’s written communicativecompetence. First, electronic discussion boards can be utilized as learning environment toencourage students to observe their peer written language and it is also apparent that onlinegroup activities can be used to promote students’ use of language. Besides, it is also indicatedthat teachers can help students distinguish different patterns of language variety, register, andgenre by having them involved in authentic language tasks. 3
  4. 4. Part B: Relate the research article to any of the underlined aspects mentioned in the historyof CALL. The article above is directly aligned with many aspects in the history of CALL mainly onthe issues of computer used as tutor, tool and pupil. The article at first highlights the importanceof language, communication and interaction. In the progress of CALL, computer was recognizedas a tutor, which directly touches interaction and communication and due to the currenttechnologies present at the time the interaction could occur both verbally and non verbally(writing). In the study done in the article, it shows that the teachers had brought for the first weekof trainings the use of discussions boards online. This increased interaction among students andthe teachers which is useful in language learning. In the background study of the article itsignifies many importances on social environment being a key component in language learning. Well known linguists such as Piaget and Vygotsky mentions that peer experiences in achildren’s life value in their process of language learning. There was a study done by St. Johnand Cash (1995) that resulted in two further benefits of computer mediated learning, which to beable to correct lexical mistakes by noticing peer usage of better language competence. Byposting on the discussion board, a student can easily press the spell check option to check theirspelling errors and by time having be able to recognize the correct spelling. In this way,computer serving as a tutor has been highly achieved. Later in the article, the authors speak of the role the computer serves as a tool to furtherthe communication between learners and the social environment. By using the computer toperhaps comment on the discussion boards or even to simply “chat”, increases exposure for a 4
  5. 5. learner to be more competent at language learning. Kern’s (1995) study showed that studentsproduce more sentences and learn variety of discourse functions. In the research done, all the activities designed such as creating clubs, recommending aholiday menu and planning a party increased the interaction between students. The laptops thathad been given to students served as a tool in the significant improvement of interaction that wasdone in the discussion boards in this particular study. Students would pick up new greetings andimprove vocabulary due to the options that are present in the discussion board’s tools. The third aspect that is covered by this article is the sociocognitive aspect of computermediated learning. Computer serving as pupil; now this matter is very important as in theresearch a student cant be too directed to socializing through internet only but also increase faceto face interaction and make learners more sociable with one another; it also, increases themental ability of a learner to be competent in the language. Although in the findings, the resultsfor the improvement of social interaction between peers were discerned; it has significant resultson the personal expression of enjoyments and using language to extend communicativecompetence. Computer serving as pupil extends both interaction and students learning skills. Studentslearn in various ways and explore their structural, cognitive and both sociocognitive dimensionin learning language. The research had its limitations such as students exposure to onlinematerials were less compared to what would be needed. There are many guidelines that need tobe followed by instructors and learners to conduct a computer mediated class. 5

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