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‫الرحيم‬ ‫الرحمن‬ ‫هللا‬ ‫بسم‬
PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF
A DIESEL ENGINE USING JATROPHA OIL-DIESEL BLENDS
By:
MOHAMMED ABDELGADIR HASSAN IBRAHIM
B.Sc. (honors), Mechanical Engineering, Nile Valley University
Thesis submitted to the Graduate College of the University of Khartoum
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of
Science in Mechanical Engineering (Renewable Energy)
Supervisor:
Dr. Mustafa Abbas Mustafa
MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
March- 2013
I
‫اآلية‬
}
‫ه‬َ
‫اّلل‬
‫ه‬‫ة‬َ
‫اج‬َ
‫ج‬ُّ
‫الز‬ ٍ
‫ة‬َ
‫اج‬َ
‫ج‬‫ه‬
‫ز‬ ِ
‫ِف‬ ‫ه‬
‫اح‬َ‫ب‬‫أ‬
‫ص‬ِ
‫م‬‫أ‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ٌ
‫اح‬َ‫ب‬‫أ‬
‫ص‬ِ
‫م‬ ‫ا‬َ
‫يه‬ِ‫ف‬ ٍ‫اة‬َ
‫ك‬‫أ‬
‫ش‬ِ
‫م‬َ
‫ك‬ِ‫ه‬ِ
‫ر‬‫و‬‫ه‬‫ن‬ ‫ه‬‫ل‬َ‫ث‬َ
‫م‬ ِ
‫ض‬‫أ‬
‫َر‬‫أ‬
‫اْل‬َ
‫و‬ ِ
‫ات‬َ
‫او‬َ
‫م‬َ
‫س‬‫ال‬ ‫ه‬
‫ور‬‫ه‬‫ن‬
َ
‫ه‬‫ه‬‫ت‬‫أ‬‫ي‬َ
‫ز‬ ‫ه‬
‫اد‬َ
‫ك‬َ‫ي‬ ٍ
‫ة‬َ‫ي‬ِ‫ب‬‫أ‬
‫ر‬َ
‫غ‬ َ
‫َّل‬َ
‫و‬ ٍ
‫ة‬َ‫ي‬ِ‫ق‬‫أ‬
‫ر‬َ
‫ش‬ َ
‫َّل‬ ٍ
‫ة‬ِ‫ون‬‫ه‬‫ت‬‫أ‬‫ي‬َ
‫ز‬ ٍ
‫ة‬َ
‫ك‬
َ
‫ار‬َ‫ب‬ُّ
‫م‬ ٍ‫ة‬َ
‫ر‬َ
‫ج‬َ
‫ش‬ ‫ن‬ِ
‫م‬ ‫ه‬
‫د‬َ‫ق‬‫و‬‫ه‬‫ي‬ ٌّ
‫ي‬ِ
‫ر‬‫ه‬
‫د‬ ٌ
‫ب‬َ
‫ك‬‫أ‬
‫و‬َ
‫ك‬‫ا‬ََ
‫َّن‬َ‫أ‬َ
‫ك‬
‫أ‬َ
‫َل‬ ‫أ‬
‫و‬َ‫ل‬َ
‫و‬ ‫ه‬‫يء‬ِ
‫ض‬‫ه‬‫ي‬ ‫ا‬
‫ه‬َ
‫اّلل‬َ
‫و‬ ِ
‫َاس‬‫ن‬‫ل‬ِ‫ل‬ َ
‫ال‬َ‫ث‬‫أ‬
‫َم‬‫أ‬
‫اْل‬ ‫ه‬َ
‫اّلل‬ ‫ه‬
‫ب‬ِ
‫ر‬‫أ‬
‫ض‬َ‫ي‬َ
‫و‬ ‫ه‬‫اء‬َ
‫ش‬َ‫ي‬ ‫ن‬َ
‫م‬ ِ‫ه‬ِ
‫ر‬‫و‬‫ه‬‫ن‬ِ‫ل‬ ‫ه‬َ
‫اّلل‬ ‫ي‬ِ
‫د‬‫أ‬
‫ه‬َ‫ي‬ ٍ
‫ر‬‫و‬‫ه‬‫ن‬ ‫ى‬َ‫ل‬َ
‫ع‬ ٌ
‫ُّور‬‫ن‬ ٌ
‫ر‬َ
‫َن‬ ‫ه‬‫ه‬‫أ‬
‫س‬َ
‫س‬‫َأ‬
‫َت‬
ِ
‫ل‬‫ه‬
‫ك‬ِ‫ب‬
ٌ
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‫ع‬ ٍ
‫ء‬‫أ‬
‫ي‬َ
‫ش‬
}
‫اآلي‬
‫ه‬
35
‫النور‬
II
Declaration
This research has not been submitted for a degree in any other university
DEDICATION
III
I dedicate this research to my father, my mother, my sister, my uncle
Mohammed Elhassan, my uncles, my aunts, my aunt Souad Ibrahim Ahmed.
My dedication extends to all of my teachers in primary and secondary stages
and my teachers in Baklarios study stage.
Also I dedicate this research to all of my friends in all education stages and
work.
Especially I dedicate this research to my first knight "son" Hassan Mohamed
Abdelgadir and my dear wife Dr. Sheraz
Table of Contents
IV
Title Page No
PRILIMINARY
‫اآل‬
‫ي‬
‫ة‬ I
Declaration II
Dedication III
Acknowledgment VII
Abstract VIII
‫مستخلص‬ IX
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Prospects of Jatropha oil seeds 2
1.3 Objectives 5
CHAPTER II: LITRATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 6
2.2 Biofuel Life Cycle 7
2.2.1 Energy Balance Methodologies 7
2.2.2 Biofuel Emissions 8
2.3 Production of biofuels 9
2.3.1 First generation Biofuels 10
2.3.2 Second generation Biofuels 10
2.4 Virgin vegetable oil 11
2.5 Recycled vegetable oil 11
2.6 Vegetable oil as Fuel 12
V
2.6.1 Pure Plant Oil (PPO) 12
2.6.2 Vegetable oil blending 14
2.7 vegetable oils Feedstock 14
2.7.1 Rapeseed oil 16
2.7.2 Soybeans oil 17
2.7.3 Palm oil 18
2.7.4 Sunflower oil 19
2.7.5 Coconut oil 20
2.7.6 Cotton seeds 21
2.7.7 Peanut 22
2.7.8 Jatropha oil 23
2.7.9 Castor 24
2.8 Performance and properties of diesel fuel 26
2.8.1 Properties of diesel fuel 26
2.8.2 Engine performance 27
2.9 Performance of pure vegetable oil 29
2.10 Performance of vegetable oil blends 30
2.11 Performance of Jatropha oil blends 34
CHAPTER III: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Introduction 36
3.1 Extraction of Jatropha oil 36
3.2 Blends samples preparation 37
3.3 Equipments of Blends Properties Tests 39
3.4 Tests Equipment 42
VI
3.5 Flue Gas Analyzer 44
3.6 Experimental procedure 46
CHAPTER IV: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Physical and chemical properties determination 47
4.2 Engine performance test 49
4.3 Engine emissions 54
4.3.1 Emissions of engine running without load 54
4.3.2 Emissions of engine running under load 57
CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS
5.1 Conclusion 60
5.2 Recommendation 61
VII
Acknowledgement
I am really grateful and I do appreciate the efforts of my respected supervisor
Dr. Mustafa Abbas Mustafa in guiding and supervising me in this research.
I am really grateful for the brother at Energy research Institute and Technology
Africa Town for their co-operations and supplying me with Jatropha seeds.
Especially my dear Mr. Elwaleed Abbas.
My sincere thanks also for the technicians in Thermo Workshop Faculty of
Engineering Sudan University of Science and Technology for co-operation.
I am really grateful for all those who supported me in every way.
VIII
Abstract
The purpose of this study work was to investigate the performance and emission
characteristics of a diesel engine using Jatropha oil-diesel blends. Fuel properties of
Jatropha oil (10%, 15%, and 20%) and diesel (90%, 85%, and 80%) blends were
studied and compared with pure diesel fuel. The performance and emission
characteristics of those blends were tested on a diesel engine (four stork, four
cylinders, Indirect Injection Fuel System with Intercooler and Turbocharger).
Fuel test results showed that blends densities were 3.68%, 4.16% and 4.62%
respectively, higher than that of diesel fuel (0.829 kg/L).The kinematic viscosity for
blends were 62.5%, 88.6% and 110.8% respectively, higher than that of diesel fuel.
Calorific value content for blends was declined 1.72%, 1.85% and 1.98%
respectively of the value for diesel fuel (46,000 kJ/kg). Flash point for blends was
17.5%, 45%, and 77.5% higher than of diesel fuel (40 o
C). Cloud point for blends
was found 67.65% higher than that of diesel fuel.
The engine power output and torque for tested blends increased at low engine speed
(1600 rpm), but at higher speed (2200rpm) decreased less than diesel. Fuel
consumption slightly increased for blends at both speeds. Brake thermal efficiency
for blends increased at higher engine speed (2200 rpm), but at lower speed, 1600
rpm, less than diesel. Exhaust emissions (CO, NO, NOx, SO2) for blends was
increased slightly at lower speeds but at medium and upper speeds less than diesel.
IX
‫مستخلص‬
‫البحث‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫من‬ ‫الهدف‬
‫هو‬
.‫والديزل‬ ‫الجاتروفا‬ ‫زيت‬ ‫وقود‬ ‫خليط‬ ‫يستخدم‬ ‫ديزل‬ ‫محرك‬ ‫وأنبعاثات‬ ‫أداء‬ ‫من‬ ‫التحقق‬
( ‫الجاتروفا‬ ‫زيت‬ ‫خليط‬ ‫خواص‬
10
%
،
15
‫و‬ %
20
( ‫والديزل‬ ) %
90
،%
85
‫و‬ ،
80
‫مع‬ ‫وقورنت‬ ‫فحصت‬ )%
‫وانبعاثات‬ ‫أداء‬ ‫خواص‬ ‫فحصت‬.‫الديزل‬ ‫وقود‬ ‫خواص‬
‫محرك‬ ‫علي‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫خليط‬ ‫عينات‬
، ‫األشواط‬ ‫(رباعي‬ ‫ديزل‬
‫األ‬ ‫رباعي‬
) ‫مباشر‬ ‫غير‬ ‫حقن‬ ‫نظام‬ ، ‫سطوانات‬
.
( ‫بنسب‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫خليط‬ ‫كثافة‬ ‫في‬ ‫زياده‬ ‫أظهرت‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫خواص‬ ‫أختبارات‬
3.68
،%
4.16
‫و‬ %
4.62
‫علي‬ )%
‫الديزل‬ ‫كثافة‬ ‫مع‬ ‫بالمقارنه‬ ‫التوالي‬
(
0.829
‫للتر‬ / ‫كلجم‬
‫ل‬ .)
( ‫بنسب‬ ‫زادت‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫خليط‬ ‫زوجة‬
62.5
،%
88.6
%
‫و‬
110.8
‫ل‬ ‫مع‬ ‫بالمقارنه‬ ‫التوالي‬ ‫علي‬ )%
‫الحراري‬ ‫القيمه‬.‫الديزل‬ ‫زوجة‬
‫بالنسب‬ ‫أنخفضت‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫لخليط‬ ‫ه‬
(
1.72
،%
1.85
‫و‬ %
1.98
( ‫تعادل‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الديزل‬ ‫لوقود‬ ‫الحراريه‬ ‫القيمه‬ ‫مع‬ ‫بالمقارنه‬ ‫التوالي‬ ‫علي‬ )
46,000
‫كيلو‬
‫كلجم‬ /‫جول‬
)
.
‫و‬ ‫نقطة‬
( ‫بالنسب‬ ‫زادت‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫خليط‬ ‫ميض‬
17.5
،%
45
‫و‬ ،%
77.5
‫وميض‬ ‫نقطة‬ ‫مع‬ ‫بالمقارنه‬ ‫التوالي‬ ‫علي‬ )%
( ‫الدنيا‬ ‫الديزل‬
40
‫زادت‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫خليط‬ ‫تسحب‬ ‫نقطة‬ .)‫مئويه‬ ‫درجه‬
‫هي‬ ‫عينات‬ ‫للثالث‬ ‫ثابته‬ ‫بنسبه‬
67.65
%
.‫الديزل‬ ‫تسحب‬ ‫نقطة‬ ‫مع‬ ‫بالمقارنه‬
‫المحرك‬ ‫من‬ ‫الناتجان‬ ‫والعزم‬ ‫القدره‬
‫للمحرك‬ ‫الدنيا‬ ‫السرعه‬ ‫عند‬ ‫زادتا‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫خليط‬ ‫أستخدام‬ ‫عند‬
1600
‫في‬ ‫لفه‬
‫العليا‬ ‫السرعه‬ ‫عند‬ ‫ونقصتا‬ ‫الدقيقه‬
2200
‫الوقود‬ ‫خليط‬ ‫أستخدام‬ ‫عند‬ ً‫ال‬‫قلي‬ ‫زاد‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫أستهالك‬ .‫الدقيقه‬ ‫في‬ ‫لفه‬
‫عند‬
‫السرعتين‬
.
‫للمحرك‬ ‫العليا‬ ‫السرعه‬ ‫عند‬ ‫زادت‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫لخليط‬ ‫الفرمليه‬ ‫الحراريه‬ ‫الكفاءه‬
2200
‫الدقيقه‬ ‫في‬ ‫لفه‬
‫الدنيا‬ ‫السرعه‬ ‫عند‬ ‫ونقصت‬
1600
.‫الديزل‬ ‫وقود‬ ‫مع‬ ‫بالمقارنه‬ ‫الدقيقه‬ ‫في‬ ‫لفه‬
‫مكونات‬
‫أكسيد‬ ‫(أول‬ ‫العادم‬ ‫غازات‬
‫زادت‬ )‫الكبريت‬ ‫أكسيد‬ ‫ثاني‬ ،‫األخري‬ ‫النتروجين‬ ‫أكاسيد‬ ،‫النتروجين‬ ‫أكسيد‬ ‫ثاني‬ ،‫النتروجين‬
ً‫ال‬‫قلي‬
‫السرعات‬ ‫عند‬
.‫الديزل‬ ‫وقود‬ ‫انبعاثات‬ ‫مع‬ ً‫ا‬‫مقارنت‬ ‫والعليا‬ ‫المتوسطه‬ ‫السرعات‬ ‫عند‬ ‫ونقصت‬ ‫الدنيا‬
X
List of Figures
Title NO
Figure (1.1): 2011 World Oil Consumption 2
Figure (1.2): indication of the most suitable climate conditions for the
growth of Jatropha curcas
4
Figure (2.1): Life cycle and horizontal attributes
of biofuel production
9
Figure (2.2): Types and classification of lipid feedstock sources. 15
Figure (2.3): ( A) Rapeseeds (B) rape trees 17
Figure (2.4): (A) Soybeans trees (B) Soybeans seeds 18
Figure (2.5): Palm fruits 19
Figure (2.6): sunflower 20
Figure (2.7): Coconut fruits 21
Figure (2.8): Cotton flower 22
Figure (2.9): peanut seeds 23
Figure (2.10): Jatropha 24
Figure (2.11): Castor fruits 25
Figure (3.1): : Expeller machine for oil extraction 37
Figure (3.2): Jatropha oil and seeds waste 37
Figure (3.3): Blends preparing steps 38
Figure (3.4): Viscometer 40
Figure (3.5): Density Meter 40
Figure (3.6): Cloud Point Test Tube Device 41
Figure (3.7): Pensky-Martens flash point 41
XI
Figure (3.8): photograph of the test rig. 43
Figure (3.9): Dynamometer cycle components 43
Figure (3.10): (1) Gas sampling probe (2) gas analysis unit (3) RS232(4)
Remote control unit (RCU)
45
Figure (4.1): Specific Fuel Consumption 49
Figure (4.2): Carbon Monoxide Emission 55
Figure (4.3): Nitrogen monoxide emission 55
Figure (4.4): NOX emission 56
List of Tables
XII
Table (2.1) Fuel-Related Characteristics of Plant Oils 13
Table (2.2) typical oil extraction 16
Table (2.3) diesel fuel properties 27
Table 3.1: Engine Specifications 42
Table( 4.1 ): The chemical and physical properties of the jatropha oil_diesel
blends
48
Table( 4.2 ): The variation of Brake Power versus Torque 51
Table( 4.3 ):The variation of Brake thermal efficiency versus Torque 52
Table(4.4): The variation of Brake fuel consumption versus Torque 53
Table(4.5): The variation of Carbon monoxide emission versus Torque 57
Table(4.6): The variation of Nitrogen monoxide emission versus Torque 58
Table(4.7): The variation of Sulfur dioxide emission VS Torque 59
1
CHAPTER І
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
From world oil consumption map the larger consumption countries including USA,
China and Japan consume all together about 24 millions of barrels per day (EIA
2011). The increasing demand for petroleum based fuels, global warming and
environmental pollution has driven the world to search for newer, safer, cheaper and
cleaner sources of fuel.
A major problem for Sudan rural areas is the inadequate supply of power for lighting,
heating, cooking, cooling, water pumping, radio or TV communications and security
services. Petroleum product supplies, including diesel, kerosene and LPG are
irregular and often subject to sudden price increases (Omer, 2007). The Pump price
for diesel fuel (US dollar per liter) in Sudan was last reported at 0.43 in 2010,
according to a World Bank report published in 2012 .Fuel prices refer to the pump
prices of the most widely sold grade of diesel fuel .Prices have been converted from
the local currency to US dollars.Per capita consumption of diesel fuel in the Sudan in
2009, according to World Bank data 36 liters. According to the total consumption of
diesel fuel in the Sudan in 2009 is 1112 million liters. The annual bill for
consumption of diesel fuel in Sudan was estimated about 478.16 millions dollars
2
Figure (1.1): 2011 World Oil Consumption (EIA 2011).
1.2 Prospects of Jatropha Oil Seeds
Jatropha Curcas is shrub or small tree grows to a height of 3-5 meters and
sometimes, when suitable climatic conditions prevail, grows up to 8-10 meters. The
tree is affiliated to the herbaceous plants, and its leaves resemble grapes’ fruits and
its fruit is in the form of a nut, the size golf ball, containing seeds that produce bitter
taste oil (AL_Amin, 2011). Jatropha Crucas is a good crop and can be obtained with
little effort. Depending on soil quality and rainfall, the kernels consist of oil to about
60 percent; this can be transformed into biodiesel fuel through transesterification.
Jatropha Curcas grows almost anywhere, even on gravelly, sandy and saline soils. It
can thrive on the poorest stony soil. Jatropha Curcas is found in the tropics and
subtropics and likes heat, although it does well even in lower temperatures and can
withstand a light frost. Its water requirement is extremely low and it can stand long
periods of drought by shedding most of its leaves to reduce transpiration loss.
3
Jatropha is also suitable for preventing soil erosion and shifting of sand dunes (Abd
Alhamid, 2009). Jatropha historically originates from Central America and the
northern parts of South America. Jatropha has been distributed to other tropical
regions by European seafarers and explorers from the 16th century onwards.
Presently it grows in tropical areas worldwide (Sub-Saharan African countries,
Southeast Asia, India) (Eric, et al.., 2010).
Sudan is a large agricultural country with various climates differs from arid in the
north to dry savanna climate in the south. Sudan has the longest river and the
tributaries between the third world countries. Diversity of climate resulted in
producing different oil seeds (peanut, sesame, sunflower, cotton seed and
watermelon seed. some other oil seeds such as Jatropha, castor, bitter melon, Roselle,
laloub, some melon seeds. This latest seeds are used in producing biodiesel (Eldoum,
2009). Sudan lands are suitable for Jatropha plantation as the plant grows naturally as
native plant in many regions there. Middle and South of the country is best
conditions for Jatropha to grow (Abd Alhamid , 2009 ). Jatropha is found in Sudan in
many areas such as Khartoum State in Central Sudan, Kassala State in the East and
Kordofan State in the West. However, it is dominant in the Southern States
especially in Bahr El Jebel and Bahr El Gazal States. It is mentioned as an
indigenous plant in some books describing the plants of Sudan. The farmers in the
south plant them as hedges to protect their gardens and fields. Jatropha Research
started in Sudan as early as 1972 with studies concerning the molluscicidal effect of
the plant.
4
Figure (1.2) Indication of the most suitable climate conditions for the growth
of Jatropha curcas L (30 °N, 35 °S) (Eric, et al.., 2010).
Jatropha Project exists in Kutum, North Darfur, with participation of the German
Development Service. The experimental and pilot project, known as Kutum was
launched in North Darfur with participation of a German research center, was all but
success. The pilot project has proved that although Jatropha is an equatorial plant, it
still can grow in all types of soils found in the Sudan (Al_Amin , 2011). Presently,
Ministry of Sciences is executing project for biofuel production in Sudan, which
Northern State has embarked on its implementation through HOI-Mea holding
company, a branch of Saudi based Bagshan Group, to cultivate Jatropha plant in area
of 250 feddans in the region of Nubi Lake, 75km west of the Nile, 180km north-east
of Northern State capital Dongola.The project is aimed at cultivating 259 feddans of
Jatropha, recently 145,000 plants have been cultivated in an area of 63 feddans
because water network is ready for trickle irrigation and that efforts are ongoing to
import new types of seeds adaptable to desert climate. Jatropha cultivation project
5
has started in 2010, disclosing that water is available in accordance with mineral
water European standards without treatment. The water has the characteristics of
being extracted under normal temperatures not 10°C.
The Jatropha annual production of seeds is around six to twelve kilograms, of which
oil constitutes 25%, and the remaining part is subject to other medical uses in
addition to soap making and some types of glycerin and fertilizers. The Jatropha tree
have age 40-50 years with annual production not less than 8 kilograms. The directors
of the projects are planning to generalize Jatropha to the Sudanese farmers to be
grown side by side with groundnuts, sesame and gum Arabic ( Abd Allah, 2012 ).
1.3 Objectives
The purpose of this study work was to investigate the performance and emission
characteristics of a diesel engine using Jatropha oil-diesel blends. Specific objective
were:
1. To evaluate physical properties of Jatropha oil-diesel blends such as density,
viscosity, flash point, calorific value, cloud point and ash content and
compare them with that diesel fuel.
2. To investigate engine performance parameters such as fuel consumption,
brake power and brake thermal efficiency and compare them with that diesel
fuel.
3. To inspect the components of exhaust gases such as NO, CO, NOX, and SO2
and compare them with that diesel fuel.
6
CHAPTER II
LITRATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
Biofuels are fuels derived from biomass. Which is organic matter taken from or
produced by plants and animals. It comprises mainly wood, agricultural crops and
products, aquatic plants, forestry products, wastes and residues, and animal wastes.
In its most general meaning, biofuels are all types of solid, gaseous and liquid fuels
that can be derived from biomass. Examples of solid biofuels include wood, charcoal
and bagasse. Wood and charcoal are widely used as fuel for domestic purposes such
as cooking in the rural areas of most developing countries. Waste bagasse, the
fibrous material produced from sugar cane processing, is extensively used for steam
and electrical power generation in raw sugar mills. Examples of gaseous biofuels
include methane gas and producer gas. Methane gas is produced from the anaerobic
fermentation of animal wastes, waste water treatment sludge and municipal wastes in
landfills. On the other hand, producer gas can be made from the pyrolysis or
gasification of wood and agricultural wastes. Examples of liquid biofuels include
methanol, ethanol, plant oils and the methyl esters produced from these oils
commonly referred to as biodiesel (Filemon, 2010). There is growing interest in
biofuels in many developing countries as a means of “modernizing” biomass use and
providing greater access to clean liquid fuels while helping to address energy costs,
energy security and global warming concerns associated with petroleum fuels
(United Nations 2008).
7
2.2 Biofuel Life Cycle
Biofuels can have positive or negative impacts on various issues. In order to assess
benefits from the utilization of biofuels compared to fossil fuels, life cycles have to
be determined. Life cycles largely depend on type of feedstock, choice of location,
production of byproducts, process technology and on how the fuel is used. Within
this variety, the basic components of life cycles in biofuel processing are always the
same. Therefore some aspects of the general life cycle of biofuels are presented.
Figure (2.1) Shows the life cycle of biofuels has several horizontal process steps:
biomass production and transport, biofuel processing, biofuel distribution and biofuel
consumption. In addition, the industrial process steps of creating fertilizers, seeds
and pesticides for the production of biomass must be included. The life cycle is also
influenced by" vertical attributes" which have to be carefully assessed in order to
allow comparisons among different biofuels: energy balance, emissions, greenhouse
gas emissions, other environmental impacts, biofuel costs, and socio-economic
impacts (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
2.2.1Energy Balance Methodologies
The "energy balance" is the ratio of energy contained in the final biofuel to the
energy used by human efforts to produce it. Typically, only fossil fuel inputs are
counted in this equation, while biomass inputs, including the biomass feedstock
itself, are not counted. A more accurate term for this concept is fossil energy balance,
and it is one measure of a biofuel’s ability to slow the pace of climate change. The
ratio number of the energy balance can exceed one (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).The
8
"energy efficiency" is the ratio of energy in the biofuel to the amount of energy input,
counting all fossil and biomass inputs as well as other renewable energy inputs. This
ratio adds an indication of how much biomass energy is lost in the process of
converting it to a liquid fuel, and helps to measure more- and less efficient
conversions of biomass to biofuel. The ratio number of the energy efficiency can
never exceed one, because some of the energy contained in the feedstock is lost
during processing (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
2.2.2 Biofuel Emissions
As biofuels are produced from biomass, the combustion of these biofuels principally
is considered to be CO2 neutral. During the combustion process about the same
amount of CO2 is being set free, that has been bound from the atmosphere during
photosynthesis and growth of the plants. Therefore the carbon cycle is closed. The
major part of combustion engine exhaust streams consists of the components
nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water which are nontoxic. But also other factors have to
be included. For example, fertilizing, pesticide use, means of irrigation, and
treatment of the soil also play an important role in determining the climate impact of
biofuels (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
9
Figure 2.1: Life cycle and horizontal attributes of biofuel production
(Dominick, Rainer, 2008)
2.3 Production of biofuels
Biofuel production opens new market opportunities for agricultural products and thus
new income options for farmers. In the future agriculture will not only play a role in
food production, but also in energy provision. The increased feedstock production is
expected to strongly contribute to the multi functionality of the agricultural sector.
The production of biofuels includes two methods.
(1) first-generation biofuels (made today from grains, seeds and sugar crops)
(2) second-generation biofuels (made from “lignocellulosic” biomass such as
crop residues or purpose-grown grasses or woody crops
10
2.3.1 First generation Biofuels
'First-generation' or conventional biofuels are made from sugar, starch, or vegetable
oil. Alcohol fuels are produced by fermentation of sugars derived from wheat, corn,
sugar beets, sugar cane, molasses and any sugar or starch from which alcoholic
beverages can be made (such as potato and fruit waste. Feedstocks for biodiesel
include animal fats, vegetable oils, soy, rapeseed, Jatropha, mahua, mustard, flax,
sunflower, palm oil, hemp, field pennycress, Pongamia pinnata and algae. Some first
generation biofuels are made from edible feedstock. In this situation we must have
balance between food and fuels demand. Ethanol or butanol was made by
fermentation of starches (corn, wheat, potato). Biodiesel by transesterification of
plant oils also called fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl ester
(FAEE) (United Nations, 2008).
2.3.2 Second generation Biofuels
Second-generation biofuels are not being produced commercially anywhere today.
They are made from non-edible feedstocks. Such feedstocks can be bred specifically
for energy purposes, thereby enabling higher production per unit land area, and more
of the above-ground plant material can be converted to biofuel. Thereby further
increasing land-use efficiency compared to first-generation biofuels. These basic
characteristics of the feedstocks hold promise for lower feedstock costs and
substantial energy and environmental benefits for most second-generation biofuels
compared to most first-generation biofuels. On the other hand, second-generation
biofuel systems require more sophisticated processing equipment, more investment
11
per unit of production, and larger-scale facilities (to capture capital-cost scale
economies) than first-generation biofuels (United Nations, 2008).
2.4 Virgin vegetable oil
Virgin vegetable oil, also termed pure plant oil or straight vegetable oil is extracted
from plants solely for use as fuel. Virgin oils are the low volatile, generally liquid
fats and contain varying small amounts of natural waxes, sterols, lecithin and
vitamins. In contrast to used vegetable oil, is not a byproduct of other industries and
thus its prospects for use as fuel is not limited by the capacities of other industries.
Production of vegetable oils for use as fuels is theoretically limited only by the
agricultural capacity of a given economy. However, doing so detracts from the
supply of other uses of pure vegetable oil (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
2.5 Recycled vegetable oil
This is edible oil that has been used multiple times in a deep-fat fryer. The second
type is called “trap grease.” Restaurants are required to install grease traps in their
drains to prevent fats and oils that go down the drain from entering sewer pipes. The
grease in these traps can be collected to make biodiesel. Recycled vegetable oil, also
termed used vegetable oil (UVO), waste vegetable oil (WVO), used cooking oil or
yellow grease (in commodities exchange) and is recovered from businesses and
industry that use the oil for cooking. Use of used vegetable oil as a direct fuel
competes with some other uses of the commodity, which has effects on its price as a
12
fuel and increases its cost as an input to the other uses as well (Dominick, Rainer,
2008).
2.6 Vegetable oil as Fuel
Vegetable oil is an alternative fuel for diesel engines and for heating oil burners. For
engines designed to burn diesel fuel, the viscosity of vegetable oil must be lowered to
allow for proper atomization of the fuel; otherwise incomplete combustion and
carbon build up will ultimately damage the engine. Vegetable oil can be used as
diesel fuel just as it is in special conditions, without being converted to biodiesel
2.6.1 Pure Plant Oil (PPO)
Properties of pure plant oil (PPO) largely differ in its properties when they are
compared to the properties of fossil diesel. For example the viscosity of PPO is much
higher, especially at cooler temperatures. It is up to ten times higher than the
viscosity of fossil diesel. Also the flashpoint of pure plant oil is significantly higher
than that of normal diesel. It lies at around 240 ºC. It is therefore particularly safe in
storage and transport and easy to handle. PPO is biodegradable in a short time in soil
and waters. Because of its specific properties, the refined PPO usually cannot be used
in normal diesel engines. In order to run on pure plant oil, diesel engines must either
be refitted, which is often done by attaching a mechanism for preheating the oil, or a
dedicated engine must be used (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
13
There are a number of physical and chemical characteristics of plant oils that affect
their suitability as fuels. These include the heating value (HV), pour point (PP),
cloud point (CP), flash point (FP), iodine value (IV), viscosity, density, and cetane
number (CN). These characteristics that directly affect the efficiency of the fuel and
the performance of the engine are summarized below in table2.1 (Filemon, 2010).
Table (2.1) Fuel-Related Characteristics of Plant Oils (Filemon, 2010).
Oil Cetane
Number
Iodine
Value
Heating
Value
(kJ/kg)
Cloud
point
(°C)
Pour
Point
(°C)
Flash
Point
(°C)
Viscosity
(mm2
/s)at
38°C
Babassu 38
Castor 85 39,500 -32to-18 260 297
Coconut 70 8-10 20to25
Corn 38-53 115-124 39,500 -1.1 -40to-5 277 35
Cottonseed 42-55 100-115 39,470 -1.7 -15to 0 234 34
Crambe 45 40,480 10 -12 274 54
Linseed 35 39,310 1.7 -15 241 27
Palm oil 42-65 44-58 30-38
Peanut 42 93 39,780 13 -7to3 271 40
Rapeseed 38 97-115 39,710 -3.9 -32to5 246 37
Soybean 38-53 125-140 39,620 -3.9 -12 254 33
Sunflower 37-52 125-135 39,580 72 -15to-18 274 37
Jatropha 51 - 39,649 - 8 240 50.73
14
2.6.2 Vegetable oil blending
The relatively high kinematic viscosity of vegetable oils must be reduced to make
them compatible with conventional compression-ignition engines and fuel systems.
Co solvent blending is a low cost and easy to adapt technology that reduces viscosity
by diluting the vegetable oil with a low-molecular-weight solvent. This blending, or
"cutting", has been done with diesel fuel, kerosene, and gasoline, amongst others;
however, opinions vary as to the efficacy of this. Noted problems include higher
rates of wear and failure in fuel pumps and piston rings when using blends (Dunn,
2011).
2.7 vegetable oils Feedstock
There are many options for utilizing different feedstock types for pure plant oil
besides dedicated oilseed crops such as e.g. rapeseed and soybean, also crop residues
or purpose-grown grasses or woody crops. Figure 2 shows some examples for lipid
feedstock sources. They can be sub-divided into palm fruits, algae, seeds and waste
oil. Although the productivity of palm fruits is one of the highest, the most common
feedstock sources for PPO and biodiesel production are seeds from various plants.
These include seeds from, sunflower, peanut, sorghum, rapeseed, sorghum and
Jatropha (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
15
Figure 2.2: Types and classification of lipid feedstock sources. (Dominick, Rainer,
2008).
Table 2.1 presents the typical amounts of oil that can be extracted from some plants
or crops. It shows that copra (dried coconut meat), castor seed and sesame seed yield
the highest percentages of oil per unit weight of material (50 to 62%) while cotton
seed and soybean have the lowest percentages (13 to 14%).The kernel of the oil palm
also yields more oil (36%) compared to its fruit (20%).This parameter – the oil yield
per unit weight of material being processed – is important in assessing the relative
magnitude or cost of processing or extraction required to produce the desired
product, which is the oil. The higher the oil concentration in the seed or fruit to be
processed, the greater the oil produced per unit weights of seed or fruit, and generally
the lower the cost of processing ( Filemon , 2010).
16
Table (2.2) typical oil extraction ( Filemon , 2010).
Crop kg oil/100 kg crop
Castor seed 50
Copra 62
Cotton seed 13
Groundnut kernel 42
Mustard 35
Palm fruit 20
Palm kernel 36
Rapeseed 37
Sesame 50
Soybean 14
Sunflower 32
Jatropha 40
2.7.1Rapeseed oil
Rapeseed oil is characterized by high levels of erucic acid (50 %), which may cause
serious damage to heart and liver. Within the success of breeding, rape plants with
reduced levels of these substances were created. Today most plants belong to
“double zero” (00) varieties containing only low percentages of erucic acid.
Rapeseeds are characterized by high contents of monounsaturated oleic acid and low
levels of both saturated and polyunsaturated acids. Therefore rapeseed oil is an ideal
raw material regarding combustion characteristics, oxidative stability and cold
temperature behavior. Globally the cultivated area of rape is growing by 2 %
annually. In China, the world’s largest rapeseed producer, the area planted is
17
Figure 2.3 :( A) Rapeseeds (B) rape trees
expanding rapidly. In India, the third largest producer, growth is minimal. 1.4 million
hectares of rapeseed were planted specifically for biodiesel use in 2005. About half
of Europe’s biodiesel production was in Germany, but production in France, the
Czech Republic, and Poland were also significant (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
2.7.2 Soybeans oil
Soybean oil is characterized by iodine values of 121-143 mgI2 /100g, which is similar
to sunflower oil. Therefore it is discussed by experts if soybean oil can meet
biodiesel standards. Soybeans are grown in rotation with corn in the United States
and with sugar cane in Brazil. Only a small fraction of the soybean supply is
currently transformed into fuels (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
18
Figure 2.4: (A) Soybeans trees (B) Soybeans seeds
2.7.3 Palm oil
The oil palm is one of the two palm trees that are used for oil production, mainly in
South Asian countries. The two largest producers are Malaysia and Indonesia, where
palm oil production has grown rapidly over the last decade. Nigeria has the second
largest planted area and high potentials are expected in Brazil. Palm oil is
characterized by high amounts of medium-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty
acids. High contents of saturated fatty acids are leading to unacceptable high values
for cold filter plugging point (+11°C) and cloud point (+13°C) which prevents winter
operation on neat palm oil methyl esters in temperate climates. Additionally, high
contents of fatty acids in the feedstock cause problems in traditional alkali-catalyzed
19
Figure 2.5: Palm fruits
biodiesel production and thus necessitate deacidification or acid-catalyzed pre-
esterification steps (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
2.7.4 Sunflower oil
The oil of sunflower seeds is the world’s fifth largest oilseed crop. After rapeseed it
accounts for most of the remaining biodiesel feedstock in Europe. The high contents
of linoleic acid limit the use of sunflower seed oil for fuel production. Additionally
pure sunflower oil methyl esters have high iodine values not suitable as fuel. Pure
sunflower oil fuels will also give poor ratings for oxidative stability. To solve the
problems, cultivars enriched in oleic acid have been bred (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
20
Figure 2.6: sunflower
2.7.5 Coconut oil
This feedstock is favored in the biodiesel industry in the Philippines. It is another
high yielding feedstock that produces highly saturated oil. Coconut oil is a
triglyceride containing high percentages of saturated fatty acids (86 %), and small
amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids (6 %) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (2%).
Of its saturated fatty acids, coconut oil contains primarily lauric acid (45 %),
myristic acid (17 %) and palmitic acid (8. %), though it contains seven different
saturated fatty acids in total. Its only monounsaturated fatty acid is oleic acid while
its only polyunsaturated fatty acid is linoleic acid. Among the most stable of all
vegetable oils, coconut oil is slow to oxidize and thus resistant to rancidity.
Unrefined coconut oil melts at 20-25°C and smokes at 170°C (350°F), while refined
coconut oil has a higher smoke point of 232°C (450°F) (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
21
Figure 2.7: Coconut fruits
2.7.6 Cotton seeds
Cottonseeds are the world’s third largest oilseed crop. It is produced predominantly
in India, the United States, and Pakistan, which are together responsible for 45 % of
world production and 50 % of the total cultivated area (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
22
Figure 2.8: Cotton flower
2.7.7 Peanut
Peanuts are the world’s fourth largest oilseed crop. It accounts for 8.7 % of major
oilseed production. The major producers are China, India, and the United States,
which together account for 70 % of world production. China and India represent 56
% of the world’s cultivated area (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
23
Figure 2.10: Peanut seeds
2.7.8 Jatropha Oil
Jatropha has been identified as one of the most promising feedstock for large-scale
biodiesel. The oil contains 21% saturated fatty acids and 79% unsaturated fatty acids.
The major acids present are palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid
(Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
24
Figure 2.9: Jatropha
2.7.9 Castor
Identified as the second most-promising species for Brazil after palm oil, the castor
oil, or momona, plant is a particularly labor-intensive crop that could provide jobs in
the poorer northeastern regions of the country. India is the largest producer and
exporter of castor oil worldwide, followed by China and Brazil. World demand for
castor oil is projected to continue growing by 3–5 percent per year in the near term
(Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
25
Figure 2.11: Castor fruits
26
2.8 Performance and Properties of Diesel Fuel
The most important factors determining the performance and emissions of fuel in an
internal combustion engine are listed as follows:
− Brake thermal efficiency
− Brake Specific Fuel Consumption
− Volumetric Efficiency
− Carbon Monoxide
− Carbon Dioxide
− Exhaust Gas Temperature
− Un-burnt Hydrocarbons
− Nitrogen oxides
2.8.1 Properties of Diesel Fuel
In the U.S., the standard specification for diesel fuel oils is ASTM D 975. (ASTM
stands for the American Society of Testing and Materials). ASTM D 975 contains a
set of physical, chemical, and performance specifications, established by the Society
to meet the approval requirements of ASTM procedures and regulations
(PassageMaker Magazin, 1999).
27
Table (2.3) diesel fuel properties Source (Crimson, 2006)
Blend property Units Test Method Result
Density @ 15°C kg/L ASTM D4052 0.829
Kinematic Viscosity @ 40°C mm2
/s ASTM D445 2.4
Flash point, PMCC °C(min) ASTM D93 40
Cloud Point °C(max) ASTM D2500 -34
Ash Content %wt(max) ASTM D482 0.01
Colorific Value kJ/kg ASTM D240 46000
2.8.2 Engine Performance
Several operating characteristics influence engine performance, and their relative
importance depends on engine type and duty cycle (for example, truck, passenger
car, stationary generator, marine vessel, etc.). These characteristics are
− Starting ease
− Low noise
− Low wear (high lubricity)
− Long filter life (stability and fuel cleanliness)
− sufficient power
− Good fuel economies
− Low temperature operability
− Low emissions
− Smoke
28
The three most important factors affecting engine performance are:
1. Sufficient power: power is determined by the engine design. Diesel engines are
rated at the brake horsepower developed at the smoke limit for a given engine;
varying fuel properties within the ASTM D 975 specification range does not
alter power significantly. However, fuel viscosity outside of the ASTM D 975
specification range causes poor atomization, leading to poor combustion, which
leads to loss of power.
2. Fuel Economy: Here again engine design is more important than fuel properties.
However, for a given engine used for a particular duty, fuel economy is related
to the heating value of the fuel. Heating value per volume is directly
proportional to density when other fuel properties are unchanged. Each degree
increase in American Petroleum density equates to approximately two percent
decrease in fuel energy content.
3. Low emissions: Variation of most fuel properties within the normal ranges will
not lead to the high level of particulate matter (PM) represented by smoking.
The exception is cetane number; fuel with a very high cetane number can cause
smoking in some engines. The short ignition delay causes most of the fuel to be
burned in the diffusion-controlled phase of combustion which can lead to higher
PM emissions. Some efforts of adding pollution control systems to vehicles and
reformulating fuels paying off in better air quality.
29
2.9 Performance of Pure Vegetable Oil
Bruwer (1980) study the use of sunflower seed oil as a renewable energy source.
When operating tractor with 100%sunflower oil instead of diesel fuel, an 8% power
loss occurred after 1000 h of operation, which was corrected by replacing the fuel
injector, and injector pump
Yarbrough (1981) reported that raw sunflower oils were found to be unsuitable fuel,
while refined sunflower oil was found to be satisfactory.
Schoedder (1981) obtained mixed results using rapeseed oils as a diesel fuel
replacement in a series of studies. Although short-term engine tests indicated that
rapeseed oil had similar energy outputs compared to diesel fuel, the results of long-
term engine tests revealed operating difficulties arising from deposits on piston rings,
valves and injectors, particularly after 100 hours of continuous operation.
Reid (1982) conducted injection studies and engine tests to evaluate the chemical and
physical properties of 14 plant oils related to their use as Alternative fuels. The
injection studies showed that the plant oils dispersed differently compared to diesel
fuel due to their much higher viscosities. The engine tests showed that the level of
carbon deposit varied even for plant oils with nearly similar viscosities, indicating
that oil composition was also an important factor. The tests also revealed that pre-
heating the oil prior to injection could reduce the amount of carbon deposits in the
engine.
30
Ragu, et al.., (2011) compared the brake specific fuel consumption of preheated Rice
bran oil and Rice bran oil without preheated the former has a lower BSFC as
compared to the later. This is due to the improvement in viscosity that leads to better
atomization in the case of preheated Rice bran oil. At all loads the engine with diesel
operation shows a higher efficiency and with Rice bran oil it shows a lower
efficiency. The preheated Rice bran oil operation shows efficiency higher than oil
without preheating. At a given load the diesel has lower value and Rice bran oil
shows a higher value of exhaust gas temperature. The preheated Rice bran oil has a
lower exhaust gas temperature as compared to Rice bran oil at all loads
2.10 Performance of vegetable oil blends
Engelman (1978) studied a series of performance tests using 10% to 50% soybean oil
blended with diesel fuel in diesel engines with initially encouraging results. The
carbon build-up in the combustion chamber was minimal at the end of the 50-hour
test run and the power delivered was only slightly lower compared to 100% diesel
fuel. However, fuel blends containing 60% or higher concentrations of plant oil
caused the engine to sputter due to fuel filter plugging.
Sims (1981) pointed out rapeseed oil-diesel fuel blends could be used as a
replacement for diesel fuel. Short-term engine tests showed that a 50:50 rapeseed oil-
diesel fuel blend had no adverse effects although long-term tests resulted in injector
pump failure and cold starting problems. The amount of carbon deposits on
combustion chamber components was found to be nearly the same as that found in
engines operated on 100% diesel fuel.
31
Worgetter (1981) used (50:50) blend of rapeseed oil and diesel fuel to operate a 43-
kW tractor. Initial results were good but after 400 hours of continuous operation the
test had to be aborted due to serious engine problems resulting from heavy carbon
deposits on the injector tips and pistons.
Van der Walt and Hugo (1981) examined the long-term effects of using sunflower
oil-diesel fuel blends as a replacement for 100% diesel fuel in direct and indirect-
injection diesel engines. The indirect-injected diesel engines were run for over 2,000
hours using varying blends of de-gummed, filtered sunflower oil with no adverse
effects. However, the direct-injected engines were not able to complete 400 hours of
operation using a 20:80 sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend due to severe power loss
resulting from severely coked injectors, carbon buildup in the combustion chamber,
and stuck piston rings. There was also considerable wear of the piston, liner and
bearing as indicated by the analysis of the lubricating oil.
Barsic and Humke (1981) studied the effects of mixing sunflower oil and peanut oil
with diesel fuel in a single cylinder engine. The fuel blends were found to have lower
heating value compared to diesel fuel and were observed to increase the amount of
carbon deposits on the combustion side of the injector tip. In addition, there was
serious fuel filter plugging when crude sunflower oil and crude peanut oil were used
as diesel fuel extenders.
McCutchen (1981) compared engine performance of direct-injection engines to
indirect-injection engines when fueled with a 30:70 soybean oil diesel fuel blend.
32
The results showed that the indirect-injection engine could be successfully operated
on this fuel blend but the direct-injection engine could not without severe engine
problem occurring due to injector coking and piston ring sticking.
Bartholomew (1981) reported that plant oils mixed with diesel fuel in small amounts
did not cause engine failure. Short-term tests of plant oil-diesel fuel blends of up to
50% plant oil yielded acceptable results but reducing the blend to only 20% plant oil
gave better and more consistent engine performance.
Pestes and Stanislao (1984) used a 50:50 plant oil-diesel fuel blend to study the
formation of piston ring deposits and found that the most severe carbon deposits
occurred on the thrust face of the first piston ring. It was suggested that to reduce
piston ring deposits a fuel additive could be used or the concentration of plant oil in
the blend could be lowered.
German (1985) used six farm tractors averaging 1,300 hours of operation to study the
formation of carbon deposits. It was found that carbon deposits on the internal engine
components were greater for the tractors using a 50:50 sunflower oil-diesel fuel
blend than for those using a 25:75 sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend. And all test
engines using plant oil blends had more carbon buildup than the engine using 100%
diesel fuel. The results of the study indicated that plant oil-diesel fuel blends could
not be used to completely replace petroleum based fuels on a long-term basis without
adversely affecting engine life.
33
Nag (1995) conducted studies in India using fuel blends as high as 50:50 of oil from
the Indian Amulate plant and diesel fuel and found no loss of power, knock-free
performance, and no significant carbon deposits on the functional parts of the
combustion chamber
Sapaun (1996) reported that studies in Malaysia with palm oil-diesel fuel blends
exhibited encouraging results. Short-term performance tests indicated that power
outputs were nearly the same for various blends of palm oil and diesel fuel and 100%
diesel fuel with no signs of adverse combustion chamber wear, increase in carbon
deposits, or lubricating oil contamination.
McDonnell (2000) used a 25:75 semi-refined rapeseed oil-diesel fuel blend. The
results showed that the injector life was shortened due to carbon buildup but there
were no signs of significant internal engine wear or lubricating oil contamination.
PRASAD, (2010) pointed out the variation of Brake Thermal Efficiency with Brake
power output for Linseed oil blends with Diesel in the test engine indicated higher
efficiencies for lower blends. Brake thermal Efficiency for 25% blend of Linseed oil
is very close to that of Diesel. The variation brake specific fuel consumption with
Brake power output for Linseed oil and blends with diesel in the test engine indicated
higher consumption at higher blends. 25% blend of Linseed oil has the lowest BSFC
compared to its other blends. BSFC for 25% blend of linseed oil is slightly higher
than that of diesel. The variation of Exhaust Gas temperature with Brake power
output for Linseed oil blends with diesel in the test engine indicated higher
temperature at higher blends. EGT for 25 % blend of Linseed oil is lower at no load
34
and higher at rated load. However all other blends of Linseed oil have higher EGT
compared to diesel. The variation of Un-burnt hydro carbon emission with Brake
power output for Linseed oil blends with Diesel in the test engine indicated higher
emission ratio at higher blends. 25% blend of Linseed oil has lower UHC emission
compared to all other blends for all loads.
2.11 Performance of Jatropha Oil Blends
Chalatlon et al., (2011) reported on a non-edible vegetable oil produced from
Jatropha fruits as a substitute fuel for diesel engines. Their study examined its
usability and was investigated as pure oil and as a blend with petroleum diesel fuel.
A direct injection (DI) diesel engine was tested using diesel, Jatropha oil, and blends
of Jatropha oil and diesel in different proportions. A wide range of engine loads and
Jatropha oil/diesel ratios of 5/95% (J5), 10/90% (J10), 20/80% (J20), 50/50% (J50),
and 80/20% (J80) by volume were considered. J5 showed slightly higher thermal
efficiency than diesel. J10 and J20 showed similar thermal efficiency, but J50 and
higher blends showed 3 to 5% less thermal efficiency than diesel fuel. The
observation is that the higher the Jatropha oil in the blends, the higher the reduction
in the thermal efficiency. The reasons might be explained as follows. Due to very
high viscosity and low volatility of Jatropha oil, higher Jatropha oil blends suffer
from worse atomization and vaporization followed by inadequate mixing with air.
The consequence is inefficient combustion. This suggests that high fuel injection
pressure and improved volatility might be helpful for better combustion with higher
thermal efficiency for higher Jatropha blends. (J5) blend shows about 3% less BSFC
in average than diesel fuel. The deterioration in BSFC up to J20 is 1.5 to 3.4%. J50,
35
J80, and pure Jatropha oil show average BSFC deterioration of about 10, 15 and
25%, respectively. The lower the loads lead to the higher the deterioration in the
BSFC. At low load conditions, the cylinder temperatures are low. Due to poor
volatility of pure Jatropha oil, low cylinder temperature at low load conditions might
not favor proper combustion. J5 produced about 50% more CO than diesel
throughout the operation. J10 and higher blends produced about double the CO when
compared to diesel. Emissions of CO2 with Jatropha oil blends up to moderate loads
are lower than that with diesel fuel. When the load was 50% or higher J50 and higher
blends produced about 20% CO2 higher than diesel.
Other experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance
characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%,
20% and 30%).Crude Jatropha oil blend's power values were lower than diesel fuel.
This lower engine power obtained for blended crude Jatropha oil could be due to
higher density and higher viscosity of Jatropha oil. J5 proved to be almost similar to
diesel which provides higher brake thermal efficiency value than others. As a result
of the higher viscosity, the thermal efficiency is lower with blended crude Jatropha
oil as compared to diesel. The air fuel ratio is found to increase with the increasing of
the concentration of the blended crude Jatropha oil in all internal combustion
engines. As concluded for this study, brake Specific Fuel Consumption and air fuel
ratio for all blended crude Jatropha oil composition were found to be higher
compared to diesel. The value for the Torque, Brake Power, Brake Mean Effective
Pressure and Thermal efficiency were lower for all blended crude Jatropha oil
composition compared to diesel (Kamarudin, et al., 2009).
36
CHAPTER III
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Introduction
Fuel properties experiments were carried out in Center Laboratory (CPL), Ministry
of Electricity and Dams. While engine performance and emission tests were carried
out in a diesel engine, Thermo laboratory at Faculty of Engineering, Sudan
University of Science and Technology.
3.2 Extraction of Jatropha oil
In the present study, a simple mechanical cracking machine and screw-press
available at the Omdurman was used for the oil extraction process (Figures 3.1 and
3.2). Jatropha seed were obtained the Biodiesel department in Energy Research
Institute they provided 15kg of Jatropha seeds and technology Africa town provided
10kg of Jatropha seeds. The total weight of Jatropha seeds sample 25 kg. Jatropha
seeds were then pressed by screw-press resulting in a yield of 1 litter or 0.88 kg
Jatropha oil. This means that Jatropha oil represented about 3.6% of crude oil by
weight per kg of the Jatropha seed. This lower extraction ratio of oil refers to
machine efficiency not good and seeds were stored long time after was harvested.
37
Figure 3.1: Expeller machine for oil extraction
Figure 3.2: (A) Seeds Waste (B) Jatropha oil
3.3 Blends samples preparation
After the extraction of Jatropha oil by expeller machine at Omdurman oil market.
Processed this oil by normal purification and prepared the blendes samples by test
tube that capacity two litters at internal combustion engines workshop at Sudan
University. The first sample of blend composed 200 mL litters Jatropha oil + 1800
38
mL litters diesel (Jatrpoha oil concentration 10% from sample volume), second
sample 300 mL litters Jatropha oil + 1700 mL litters diesel (Jatrpoha oil
concentration 15% from sample volume)and third sample 400 mL litters Jatropha oil
+ 1600 mL litters diesel (Jatrpoha oil concentration 20% from sample volume).
Figure 3.3: Blends preparing steps
39
3.4 Equipments of Blends Properties Tests
The samples properties were inspected at Central laboratory for Science,
Environmental and Soil Research (Sudanese Company for Electricity Distribution/
Ministry Of Electricity And Dams). The viscometer was used to determine the
viscosity of Jatropha oil_ diesel blends. Relative density, or specific gravity is the
ratio of the density (mass of a unit volume) of a substance to the density of a given
reference material. Specific gravity usually means relative density with respect to
water. The density meter was used to measure the density of blends at central
laboratory.
40
Figure 3.4: Viscometer
Figure 3.5: Density Meter
41
The cloud point of a fluid is the temperature at which dissolved solids are no longer
completely soluble, precipitating as a second phase giving the fluid a cloudy
appearance. The cloud point of blends was inspected by cloud point test tube. The
flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which it can vaporize to
form an ignitable mixture in air. Measuring a flash point requires an ignition source.
At the flash point, the vapor may cease to burn when the source of ignition is
removed. The flash point of the blends was measured by Pensky-Martens Flash
Point.
Figure 3.6: Cloud Point Test Tube Device
Figure 3.7: Pensky-Martens Flash Point
42
3.5 Tests Equipment
The experimental installation used in this work presented here, consists of internal
combustion engine Mitsubishi cyclone motor model 4D56_JG3553.The 4D5 engine
is a range of four-cylinder belt-driven overhead camshaft diesel engines. However,
production of the 4D5 (4D56) continued throughout the 1990s as a lower-cost option
than the more modern power plants. Until now it is still in production, but made into
a modern power plant by putting a common rail direct injection fuel system into the
engine. The specification for the engine is shows in table 3.1.
Table 3.1: Engine Specifications
Engine name Mitsubishi cyclone motor Intercooled Turbo (TD04
water cooled Turbo)
Model 4D56, JG3553
Displacement 2.5 L (2,476 cc)
Bore 91.1 mm
Stroke 95.0 mm
Fuel type Diesel
Power 78 kW (104 hp) at 4,300 rpm
Torque 240 N·m (177 lb·ft) at 2,000 rpm
Engine type Inline 4-cylinder
Rocker arm Roller Follower type
Fuel system Distribution type jet pump (indirect injection)
Combustion chamber Swirl type
Bore x Stroke 91.1 x 95mm
Compression ratio 21:1
Lubrication System Pressure feed, full flow filtration
Intercooler Type Aluminum Air to Air, Top-mounted
Turbocharger Mitsubishi TD04-09B
43
Figure 3.8: photograph of the test rig.
Figure 3.9: Dynamometer cycle components
44
The engine is coupled with a hydraulic dynamometer. A dynamometer was used to
load the engine at known speeds. The dynamometer cycle consists of a water pump,
water tank, pipes, valves and brake turbine used to braking engine shaft.
3.6 Flue Gas Analyzer
EcoLine Portable industrial flue gas analyzer was used for monitoring NOX, SOX,
COX hydrocarbons and H2S. EcoLine 6000 consists of two functional parts: the gas
analysis unit and the remote control unit (RCU).Communication between the two
devices is via standard RS232. All data collected by the analysis unit can be sent to
the RCU as to be viewed, stored and printed. Gas analysis unit is a true, portable,
flue gas laboratory. It includes: aspiration pump, filters, condensate drain with
peristaltic pump, cells and electronics. Gas analysis unit can be positioned beside of
the stack sampling point and can works, after programming, as a standalone unit
(black-box).
The operator can survey the overall inspection at distance by using the Remote
Control Unit. RCU is used to send operative instructions to the unit, to display and
memory store the analysis data, to printout data, and to transfer data to a Personal
Computer. Flue gas sampling probes with different length shape and max. Operating
temperature (800°C and 1000°C) is available to match the requirement of different
applications Figure 3.6.
45
Figure 3.10: (A) Gas sampling probe (B) Remote control unit (RCU)
(C) Gas analysis unit (D) Data transfer cable
46
3.6 Experimental procedure
Investigated performance of engine fueled by Jatropha oil and diesel blends
conducted at internal combustion engines workshop that belongs to Faculty of
Engineering Sudan University of Science and Technology. The experiment
procedure were listed below
1. The amount of fuel level was checked in outer tank where the amount of the
sample was found to be two litters, check engine cooling water, check engine
lubrication and check the dynamometer water
2. The previous data of RCU was removed
3. The engine was operated unloaded. The speed was gradually increased to
1600 r.p.m where at, the weight of fuel sample was recorded in kg. Another
weight for the sample was recorded 30 seconds later, for purpose of knowing
the fuel consumption in 30 seconds. The Gas sampling probe was fixed to the
out let of the engines exhaust for 30 seconds. The data then was stored in the
memory of R.C.U. the components of the exhaust fumes (NO, NO2, NOX,
CO, SO2) in 30 seconds were recorded
4. Step no.3 was then repeated at the speeds 1800, 2000, 2200 r.p.m for the
three fuel samples
5. The engine was loaded at the speed of 1600 r.p.m till the engine was about to
stop. Fuel consumption during 30 seconds was recorded together with the
data of the components of the exhaust fumes in the 30 seconds. The torque on
the engine was also recorded
6. Step (5) was repeated at the speed 2200 r.p.m for the three fuel samples
47
CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results of blends fuel properties, engine performance and emission are presented
and discussed below:
4.1 Physical and Chemical Properties Determination
Standard methods (ASTM and Crakel Test) were used to determine the properties of
the Jatropha oil blends at the Central laboratory for Science, Environment and Soil
Research (Sudanese Company for Electricity Distribution/Ministry of Electricity and
Dams). Summary of chemical and physical properties of the jatropha oil blends
(J10%, J15%, J20%) were provided in Tables 4.1 and Appendix (A).
The data obtained from inspection of various sample blends indicated an increase in
density with an increase in Jatropha oil concentration. This increase caused by high
density of pure Jatropha oil. The viscosity of fuel blend increased with increase in the
concentration of Jatropha oil in the blend. By comparison with diesel viscosity the
influence of Jatroph oil in the viscosity rise is very clear. The rise in viscosity results
from high Jatropha oil viscosity that reached to (50.73 mm2
/s).
Flash point of the fuel blend Jatropha oil and diesel obviously increases with increase
in content of Jatropha oil in the blend. This increase is caused by low volatility of
48
pure Jatropha oil. The Cloud Point to be constant at low blending ratios of Jatropha
oil with diesel fuel but compared with cloud Point of diesel fuel is evident influence
of Jatropha oil in raise a cloud point of fuel blend due to the high viscosity of pure
Jatropha oil.
Increasing content of Jatropha oil in the fuel sample resulted in a decrease in the
calorific value of the fuel. The calorific value of Jatropha oil and diesel blend at a
blending ratio of 20% reaches to 45,090.56 kJ / kg in comparison with calorific value
of pure diesel fuel this equivalent 46,000kJ / kg
Table 4.1: The chemical and physical properties summarize of the Jatropha
oil_diesel blends
Fuel Property Diesel J10% J15% J20%
Density @ 15°C, kg/L) 0.829 0.860 0.864 0.868
Kinematic Viscosity @
40°C(mm2
/s)
2.4 3.91 4.526 5.059
Flash point (°C) 40 47 58 71
Cloud Point (°C) -34 11 12 11
Ash Content (% wt) 0.01 0.009 ND 0.005
Colorific Value (kJ/kg) 46,000 45,208.6 45,148.2 45,090.56
49
4.2 Engine performance
The data was obtained from engine performance test listed in Appendix (B) and
analyzed next. The important engine performance parameter is brake specific fuel
consumption when operated without load.
The first parameter for investigate the engine performance when operated without
load is Specific fuel consumption. The variation of specific fuel consumption with
the angular speed of the engine is presented in Figure 4.1. Obviously the increase in
the concentration of Jatropha oil in the blend leads to increased fuel consumption
especially at small and medium speeds, but at high speeds is less than diesel. The
high viscosity of higher blends which cause fuel injection delay.
Figure 4.1: Specific Fuel Consumption
50
The engine was loaded at two speeds 1600 and 2200 r.p.m that to known the engine
performance at lower and higher loading. Furthermore the pervious researches
mentioned the engine cylinder temperature impact on the fuel used is important to
know the engine performance behavior. The engine cylinder temperature directly
proportion with speed and loading of engine.
The following engine parameters were computed with the engine under load by
using standard equations provided in:
(a)Brake specific fuel consumption
(b)Brake power
(c)Brake thermal efficiency
Table (4.2) shows the variation of brake power with torque. The brake power slightly
increases with an increase of engine torque. It is evident the effect of Jatropha oil
lead to losses in engine power.
51
Table 4.2: The variation of Brake Power versus Torque
Engine speed 1600 rpm 2200 rpm
Type of Fuel Engine
Torque
(N.m)
Brake Power
(kW)
Engine
Torque
(N.m)
Brake Power
(kW)
Diesel 90 16.25251 110 25.34218
J10% 92 15.41475 99 22.80796
J15% 92 15.41475 100 23.03835
J20% 95 15.9174 102 23.49911
52
The variation of brake thermal efficiency with torque listed in table 4.3. Note the
effect of the concentration of Jatropha oil in the blend is negative and lead to lower
efficiency of the engine at low loading but at higher loading the blends is
effectiveness than diesel. This caused by increased in cylinder temperature at higher
loading.
Table 4.3: The variation of Brake thermal efficiency versus Torque
Engine speed 1600rpm 2200rpm
Type of Fuel Engine
Torque
(N.m)
Brake thermal
efficiency%
Engine
Torque
(N.m)
Brake thermal
efficiency%
Diesel 90 33.1233 110 42.3782
J10% 92 33.9795 99 45.7061
J15% 92 33.417 100 46.4932
J20% 95 34.4378 102 45.0306
53
The variation of brake fuel consumption with load is represented in Table 4.4.
Increase in the concentration of Jatropha oil in the fuel blend leads to an increase in
fuel consumption.
Table 4.4: The variation of Brake fuel consumption versus Torque
Engine speed 1600rpm 2200rpm
Type of Fuel Engine
Torque
(N.m)
Brake fuel
consumption
(L/hr)
Engine
Torque
(N.m)
Brake fuel
consumption
(L/hr)
Diesel 90 5.333 110 6.5
J10% 92 5 99 5.5
J15% 92 6.17 100 5.5
J20% 95 5.17 102 5.833
54
4.3 Engine Emissions
Exhaust gases were analyzed for blend Jatropha oil and diesel to identify the impact
of the following cases:
1. The engine running without load
2. The engine running under load
4.3.1 Emissions of engine running without load
The relation between CO values and angular speed of engine is presented in Figure
4.2. The decline in the values of CO in fuel blend combustion outcomes is observe
with high concentration of Jatropha oil especially at upper speeds of the engine. The
amount of CO expected decrease with an increase in the content of Jatropha oil in the
blend.
Figure 4.3 shows the change in the volume of nitrogen monoxide emission with
engine speed. One note, the values of nitrogen monoxide resulting from the
combustion of diesel are greater than that resulting from the combustion of fuel blend
Jatropha oil and diesel especially at higher speeds. The late fuel injection caused
incomplete combustion because the higher viscosity of Jatropha oil.
55
Figure 4.2: Carbon Monoxide Emission
Figure 4.3: Nitrogen monoxide emission
56
Figure 4.4 shows the variation of Nitrogen Oxide emission with angular speed of
engine for Jatropha oil blends with Diesel in the test engine. Diesel has higher NOx
emission compared to all other blends especially at higher engine speeds. The
reduction in both NO & NOX is a clear advantage with use of Jatropha diesel blends.
Figure 4.4: NOX emission
57
4.3.1 Emissions of engine running under load
Table 4.5 shows the variation of Carbon monoxide emissions with the torque for
Jatropha oil blends with Diesel in the test engine. The amount of CO is higher than
diesel at low loading due to incomplete combustion resulted from lower cylinder
temperature but CO at higher load less than diesel.
Table 4.6: shows the variation of nitrogen monoxide emission with torque for
Jatropha oil blends with diesel in the test engine. Noted here the NO emission lower
than those without load. Generally the NO outcomes slightly increased with an
increase of the content of Jatropha oil in the blend. The remote control unit of flue
gas analyzer not gave (NO) results for diesel fuel.
Table 4.5: The Variation of Carbon Monoxide Emission versus Torque
Engine speed 1600 rpm 2200 rpm
Type of Fuel Engine Torque
(N.m)
CO (ppm) Engine Torque
(N.m)
CO (ppm)
Diesel 90 736 110 3749
J10% 92 2966 99 3195
J15% 92 2591 100 3554
J20% 95 3222 102 3518
58
Table 4.6: The Variation of Nitrogen Monoxide Emission versus Torque
Engine speed 1600 2200
Type of Fuel Engine
Torque
(N.m)
NO (ppm) Engine
Torque
(N.m)
NO (ppm)
J10% 92 101 99 110
J15% 92 119 100 113
J20% 95 119 102 127
Most previous studies that tested fuel blend Jatropha oil and diesel did not mention
sulfur dioxide as one of the combustion outcomes. Table 4.7 shows the variation of
the sulfur dioxide emission with brake torque of engine. Noted here the amount of
SO2 is higher than diesel at low loading due to incomplete combustion resulted from
lower cylinder temperature but SO2 at higher load less than diesel.
59
Table 4.7: The Variation of Sulfur Dioxide Emission versus Torque
Engine speed 1600 rpm 2200 rpm
Type of Fuel Engine
Torque
(N.m)
SO2 (ppm) Engine
Torque
(N.m)
SO2 (ppm)
Diesel 90 126 110 966
J10% 92 377 99 379
J15% 92 413 100 484
J20% 95 453 102 386
60
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS
5.1 Conclusion
The investigation of the various Jatropha oil and diesel blends has shows the
following:
1. Fuel properties of tested Jatropha-diesel blends (J10, J15 and J20) such as
density, viscosity, flash point, cloud point and calorific value was
successfully tested and determined.
2. The density, viscosity, flash point and cloud point of fuel blends increases
with increased in content of Jatropha oil in the blend
3. The calorific value of fuel blends slightly decrease with increase of
concentration of Jatropha oil in the blend.
4. Engine performance and emission of Jatropha-diesel blends ( J10, J15 and
J20) was successfully tested on 4-stroke, 4-cylinder and ID diesel engine
5. The brake fuel consumption slightly increased with increased in
concentration of Jatropha oil in the blend
6. The brake thermal efficiency decreased and brake power slightly increased
with the rise in content of Jatropha oil
7. The exhaust emissions (CO, NO, NOx SO2 ) decreased with an increase of
Jatropha oil in the blend
61
5.2 Recommendations
Further research in the usage of Jatropha oil in diesel engines can cover
1. .Tests of performance for use Jatropha oil (extracted from shelled seeds)
and diesel and kerosene blends at Jatropha oil concentration above 20% in
diesel engine (direct and indirect injection) should be carried out.
2. .High Jatropha oil diesel blending ratio maybe tested in a modified diesel
engine with suitable injection timing and injection pressure should be
carried out.
64
References
1. Abdel-Hamid, 2009 , Growing Jatropha in Dry, Desert Climatic Condition
(experience in Egypt, Libya, Sudan, and Syria) , Green environmental
consultants
2. Al-Amin_ Head of Studies at Sudan Trade Point,2011, jatropha is desert
gold , report 23 , Ministry of Foreign Trade
3. Abdel Hai,2012 , 250 Feddans to be Cultivated with Jatropha in Northern
State Nubi Lake , Sudan Vision , Issue #: 2741, Issue Date: 12th September,
2012
4. A b Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission: "Coconut Oil Fuel
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of “the Jatropha System” on the ecology of the rural area and the social and
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in
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curcas_africa.pdf
6. Bruwer, J. J., Boshoff, B. D., Hugo, F. J. C., DuPlessis, L. M., Fuls, J.,
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Development/New York and Geneva, 2008
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Chennai – 600034,Tamilnadu, India, Feb, 2011, Comprehensive Jatropha
Report, A detailed report on the Jatropha Industry
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engine", Journal of Petroleum Technology and Alternative Fuels ,Vol. 2(5),
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10.Dunn, 2008,"Low-Temperature Flow Properties of Vegetable Oil/Cosolvent
Blend Diesel Fuels". ddr.nal.usda.gov. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
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13.Filemon , Jr., 2010, Biofuels from plant oils, National academy of science
and technology, Bungay H. R., Science, 1982,643-646
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Mittelbach M and Trabi M. editors. Bio-fuels and industrial products from
Jatropha. Graz: Dbv-Verlag, pp. 88-91.
15.Gerpen , Peterson , Goering , 2007, Agricultural Equipment Technology
Conference, Published by the American Society of Agricultural and
Biological Engineers .2950 Niles Road, St. Joseph, MI 49085-9659
USA/Louisville, Kentucky, USA 11-14 February 2007
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Jatropha Cucas L", Bioresour. Technol., 67: 73-82.
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Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidelines (2nd Edition, March 2006)
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Presented at ANSTI Sub-network Meeting on Renewable Energy, pp. 18-22.
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Jatropha Oil,10TH Asian International Conference Of Fluid Machinery 21-
23 October 2009, Kuala lumpur Malaysia
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Eindhoven The Netherlands
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Appendix (B)
The engine performance data for Jatropha oil- diesel blend J10%. When running engine without load
Engine speed
rpm
Fuel Consumption
(kg/30 sec)
CO(ppm) NO2(ppm) SO2(ppm) NO(ppm) NOx
2200 1.975 1.950 342 4 0 265 268
2000 2.051 2.032 337 2 0 271 273
1800 2.095 2.077 358 1 0 292 293
1600 2.284 2.268 194 0 0 185 185
The engine performance data for Jatropha oil- diesel blend J10%. When running engine under load
Engine
speed
rpm
Torque
(N.m)
Fuel Consumption
(kg/30 sec)
CO(ppm) NO2(ppm) SO2(ppm) NO(ppm) NOx
2200 99 1.869 1.836 3195 0 379 110 110
1600 92 2.203 2.173 2966 0 377 101 101
The engine performance data for Jatropha oil- diesel blend J15%. When running engine without load
Engine speed
rpm
Fuel Consumption
(kg/30 sec)
CO(ppm) NO2(ppm) SO2(ppm) NO(ppm) NOx
2200 1.996 1.970 353 6 0 271 277
2000 2.060 2.038 359 4 0 281 285
1800 2.127 2.108 345 1 0 279 280
1600 2.300 2.283 339 2 0 300 302
The engine performance data for Jatropha oil- diesel blend J15%. When running engine under load
Engine
speed
rpm
Torque
(N.m)
Fuel Consumption
(kg/30 sec)
CO(ppm) NO2(ppm) SO2(ppm) NO(ppm) NOx
2200 100 1.842 1.809 3554 0 484 113 113
1600 92 2.242 2.205 2591 0 413 119 119
The engine performance data for Jatropha oil- diesel blend J20%. When running engine without load
Engine speed
rpm
Fuel Consumption
(kg/30 sec)
CO(ppm) NO2(ppm) SO2(ppm) NO(ppm) NOx
2200 1.647 1.621 328 2 0 255 256
2000 1.759 1.737 334 1 0 272 272
1800 1.815 1.795 373 1 0 308 309
1600 2.314 2.299 368 2 0 308 309
The engine performance data for Jatropha oil- diesel blend J20%. When running engine under load
Engine
speed
rpm
Torque
(N.m)
Fuel Consumption
(kg/30 sec)
CO(ppm) NO2(ppm) SO2(ppm) NO(ppm) NOx
2200 100 1.903 1.868 3518 0 386 127 127
1600 95 2.209 2.178 3222 0 453 119 119
The engine performance data for pure diesel fuel. When running engine without load
Engine speed
rpm
Fuel Consumption
(kg/30 sec)
CO(ppm) NO2(ppm) SO2(ppm) NO(ppm) NOx
2200 2.260 2.231 327 4 0 398 303
2000 2.307 2.289 365 3 0 336 338
1800 2.421 2.401 362 2 0 343 345
1600 2.475 2.460 265 1 0 241 242
The engine performance data for pure diesel fuel. When running engine under load
Engine
speed
rpm
Torque
(N.m)
Fuel Consumption
(kg/30 sec)
CO (ppm) NO2 (ppm) SO2 (ppm) NO (ppm) NOx (ppm)
2200 110 2.261 2.222 3749 0 966 0 0
1600 90 2.115 2.083 736 0 126 0 0
(تحليل أداء وإنبعاثات محرك ديزل يستخدم خليط وقود الديزل و زيت الجاتروفا )بحث الماجستيرالتكميلي.pdf

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(تحليل أداء وإنبعاثات محرك ديزل يستخدم خليط وقود الديزل و زيت الجاتروفا )بحث الماجستيرالتكميلي.pdf

  • 1. ‫الرحيم‬ ‫الرحمن‬ ‫هللا‬ ‫بسم‬ PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A DIESEL ENGINE USING JATROPHA OIL-DIESEL BLENDS By: MOHAMMED ABDELGADIR HASSAN IBRAHIM B.Sc. (honors), Mechanical Engineering, Nile Valley University Thesis submitted to the Graduate College of the University of Khartoum in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering (Renewable Energy) Supervisor: Dr. Mustafa Abbas Mustafa MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF ENGINEERING March- 2013
  • 2. I ‫اآلية‬ } ‫ه‬َ ‫اّلل‬ ‫ه‬‫ة‬َ ‫اج‬َ ‫ج‬ُّ ‫الز‬ ٍ ‫ة‬َ ‫اج‬َ ‫ج‬‫ه‬ ‫ز‬ ِ ‫ِف‬ ‫ه‬ ‫اح‬َ‫ب‬‫أ‬ ‫ص‬ِ ‫م‬‫أ‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ٌ ‫اح‬َ‫ب‬‫أ‬ ‫ص‬ِ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬َ ‫يه‬ِ‫ف‬ ٍ‫اة‬َ ‫ك‬‫أ‬ ‫ش‬ِ ‫م‬َ ‫ك‬ِ‫ه‬ِ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ه‬‫ن‬ ‫ه‬‫ل‬َ‫ث‬َ ‫م‬ ِ ‫ض‬‫أ‬ ‫َر‬‫أ‬ ‫اْل‬َ ‫و‬ ِ ‫ات‬َ ‫او‬َ ‫م‬َ ‫س‬‫ال‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ور‬‫ه‬‫ن‬ َ ‫ه‬‫ه‬‫ت‬‫أ‬‫ي‬َ ‫ز‬ ‫ه‬ ‫اد‬َ ‫ك‬َ‫ي‬ ٍ ‫ة‬َ‫ي‬ِ‫ب‬‫أ‬ ‫ر‬َ ‫غ‬ َ ‫َّل‬َ ‫و‬ ٍ ‫ة‬َ‫ي‬ِ‫ق‬‫أ‬ ‫ر‬َ ‫ش‬ َ ‫َّل‬ ٍ ‫ة‬ِ‫ون‬‫ه‬‫ت‬‫أ‬‫ي‬َ ‫ز‬ ٍ ‫ة‬َ ‫ك‬ َ ‫ار‬َ‫ب‬ُّ ‫م‬ ٍ‫ة‬َ ‫ر‬َ ‫ج‬َ ‫ش‬ ‫ن‬ِ ‫م‬ ‫ه‬ ‫د‬َ‫ق‬‫و‬‫ه‬‫ي‬ ٌّ ‫ي‬ِ ‫ر‬‫ه‬ ‫د‬ ٌ ‫ب‬َ ‫ك‬‫أ‬ ‫و‬َ ‫ك‬‫ا‬ََ ‫َّن‬َ‫أ‬َ ‫ك‬ ‫أ‬َ ‫َل‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬َ‫ل‬َ ‫و‬ ‫ه‬‫يء‬ِ ‫ض‬‫ه‬‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬َ ‫اّلل‬َ ‫و‬ ِ ‫َاس‬‫ن‬‫ل‬ِ‫ل‬ َ ‫ال‬َ‫ث‬‫أ‬ ‫َم‬‫أ‬ ‫اْل‬ ‫ه‬َ ‫اّلل‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ب‬ِ ‫ر‬‫أ‬ ‫ض‬َ‫ي‬َ ‫و‬ ‫ه‬‫اء‬َ ‫ش‬َ‫ي‬ ‫ن‬َ ‫م‬ ِ‫ه‬ِ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ه‬‫ن‬ِ‫ل‬ ‫ه‬َ ‫اّلل‬ ‫ي‬ِ ‫د‬‫أ‬ ‫ه‬َ‫ي‬ ٍ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ه‬‫ن‬ ‫ى‬َ‫ل‬َ ‫ع‬ ٌ ‫ُّور‬‫ن‬ ٌ ‫ر‬َ ‫َن‬ ‫ه‬‫ه‬‫أ‬ ‫س‬َ ‫س‬‫َأ‬ ‫َت‬ ِ ‫ل‬‫ه‬ ‫ك‬ِ‫ب‬ ٌ ‫يم‬ِ‫ل‬َ ‫ع‬ ٍ ‫ء‬‫أ‬ ‫ي‬َ ‫ش‬ } ‫اآلي‬ ‫ه‬ 35 ‫النور‬
  • 3. II Declaration This research has not been submitted for a degree in any other university DEDICATION
  • 4. III I dedicate this research to my father, my mother, my sister, my uncle Mohammed Elhassan, my uncles, my aunts, my aunt Souad Ibrahim Ahmed. My dedication extends to all of my teachers in primary and secondary stages and my teachers in Baklarios study stage. Also I dedicate this research to all of my friends in all education stages and work. Especially I dedicate this research to my first knight "son" Hassan Mohamed Abdelgadir and my dear wife Dr. Sheraz Table of Contents
  • 5. IV Title Page No PRILIMINARY ‫اآل‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ة‬ I Declaration II Dedication III Acknowledgment VII Abstract VIII ‫مستخلص‬ IX CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Prospects of Jatropha oil seeds 2 1.3 Objectives 5 CHAPTER II: LITRATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction 6 2.2 Biofuel Life Cycle 7 2.2.1 Energy Balance Methodologies 7 2.2.2 Biofuel Emissions 8 2.3 Production of biofuels 9 2.3.1 First generation Biofuels 10 2.3.2 Second generation Biofuels 10 2.4 Virgin vegetable oil 11 2.5 Recycled vegetable oil 11 2.6 Vegetable oil as Fuel 12
  • 6. V 2.6.1 Pure Plant Oil (PPO) 12 2.6.2 Vegetable oil blending 14 2.7 vegetable oils Feedstock 14 2.7.1 Rapeseed oil 16 2.7.2 Soybeans oil 17 2.7.3 Palm oil 18 2.7.4 Sunflower oil 19 2.7.5 Coconut oil 20 2.7.6 Cotton seeds 21 2.7.7 Peanut 22 2.7.8 Jatropha oil 23 2.7.9 Castor 24 2.8 Performance and properties of diesel fuel 26 2.8.1 Properties of diesel fuel 26 2.8.2 Engine performance 27 2.9 Performance of pure vegetable oil 29 2.10 Performance of vegetable oil blends 30 2.11 Performance of Jatropha oil blends 34 CHAPTER III: MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1 Introduction 36 3.1 Extraction of Jatropha oil 36 3.2 Blends samples preparation 37 3.3 Equipments of Blends Properties Tests 39 3.4 Tests Equipment 42
  • 7. VI 3.5 Flue Gas Analyzer 44 3.6 Experimental procedure 46 CHAPTER IV: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Physical and chemical properties determination 47 4.2 Engine performance test 49 4.3 Engine emissions 54 4.3.1 Emissions of engine running without load 54 4.3.2 Emissions of engine running under load 57 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS 5.1 Conclusion 60 5.2 Recommendation 61
  • 8. VII Acknowledgement I am really grateful and I do appreciate the efforts of my respected supervisor Dr. Mustafa Abbas Mustafa in guiding and supervising me in this research. I am really grateful for the brother at Energy research Institute and Technology Africa Town for their co-operations and supplying me with Jatropha seeds. Especially my dear Mr. Elwaleed Abbas. My sincere thanks also for the technicians in Thermo Workshop Faculty of Engineering Sudan University of Science and Technology for co-operation. I am really grateful for all those who supported me in every way.
  • 9. VIII Abstract The purpose of this study work was to investigate the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine using Jatropha oil-diesel blends. Fuel properties of Jatropha oil (10%, 15%, and 20%) and diesel (90%, 85%, and 80%) blends were studied and compared with pure diesel fuel. The performance and emission characteristics of those blends were tested on a diesel engine (four stork, four cylinders, Indirect Injection Fuel System with Intercooler and Turbocharger). Fuel test results showed that blends densities were 3.68%, 4.16% and 4.62% respectively, higher than that of diesel fuel (0.829 kg/L).The kinematic viscosity for blends were 62.5%, 88.6% and 110.8% respectively, higher than that of diesel fuel. Calorific value content for blends was declined 1.72%, 1.85% and 1.98% respectively of the value for diesel fuel (46,000 kJ/kg). Flash point for blends was 17.5%, 45%, and 77.5% higher than of diesel fuel (40 o C). Cloud point for blends was found 67.65% higher than that of diesel fuel. The engine power output and torque for tested blends increased at low engine speed (1600 rpm), but at higher speed (2200rpm) decreased less than diesel. Fuel consumption slightly increased for blends at both speeds. Brake thermal efficiency for blends increased at higher engine speed (2200 rpm), but at lower speed, 1600 rpm, less than diesel. Exhaust emissions (CO, NO, NOx, SO2) for blends was increased slightly at lower speeds but at medium and upper speeds less than diesel.
  • 10. IX ‫مستخلص‬ ‫البحث‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫من‬ ‫الهدف‬ ‫هو‬ .‫والديزل‬ ‫الجاتروفا‬ ‫زيت‬ ‫وقود‬ ‫خليط‬ ‫يستخدم‬ ‫ديزل‬ ‫محرك‬ ‫وأنبعاثات‬ ‫أداء‬ ‫من‬ ‫التحقق‬ ( ‫الجاتروفا‬ ‫زيت‬ ‫خليط‬ ‫خواص‬ 10 % ، 15 ‫و‬ % 20 ( ‫والديزل‬ ) % 90 ،% 85 ‫و‬ ، 80 ‫مع‬ ‫وقورنت‬ ‫فحصت‬ )% ‫وانبعاثات‬ ‫أداء‬ ‫خواص‬ ‫فحصت‬.‫الديزل‬ ‫وقود‬ ‫خواص‬ ‫محرك‬ ‫علي‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫خليط‬ ‫عينات‬ ، ‫األشواط‬ ‫(رباعي‬ ‫ديزل‬ ‫األ‬ ‫رباعي‬ ) ‫مباشر‬ ‫غير‬ ‫حقن‬ ‫نظام‬ ، ‫سطوانات‬ . ( ‫بنسب‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫خليط‬ ‫كثافة‬ ‫في‬ ‫زياده‬ ‫أظهرت‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫خواص‬ ‫أختبارات‬ 3.68 ،% 4.16 ‫و‬ % 4.62 ‫علي‬ )% ‫الديزل‬ ‫كثافة‬ ‫مع‬ ‫بالمقارنه‬ ‫التوالي‬ ( 0.829 ‫للتر‬ / ‫كلجم‬ ‫ل‬ .) ( ‫بنسب‬ ‫زادت‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫خليط‬ ‫زوجة‬ 62.5 ،% 88.6 % ‫و‬ 110.8 ‫ل‬ ‫مع‬ ‫بالمقارنه‬ ‫التوالي‬ ‫علي‬ )% ‫الحراري‬ ‫القيمه‬.‫الديزل‬ ‫زوجة‬ ‫بالنسب‬ ‫أنخفضت‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫لخليط‬ ‫ه‬ ( 1.72 ،% 1.85 ‫و‬ % 1.98 ( ‫تعادل‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الديزل‬ ‫لوقود‬ ‫الحراريه‬ ‫القيمه‬ ‫مع‬ ‫بالمقارنه‬ ‫التوالي‬ ‫علي‬ ) 46,000 ‫كيلو‬ ‫كلجم‬ /‫جول‬ ) . ‫و‬ ‫نقطة‬ ( ‫بالنسب‬ ‫زادت‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫خليط‬ ‫ميض‬ 17.5 ،% 45 ‫و‬ ،% 77.5 ‫وميض‬ ‫نقطة‬ ‫مع‬ ‫بالمقارنه‬ ‫التوالي‬ ‫علي‬ )% ( ‫الدنيا‬ ‫الديزل‬ 40 ‫زادت‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫خليط‬ ‫تسحب‬ ‫نقطة‬ .)‫مئويه‬ ‫درجه‬ ‫هي‬ ‫عينات‬ ‫للثالث‬ ‫ثابته‬ ‫بنسبه‬ 67.65 % .‫الديزل‬ ‫تسحب‬ ‫نقطة‬ ‫مع‬ ‫بالمقارنه‬ ‫المحرك‬ ‫من‬ ‫الناتجان‬ ‫والعزم‬ ‫القدره‬ ‫للمحرك‬ ‫الدنيا‬ ‫السرعه‬ ‫عند‬ ‫زادتا‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫خليط‬ ‫أستخدام‬ ‫عند‬ 1600 ‫في‬ ‫لفه‬ ‫العليا‬ ‫السرعه‬ ‫عند‬ ‫ونقصتا‬ ‫الدقيقه‬ 2200 ‫الوقود‬ ‫خليط‬ ‫أستخدام‬ ‫عند‬ ً‫ال‬‫قلي‬ ‫زاد‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫أستهالك‬ .‫الدقيقه‬ ‫في‬ ‫لفه‬ ‫عند‬ ‫السرعتين‬ . ‫للمحرك‬ ‫العليا‬ ‫السرعه‬ ‫عند‬ ‫زادت‬ ‫الوقود‬ ‫لخليط‬ ‫الفرمليه‬ ‫الحراريه‬ ‫الكفاءه‬ 2200 ‫الدقيقه‬ ‫في‬ ‫لفه‬ ‫الدنيا‬ ‫السرعه‬ ‫عند‬ ‫ونقصت‬ 1600 .‫الديزل‬ ‫وقود‬ ‫مع‬ ‫بالمقارنه‬ ‫الدقيقه‬ ‫في‬ ‫لفه‬ ‫مكونات‬ ‫أكسيد‬ ‫(أول‬ ‫العادم‬ ‫غازات‬ ‫زادت‬ )‫الكبريت‬ ‫أكسيد‬ ‫ثاني‬ ،‫األخري‬ ‫النتروجين‬ ‫أكاسيد‬ ،‫النتروجين‬ ‫أكسيد‬ ‫ثاني‬ ،‫النتروجين‬ ً‫ال‬‫قلي‬ ‫السرعات‬ ‫عند‬ .‫الديزل‬ ‫وقود‬ ‫انبعاثات‬ ‫مع‬ ً‫ا‬‫مقارنت‬ ‫والعليا‬ ‫المتوسطه‬ ‫السرعات‬ ‫عند‬ ‫ونقصت‬ ‫الدنيا‬
  • 11. X List of Figures Title NO Figure (1.1): 2011 World Oil Consumption 2 Figure (1.2): indication of the most suitable climate conditions for the growth of Jatropha curcas 4 Figure (2.1): Life cycle and horizontal attributes of biofuel production 9 Figure (2.2): Types and classification of lipid feedstock sources. 15 Figure (2.3): ( A) Rapeseeds (B) rape trees 17 Figure (2.4): (A) Soybeans trees (B) Soybeans seeds 18 Figure (2.5): Palm fruits 19 Figure (2.6): sunflower 20 Figure (2.7): Coconut fruits 21 Figure (2.8): Cotton flower 22 Figure (2.9): peanut seeds 23 Figure (2.10): Jatropha 24 Figure (2.11): Castor fruits 25 Figure (3.1): : Expeller machine for oil extraction 37 Figure (3.2): Jatropha oil and seeds waste 37 Figure (3.3): Blends preparing steps 38 Figure (3.4): Viscometer 40 Figure (3.5): Density Meter 40 Figure (3.6): Cloud Point Test Tube Device 41 Figure (3.7): Pensky-Martens flash point 41
  • 12. XI Figure (3.8): photograph of the test rig. 43 Figure (3.9): Dynamometer cycle components 43 Figure (3.10): (1) Gas sampling probe (2) gas analysis unit (3) RS232(4) Remote control unit (RCU) 45 Figure (4.1): Specific Fuel Consumption 49 Figure (4.2): Carbon Monoxide Emission 55 Figure (4.3): Nitrogen monoxide emission 55 Figure (4.4): NOX emission 56 List of Tables
  • 13. XII Table (2.1) Fuel-Related Characteristics of Plant Oils 13 Table (2.2) typical oil extraction 16 Table (2.3) diesel fuel properties 27 Table 3.1: Engine Specifications 42 Table( 4.1 ): The chemical and physical properties of the jatropha oil_diesel blends 48 Table( 4.2 ): The variation of Brake Power versus Torque 51 Table( 4.3 ):The variation of Brake thermal efficiency versus Torque 52 Table(4.4): The variation of Brake fuel consumption versus Torque 53 Table(4.5): The variation of Carbon monoxide emission versus Torque 57 Table(4.6): The variation of Nitrogen monoxide emission versus Torque 58 Table(4.7): The variation of Sulfur dioxide emission VS Torque 59
  • 14. 1 CHAPTER І INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background From world oil consumption map the larger consumption countries including USA, China and Japan consume all together about 24 millions of barrels per day (EIA 2011). The increasing demand for petroleum based fuels, global warming and environmental pollution has driven the world to search for newer, safer, cheaper and cleaner sources of fuel. A major problem for Sudan rural areas is the inadequate supply of power for lighting, heating, cooking, cooling, water pumping, radio or TV communications and security services. Petroleum product supplies, including diesel, kerosene and LPG are irregular and often subject to sudden price increases (Omer, 2007). The Pump price for diesel fuel (US dollar per liter) in Sudan was last reported at 0.43 in 2010, according to a World Bank report published in 2012 .Fuel prices refer to the pump prices of the most widely sold grade of diesel fuel .Prices have been converted from the local currency to US dollars.Per capita consumption of diesel fuel in the Sudan in 2009, according to World Bank data 36 liters. According to the total consumption of diesel fuel in the Sudan in 2009 is 1112 million liters. The annual bill for consumption of diesel fuel in Sudan was estimated about 478.16 millions dollars
  • 15. 2 Figure (1.1): 2011 World Oil Consumption (EIA 2011). 1.2 Prospects of Jatropha Oil Seeds Jatropha Curcas is shrub or small tree grows to a height of 3-5 meters and sometimes, when suitable climatic conditions prevail, grows up to 8-10 meters. The tree is affiliated to the herbaceous plants, and its leaves resemble grapes’ fruits and its fruit is in the form of a nut, the size golf ball, containing seeds that produce bitter taste oil (AL_Amin, 2011). Jatropha Crucas is a good crop and can be obtained with little effort. Depending on soil quality and rainfall, the kernels consist of oil to about 60 percent; this can be transformed into biodiesel fuel through transesterification. Jatropha Curcas grows almost anywhere, even on gravelly, sandy and saline soils. It can thrive on the poorest stony soil. Jatropha Curcas is found in the tropics and subtropics and likes heat, although it does well even in lower temperatures and can withstand a light frost. Its water requirement is extremely low and it can stand long periods of drought by shedding most of its leaves to reduce transpiration loss.
  • 16. 3 Jatropha is also suitable for preventing soil erosion and shifting of sand dunes (Abd Alhamid, 2009). Jatropha historically originates from Central America and the northern parts of South America. Jatropha has been distributed to other tropical regions by European seafarers and explorers from the 16th century onwards. Presently it grows in tropical areas worldwide (Sub-Saharan African countries, Southeast Asia, India) (Eric, et al.., 2010). Sudan is a large agricultural country with various climates differs from arid in the north to dry savanna climate in the south. Sudan has the longest river and the tributaries between the third world countries. Diversity of climate resulted in producing different oil seeds (peanut, sesame, sunflower, cotton seed and watermelon seed. some other oil seeds such as Jatropha, castor, bitter melon, Roselle, laloub, some melon seeds. This latest seeds are used in producing biodiesel (Eldoum, 2009). Sudan lands are suitable for Jatropha plantation as the plant grows naturally as native plant in many regions there. Middle and South of the country is best conditions for Jatropha to grow (Abd Alhamid , 2009 ). Jatropha is found in Sudan in many areas such as Khartoum State in Central Sudan, Kassala State in the East and Kordofan State in the West. However, it is dominant in the Southern States especially in Bahr El Jebel and Bahr El Gazal States. It is mentioned as an indigenous plant in some books describing the plants of Sudan. The farmers in the south plant them as hedges to protect their gardens and fields. Jatropha Research started in Sudan as early as 1972 with studies concerning the molluscicidal effect of the plant.
  • 17. 4 Figure (1.2) Indication of the most suitable climate conditions for the growth of Jatropha curcas L (30 °N, 35 °S) (Eric, et al.., 2010). Jatropha Project exists in Kutum, North Darfur, with participation of the German Development Service. The experimental and pilot project, known as Kutum was launched in North Darfur with participation of a German research center, was all but success. The pilot project has proved that although Jatropha is an equatorial plant, it still can grow in all types of soils found in the Sudan (Al_Amin , 2011). Presently, Ministry of Sciences is executing project for biofuel production in Sudan, which Northern State has embarked on its implementation through HOI-Mea holding company, a branch of Saudi based Bagshan Group, to cultivate Jatropha plant in area of 250 feddans in the region of Nubi Lake, 75km west of the Nile, 180km north-east of Northern State capital Dongola.The project is aimed at cultivating 259 feddans of Jatropha, recently 145,000 plants have been cultivated in an area of 63 feddans because water network is ready for trickle irrigation and that efforts are ongoing to import new types of seeds adaptable to desert climate. Jatropha cultivation project
  • 18. 5 has started in 2010, disclosing that water is available in accordance with mineral water European standards without treatment. The water has the characteristics of being extracted under normal temperatures not 10°C. The Jatropha annual production of seeds is around six to twelve kilograms, of which oil constitutes 25%, and the remaining part is subject to other medical uses in addition to soap making and some types of glycerin and fertilizers. The Jatropha tree have age 40-50 years with annual production not less than 8 kilograms. The directors of the projects are planning to generalize Jatropha to the Sudanese farmers to be grown side by side with groundnuts, sesame and gum Arabic ( Abd Allah, 2012 ). 1.3 Objectives The purpose of this study work was to investigate the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine using Jatropha oil-diesel blends. Specific objective were: 1. To evaluate physical properties of Jatropha oil-diesel blends such as density, viscosity, flash point, calorific value, cloud point and ash content and compare them with that diesel fuel. 2. To investigate engine performance parameters such as fuel consumption, brake power and brake thermal efficiency and compare them with that diesel fuel. 3. To inspect the components of exhaust gases such as NO, CO, NOX, and SO2 and compare them with that diesel fuel.
  • 19. 6 CHAPTER II LITRATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction Biofuels are fuels derived from biomass. Which is organic matter taken from or produced by plants and animals. It comprises mainly wood, agricultural crops and products, aquatic plants, forestry products, wastes and residues, and animal wastes. In its most general meaning, biofuels are all types of solid, gaseous and liquid fuels that can be derived from biomass. Examples of solid biofuels include wood, charcoal and bagasse. Wood and charcoal are widely used as fuel for domestic purposes such as cooking in the rural areas of most developing countries. Waste bagasse, the fibrous material produced from sugar cane processing, is extensively used for steam and electrical power generation in raw sugar mills. Examples of gaseous biofuels include methane gas and producer gas. Methane gas is produced from the anaerobic fermentation of animal wastes, waste water treatment sludge and municipal wastes in landfills. On the other hand, producer gas can be made from the pyrolysis or gasification of wood and agricultural wastes. Examples of liquid biofuels include methanol, ethanol, plant oils and the methyl esters produced from these oils commonly referred to as biodiesel (Filemon, 2010). There is growing interest in biofuels in many developing countries as a means of “modernizing” biomass use and providing greater access to clean liquid fuels while helping to address energy costs, energy security and global warming concerns associated with petroleum fuels (United Nations 2008).
  • 20. 7 2.2 Biofuel Life Cycle Biofuels can have positive or negative impacts on various issues. In order to assess benefits from the utilization of biofuels compared to fossil fuels, life cycles have to be determined. Life cycles largely depend on type of feedstock, choice of location, production of byproducts, process technology and on how the fuel is used. Within this variety, the basic components of life cycles in biofuel processing are always the same. Therefore some aspects of the general life cycle of biofuels are presented. Figure (2.1) Shows the life cycle of biofuels has several horizontal process steps: biomass production and transport, biofuel processing, biofuel distribution and biofuel consumption. In addition, the industrial process steps of creating fertilizers, seeds and pesticides for the production of biomass must be included. The life cycle is also influenced by" vertical attributes" which have to be carefully assessed in order to allow comparisons among different biofuels: energy balance, emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, other environmental impacts, biofuel costs, and socio-economic impacts (Dominick, Rainer, 2008). 2.2.1Energy Balance Methodologies The "energy balance" is the ratio of energy contained in the final biofuel to the energy used by human efforts to produce it. Typically, only fossil fuel inputs are counted in this equation, while biomass inputs, including the biomass feedstock itself, are not counted. A more accurate term for this concept is fossil energy balance, and it is one measure of a biofuel’s ability to slow the pace of climate change. The ratio number of the energy balance can exceed one (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).The
  • 21. 8 "energy efficiency" is the ratio of energy in the biofuel to the amount of energy input, counting all fossil and biomass inputs as well as other renewable energy inputs. This ratio adds an indication of how much biomass energy is lost in the process of converting it to a liquid fuel, and helps to measure more- and less efficient conversions of biomass to biofuel. The ratio number of the energy efficiency can never exceed one, because some of the energy contained in the feedstock is lost during processing (Dominick, Rainer, 2008). 2.2.2 Biofuel Emissions As biofuels are produced from biomass, the combustion of these biofuels principally is considered to be CO2 neutral. During the combustion process about the same amount of CO2 is being set free, that has been bound from the atmosphere during photosynthesis and growth of the plants. Therefore the carbon cycle is closed. The major part of combustion engine exhaust streams consists of the components nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water which are nontoxic. But also other factors have to be included. For example, fertilizing, pesticide use, means of irrigation, and treatment of the soil also play an important role in determining the climate impact of biofuels (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
  • 22. 9 Figure 2.1: Life cycle and horizontal attributes of biofuel production (Dominick, Rainer, 2008) 2.3 Production of biofuels Biofuel production opens new market opportunities for agricultural products and thus new income options for farmers. In the future agriculture will not only play a role in food production, but also in energy provision. The increased feedstock production is expected to strongly contribute to the multi functionality of the agricultural sector. The production of biofuels includes two methods. (1) first-generation biofuels (made today from grains, seeds and sugar crops) (2) second-generation biofuels (made from “lignocellulosic” biomass such as crop residues or purpose-grown grasses or woody crops
  • 23. 10 2.3.1 First generation Biofuels 'First-generation' or conventional biofuels are made from sugar, starch, or vegetable oil. Alcohol fuels are produced by fermentation of sugars derived from wheat, corn, sugar beets, sugar cane, molasses and any sugar or starch from which alcoholic beverages can be made (such as potato and fruit waste. Feedstocks for biodiesel include animal fats, vegetable oils, soy, rapeseed, Jatropha, mahua, mustard, flax, sunflower, palm oil, hemp, field pennycress, Pongamia pinnata and algae. Some first generation biofuels are made from edible feedstock. In this situation we must have balance between food and fuels demand. Ethanol or butanol was made by fermentation of starches (corn, wheat, potato). Biodiesel by transesterification of plant oils also called fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) (United Nations, 2008). 2.3.2 Second generation Biofuels Second-generation biofuels are not being produced commercially anywhere today. They are made from non-edible feedstocks. Such feedstocks can be bred specifically for energy purposes, thereby enabling higher production per unit land area, and more of the above-ground plant material can be converted to biofuel. Thereby further increasing land-use efficiency compared to first-generation biofuels. These basic characteristics of the feedstocks hold promise for lower feedstock costs and substantial energy and environmental benefits for most second-generation biofuels compared to most first-generation biofuels. On the other hand, second-generation biofuel systems require more sophisticated processing equipment, more investment
  • 24. 11 per unit of production, and larger-scale facilities (to capture capital-cost scale economies) than first-generation biofuels (United Nations, 2008). 2.4 Virgin vegetable oil Virgin vegetable oil, also termed pure plant oil or straight vegetable oil is extracted from plants solely for use as fuel. Virgin oils are the low volatile, generally liquid fats and contain varying small amounts of natural waxes, sterols, lecithin and vitamins. In contrast to used vegetable oil, is not a byproduct of other industries and thus its prospects for use as fuel is not limited by the capacities of other industries. Production of vegetable oils for use as fuels is theoretically limited only by the agricultural capacity of a given economy. However, doing so detracts from the supply of other uses of pure vegetable oil (Dominick, Rainer, 2008). 2.5 Recycled vegetable oil This is edible oil that has been used multiple times in a deep-fat fryer. The second type is called “trap grease.” Restaurants are required to install grease traps in their drains to prevent fats and oils that go down the drain from entering sewer pipes. The grease in these traps can be collected to make biodiesel. Recycled vegetable oil, also termed used vegetable oil (UVO), waste vegetable oil (WVO), used cooking oil or yellow grease (in commodities exchange) and is recovered from businesses and industry that use the oil for cooking. Use of used vegetable oil as a direct fuel competes with some other uses of the commodity, which has effects on its price as a
  • 25. 12 fuel and increases its cost as an input to the other uses as well (Dominick, Rainer, 2008). 2.6 Vegetable oil as Fuel Vegetable oil is an alternative fuel for diesel engines and for heating oil burners. For engines designed to burn diesel fuel, the viscosity of vegetable oil must be lowered to allow for proper atomization of the fuel; otherwise incomplete combustion and carbon build up will ultimately damage the engine. Vegetable oil can be used as diesel fuel just as it is in special conditions, without being converted to biodiesel 2.6.1 Pure Plant Oil (PPO) Properties of pure plant oil (PPO) largely differ in its properties when they are compared to the properties of fossil diesel. For example the viscosity of PPO is much higher, especially at cooler temperatures. It is up to ten times higher than the viscosity of fossil diesel. Also the flashpoint of pure plant oil is significantly higher than that of normal diesel. It lies at around 240 ºC. It is therefore particularly safe in storage and transport and easy to handle. PPO is biodegradable in a short time in soil and waters. Because of its specific properties, the refined PPO usually cannot be used in normal diesel engines. In order to run on pure plant oil, diesel engines must either be refitted, which is often done by attaching a mechanism for preheating the oil, or a dedicated engine must be used (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
  • 26. 13 There are a number of physical and chemical characteristics of plant oils that affect their suitability as fuels. These include the heating value (HV), pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), flash point (FP), iodine value (IV), viscosity, density, and cetane number (CN). These characteristics that directly affect the efficiency of the fuel and the performance of the engine are summarized below in table2.1 (Filemon, 2010). Table (2.1) Fuel-Related Characteristics of Plant Oils (Filemon, 2010). Oil Cetane Number Iodine Value Heating Value (kJ/kg) Cloud point (°C) Pour Point (°C) Flash Point (°C) Viscosity (mm2 /s)at 38°C Babassu 38 Castor 85 39,500 -32to-18 260 297 Coconut 70 8-10 20to25 Corn 38-53 115-124 39,500 -1.1 -40to-5 277 35 Cottonseed 42-55 100-115 39,470 -1.7 -15to 0 234 34 Crambe 45 40,480 10 -12 274 54 Linseed 35 39,310 1.7 -15 241 27 Palm oil 42-65 44-58 30-38 Peanut 42 93 39,780 13 -7to3 271 40 Rapeseed 38 97-115 39,710 -3.9 -32to5 246 37 Soybean 38-53 125-140 39,620 -3.9 -12 254 33 Sunflower 37-52 125-135 39,580 72 -15to-18 274 37 Jatropha 51 - 39,649 - 8 240 50.73
  • 27. 14 2.6.2 Vegetable oil blending The relatively high kinematic viscosity of vegetable oils must be reduced to make them compatible with conventional compression-ignition engines and fuel systems. Co solvent blending is a low cost and easy to adapt technology that reduces viscosity by diluting the vegetable oil with a low-molecular-weight solvent. This blending, or "cutting", has been done with diesel fuel, kerosene, and gasoline, amongst others; however, opinions vary as to the efficacy of this. Noted problems include higher rates of wear and failure in fuel pumps and piston rings when using blends (Dunn, 2011). 2.7 vegetable oils Feedstock There are many options for utilizing different feedstock types for pure plant oil besides dedicated oilseed crops such as e.g. rapeseed and soybean, also crop residues or purpose-grown grasses or woody crops. Figure 2 shows some examples for lipid feedstock sources. They can be sub-divided into palm fruits, algae, seeds and waste oil. Although the productivity of palm fruits is one of the highest, the most common feedstock sources for PPO and biodiesel production are seeds from various plants. These include seeds from, sunflower, peanut, sorghum, rapeseed, sorghum and Jatropha (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
  • 28. 15 Figure 2.2: Types and classification of lipid feedstock sources. (Dominick, Rainer, 2008). Table 2.1 presents the typical amounts of oil that can be extracted from some plants or crops. It shows that copra (dried coconut meat), castor seed and sesame seed yield the highest percentages of oil per unit weight of material (50 to 62%) while cotton seed and soybean have the lowest percentages (13 to 14%).The kernel of the oil palm also yields more oil (36%) compared to its fruit (20%).This parameter – the oil yield per unit weight of material being processed – is important in assessing the relative magnitude or cost of processing or extraction required to produce the desired product, which is the oil. The higher the oil concentration in the seed or fruit to be processed, the greater the oil produced per unit weights of seed or fruit, and generally the lower the cost of processing ( Filemon , 2010).
  • 29. 16 Table (2.2) typical oil extraction ( Filemon , 2010). Crop kg oil/100 kg crop Castor seed 50 Copra 62 Cotton seed 13 Groundnut kernel 42 Mustard 35 Palm fruit 20 Palm kernel 36 Rapeseed 37 Sesame 50 Soybean 14 Sunflower 32 Jatropha 40 2.7.1Rapeseed oil Rapeseed oil is characterized by high levels of erucic acid (50 %), which may cause serious damage to heart and liver. Within the success of breeding, rape plants with reduced levels of these substances were created. Today most plants belong to “double zero” (00) varieties containing only low percentages of erucic acid. Rapeseeds are characterized by high contents of monounsaturated oleic acid and low levels of both saturated and polyunsaturated acids. Therefore rapeseed oil is an ideal raw material regarding combustion characteristics, oxidative stability and cold temperature behavior. Globally the cultivated area of rape is growing by 2 % annually. In China, the world’s largest rapeseed producer, the area planted is
  • 30. 17 Figure 2.3 :( A) Rapeseeds (B) rape trees expanding rapidly. In India, the third largest producer, growth is minimal. 1.4 million hectares of rapeseed were planted specifically for biodiesel use in 2005. About half of Europe’s biodiesel production was in Germany, but production in France, the Czech Republic, and Poland were also significant (Dominick, Rainer, 2008). 2.7.2 Soybeans oil Soybean oil is characterized by iodine values of 121-143 mgI2 /100g, which is similar to sunflower oil. Therefore it is discussed by experts if soybean oil can meet biodiesel standards. Soybeans are grown in rotation with corn in the United States and with sugar cane in Brazil. Only a small fraction of the soybean supply is currently transformed into fuels (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
  • 31. 18 Figure 2.4: (A) Soybeans trees (B) Soybeans seeds 2.7.3 Palm oil The oil palm is one of the two palm trees that are used for oil production, mainly in South Asian countries. The two largest producers are Malaysia and Indonesia, where palm oil production has grown rapidly over the last decade. Nigeria has the second largest planted area and high potentials are expected in Brazil. Palm oil is characterized by high amounts of medium-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. High contents of saturated fatty acids are leading to unacceptable high values for cold filter plugging point (+11°C) and cloud point (+13°C) which prevents winter operation on neat palm oil methyl esters in temperate climates. Additionally, high contents of fatty acids in the feedstock cause problems in traditional alkali-catalyzed
  • 32. 19 Figure 2.5: Palm fruits biodiesel production and thus necessitate deacidification or acid-catalyzed pre- esterification steps (Dominick, Rainer, 2008). 2.7.4 Sunflower oil The oil of sunflower seeds is the world’s fifth largest oilseed crop. After rapeseed it accounts for most of the remaining biodiesel feedstock in Europe. The high contents of linoleic acid limit the use of sunflower seed oil for fuel production. Additionally pure sunflower oil methyl esters have high iodine values not suitable as fuel. Pure sunflower oil fuels will also give poor ratings for oxidative stability. To solve the problems, cultivars enriched in oleic acid have been bred (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
  • 33. 20 Figure 2.6: sunflower 2.7.5 Coconut oil This feedstock is favored in the biodiesel industry in the Philippines. It is another high yielding feedstock that produces highly saturated oil. Coconut oil is a triglyceride containing high percentages of saturated fatty acids (86 %), and small amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids (6 %) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (2%). Of its saturated fatty acids, coconut oil contains primarily lauric acid (45 %), myristic acid (17 %) and palmitic acid (8. %), though it contains seven different saturated fatty acids in total. Its only monounsaturated fatty acid is oleic acid while its only polyunsaturated fatty acid is linoleic acid. Among the most stable of all vegetable oils, coconut oil is slow to oxidize and thus resistant to rancidity. Unrefined coconut oil melts at 20-25°C and smokes at 170°C (350°F), while refined coconut oil has a higher smoke point of 232°C (450°F) (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
  • 34. 21 Figure 2.7: Coconut fruits 2.7.6 Cotton seeds Cottonseeds are the world’s third largest oilseed crop. It is produced predominantly in India, the United States, and Pakistan, which are together responsible for 45 % of world production and 50 % of the total cultivated area (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
  • 35. 22 Figure 2.8: Cotton flower 2.7.7 Peanut Peanuts are the world’s fourth largest oilseed crop. It accounts for 8.7 % of major oilseed production. The major producers are China, India, and the United States, which together account for 70 % of world production. China and India represent 56 % of the world’s cultivated area (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
  • 36. 23 Figure 2.10: Peanut seeds 2.7.8 Jatropha Oil Jatropha has been identified as one of the most promising feedstock for large-scale biodiesel. The oil contains 21% saturated fatty acids and 79% unsaturated fatty acids. The major acids present are palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
  • 37. 24 Figure 2.9: Jatropha 2.7.9 Castor Identified as the second most-promising species for Brazil after palm oil, the castor oil, or momona, plant is a particularly labor-intensive crop that could provide jobs in the poorer northeastern regions of the country. India is the largest producer and exporter of castor oil worldwide, followed by China and Brazil. World demand for castor oil is projected to continue growing by 3–5 percent per year in the near term (Dominick, Rainer, 2008).
  • 39. 26 2.8 Performance and Properties of Diesel Fuel The most important factors determining the performance and emissions of fuel in an internal combustion engine are listed as follows: − Brake thermal efficiency − Brake Specific Fuel Consumption − Volumetric Efficiency − Carbon Monoxide − Carbon Dioxide − Exhaust Gas Temperature − Un-burnt Hydrocarbons − Nitrogen oxides 2.8.1 Properties of Diesel Fuel In the U.S., the standard specification for diesel fuel oils is ASTM D 975. (ASTM stands for the American Society of Testing and Materials). ASTM D 975 contains a set of physical, chemical, and performance specifications, established by the Society to meet the approval requirements of ASTM procedures and regulations (PassageMaker Magazin, 1999).
  • 40. 27 Table (2.3) diesel fuel properties Source (Crimson, 2006) Blend property Units Test Method Result Density @ 15°C kg/L ASTM D4052 0.829 Kinematic Viscosity @ 40°C mm2 /s ASTM D445 2.4 Flash point, PMCC °C(min) ASTM D93 40 Cloud Point °C(max) ASTM D2500 -34 Ash Content %wt(max) ASTM D482 0.01 Colorific Value kJ/kg ASTM D240 46000 2.8.2 Engine Performance Several operating characteristics influence engine performance, and their relative importance depends on engine type and duty cycle (for example, truck, passenger car, stationary generator, marine vessel, etc.). These characteristics are − Starting ease − Low noise − Low wear (high lubricity) − Long filter life (stability and fuel cleanliness) − sufficient power − Good fuel economies − Low temperature operability − Low emissions − Smoke
  • 41. 28 The three most important factors affecting engine performance are: 1. Sufficient power: power is determined by the engine design. Diesel engines are rated at the brake horsepower developed at the smoke limit for a given engine; varying fuel properties within the ASTM D 975 specification range does not alter power significantly. However, fuel viscosity outside of the ASTM D 975 specification range causes poor atomization, leading to poor combustion, which leads to loss of power. 2. Fuel Economy: Here again engine design is more important than fuel properties. However, for a given engine used for a particular duty, fuel economy is related to the heating value of the fuel. Heating value per volume is directly proportional to density when other fuel properties are unchanged. Each degree increase in American Petroleum density equates to approximately two percent decrease in fuel energy content. 3. Low emissions: Variation of most fuel properties within the normal ranges will not lead to the high level of particulate matter (PM) represented by smoking. The exception is cetane number; fuel with a very high cetane number can cause smoking in some engines. The short ignition delay causes most of the fuel to be burned in the diffusion-controlled phase of combustion which can lead to higher PM emissions. Some efforts of adding pollution control systems to vehicles and reformulating fuels paying off in better air quality.
  • 42. 29 2.9 Performance of Pure Vegetable Oil Bruwer (1980) study the use of sunflower seed oil as a renewable energy source. When operating tractor with 100%sunflower oil instead of diesel fuel, an 8% power loss occurred after 1000 h of operation, which was corrected by replacing the fuel injector, and injector pump Yarbrough (1981) reported that raw sunflower oils were found to be unsuitable fuel, while refined sunflower oil was found to be satisfactory. Schoedder (1981) obtained mixed results using rapeseed oils as a diesel fuel replacement in a series of studies. Although short-term engine tests indicated that rapeseed oil had similar energy outputs compared to diesel fuel, the results of long- term engine tests revealed operating difficulties arising from deposits on piston rings, valves and injectors, particularly after 100 hours of continuous operation. Reid (1982) conducted injection studies and engine tests to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of 14 plant oils related to their use as Alternative fuels. The injection studies showed that the plant oils dispersed differently compared to diesel fuel due to their much higher viscosities. The engine tests showed that the level of carbon deposit varied even for plant oils with nearly similar viscosities, indicating that oil composition was also an important factor. The tests also revealed that pre- heating the oil prior to injection could reduce the amount of carbon deposits in the engine.
  • 43. 30 Ragu, et al.., (2011) compared the brake specific fuel consumption of preheated Rice bran oil and Rice bran oil without preheated the former has a lower BSFC as compared to the later. This is due to the improvement in viscosity that leads to better atomization in the case of preheated Rice bran oil. At all loads the engine with diesel operation shows a higher efficiency and with Rice bran oil it shows a lower efficiency. The preheated Rice bran oil operation shows efficiency higher than oil without preheating. At a given load the diesel has lower value and Rice bran oil shows a higher value of exhaust gas temperature. The preheated Rice bran oil has a lower exhaust gas temperature as compared to Rice bran oil at all loads 2.10 Performance of vegetable oil blends Engelman (1978) studied a series of performance tests using 10% to 50% soybean oil blended with diesel fuel in diesel engines with initially encouraging results. The carbon build-up in the combustion chamber was minimal at the end of the 50-hour test run and the power delivered was only slightly lower compared to 100% diesel fuel. However, fuel blends containing 60% or higher concentrations of plant oil caused the engine to sputter due to fuel filter plugging. Sims (1981) pointed out rapeseed oil-diesel fuel blends could be used as a replacement for diesel fuel. Short-term engine tests showed that a 50:50 rapeseed oil- diesel fuel blend had no adverse effects although long-term tests resulted in injector pump failure and cold starting problems. The amount of carbon deposits on combustion chamber components was found to be nearly the same as that found in engines operated on 100% diesel fuel.
  • 44. 31 Worgetter (1981) used (50:50) blend of rapeseed oil and diesel fuel to operate a 43- kW tractor. Initial results were good but after 400 hours of continuous operation the test had to be aborted due to serious engine problems resulting from heavy carbon deposits on the injector tips and pistons. Van der Walt and Hugo (1981) examined the long-term effects of using sunflower oil-diesel fuel blends as a replacement for 100% diesel fuel in direct and indirect- injection diesel engines. The indirect-injected diesel engines were run for over 2,000 hours using varying blends of de-gummed, filtered sunflower oil with no adverse effects. However, the direct-injected engines were not able to complete 400 hours of operation using a 20:80 sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend due to severe power loss resulting from severely coked injectors, carbon buildup in the combustion chamber, and stuck piston rings. There was also considerable wear of the piston, liner and bearing as indicated by the analysis of the lubricating oil. Barsic and Humke (1981) studied the effects of mixing sunflower oil and peanut oil with diesel fuel in a single cylinder engine. The fuel blends were found to have lower heating value compared to diesel fuel and were observed to increase the amount of carbon deposits on the combustion side of the injector tip. In addition, there was serious fuel filter plugging when crude sunflower oil and crude peanut oil were used as diesel fuel extenders. McCutchen (1981) compared engine performance of direct-injection engines to indirect-injection engines when fueled with a 30:70 soybean oil diesel fuel blend.
  • 45. 32 The results showed that the indirect-injection engine could be successfully operated on this fuel blend but the direct-injection engine could not without severe engine problem occurring due to injector coking and piston ring sticking. Bartholomew (1981) reported that plant oils mixed with diesel fuel in small amounts did not cause engine failure. Short-term tests of plant oil-diesel fuel blends of up to 50% plant oil yielded acceptable results but reducing the blend to only 20% plant oil gave better and more consistent engine performance. Pestes and Stanislao (1984) used a 50:50 plant oil-diesel fuel blend to study the formation of piston ring deposits and found that the most severe carbon deposits occurred on the thrust face of the first piston ring. It was suggested that to reduce piston ring deposits a fuel additive could be used or the concentration of plant oil in the blend could be lowered. German (1985) used six farm tractors averaging 1,300 hours of operation to study the formation of carbon deposits. It was found that carbon deposits on the internal engine components were greater for the tractors using a 50:50 sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend than for those using a 25:75 sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend. And all test engines using plant oil blends had more carbon buildup than the engine using 100% diesel fuel. The results of the study indicated that plant oil-diesel fuel blends could not be used to completely replace petroleum based fuels on a long-term basis without adversely affecting engine life.
  • 46. 33 Nag (1995) conducted studies in India using fuel blends as high as 50:50 of oil from the Indian Amulate plant and diesel fuel and found no loss of power, knock-free performance, and no significant carbon deposits on the functional parts of the combustion chamber Sapaun (1996) reported that studies in Malaysia with palm oil-diesel fuel blends exhibited encouraging results. Short-term performance tests indicated that power outputs were nearly the same for various blends of palm oil and diesel fuel and 100% diesel fuel with no signs of adverse combustion chamber wear, increase in carbon deposits, or lubricating oil contamination. McDonnell (2000) used a 25:75 semi-refined rapeseed oil-diesel fuel blend. The results showed that the injector life was shortened due to carbon buildup but there were no signs of significant internal engine wear or lubricating oil contamination. PRASAD, (2010) pointed out the variation of Brake Thermal Efficiency with Brake power output for Linseed oil blends with Diesel in the test engine indicated higher efficiencies for lower blends. Brake thermal Efficiency for 25% blend of Linseed oil is very close to that of Diesel. The variation brake specific fuel consumption with Brake power output for Linseed oil and blends with diesel in the test engine indicated higher consumption at higher blends. 25% blend of Linseed oil has the lowest BSFC compared to its other blends. BSFC for 25% blend of linseed oil is slightly higher than that of diesel. The variation of Exhaust Gas temperature with Brake power output for Linseed oil blends with diesel in the test engine indicated higher temperature at higher blends. EGT for 25 % blend of Linseed oil is lower at no load
  • 47. 34 and higher at rated load. However all other blends of Linseed oil have higher EGT compared to diesel. The variation of Un-burnt hydro carbon emission with Brake power output for Linseed oil blends with Diesel in the test engine indicated higher emission ratio at higher blends. 25% blend of Linseed oil has lower UHC emission compared to all other blends for all loads. 2.11 Performance of Jatropha Oil Blends Chalatlon et al., (2011) reported on a non-edible vegetable oil produced from Jatropha fruits as a substitute fuel for diesel engines. Their study examined its usability and was investigated as pure oil and as a blend with petroleum diesel fuel. A direct injection (DI) diesel engine was tested using diesel, Jatropha oil, and blends of Jatropha oil and diesel in different proportions. A wide range of engine loads and Jatropha oil/diesel ratios of 5/95% (J5), 10/90% (J10), 20/80% (J20), 50/50% (J50), and 80/20% (J80) by volume were considered. J5 showed slightly higher thermal efficiency than diesel. J10 and J20 showed similar thermal efficiency, but J50 and higher blends showed 3 to 5% less thermal efficiency than diesel fuel. The observation is that the higher the Jatropha oil in the blends, the higher the reduction in the thermal efficiency. The reasons might be explained as follows. Due to very high viscosity and low volatility of Jatropha oil, higher Jatropha oil blends suffer from worse atomization and vaporization followed by inadequate mixing with air. The consequence is inefficient combustion. This suggests that high fuel injection pressure and improved volatility might be helpful for better combustion with higher thermal efficiency for higher Jatropha blends. (J5) blend shows about 3% less BSFC in average than diesel fuel. The deterioration in BSFC up to J20 is 1.5 to 3.4%. J50,
  • 48. 35 J80, and pure Jatropha oil show average BSFC deterioration of about 10, 15 and 25%, respectively. The lower the loads lead to the higher the deterioration in the BSFC. At low load conditions, the cylinder temperatures are low. Due to poor volatility of pure Jatropha oil, low cylinder temperature at low load conditions might not favor proper combustion. J5 produced about 50% more CO than diesel throughout the operation. J10 and higher blends produced about double the CO when compared to diesel. Emissions of CO2 with Jatropha oil blends up to moderate loads are lower than that with diesel fuel. When the load was 50% or higher J50 and higher blends produced about 20% CO2 higher than diesel. Other experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%).Crude Jatropha oil blend's power values were lower than diesel fuel. This lower engine power obtained for blended crude Jatropha oil could be due to higher density and higher viscosity of Jatropha oil. J5 proved to be almost similar to diesel which provides higher brake thermal efficiency value than others. As a result of the higher viscosity, the thermal efficiency is lower with blended crude Jatropha oil as compared to diesel. The air fuel ratio is found to increase with the increasing of the concentration of the blended crude Jatropha oil in all internal combustion engines. As concluded for this study, brake Specific Fuel Consumption and air fuel ratio for all blended crude Jatropha oil composition were found to be higher compared to diesel. The value for the Torque, Brake Power, Brake Mean Effective Pressure and Thermal efficiency were lower for all blended crude Jatropha oil composition compared to diesel (Kamarudin, et al., 2009).
  • 49. 36 CHAPTER III MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1 Introduction Fuel properties experiments were carried out in Center Laboratory (CPL), Ministry of Electricity and Dams. While engine performance and emission tests were carried out in a diesel engine, Thermo laboratory at Faculty of Engineering, Sudan University of Science and Technology. 3.2 Extraction of Jatropha oil In the present study, a simple mechanical cracking machine and screw-press available at the Omdurman was used for the oil extraction process (Figures 3.1 and 3.2). Jatropha seed were obtained the Biodiesel department in Energy Research Institute they provided 15kg of Jatropha seeds and technology Africa town provided 10kg of Jatropha seeds. The total weight of Jatropha seeds sample 25 kg. Jatropha seeds were then pressed by screw-press resulting in a yield of 1 litter or 0.88 kg Jatropha oil. This means that Jatropha oil represented about 3.6% of crude oil by weight per kg of the Jatropha seed. This lower extraction ratio of oil refers to machine efficiency not good and seeds were stored long time after was harvested.
  • 50. 37 Figure 3.1: Expeller machine for oil extraction Figure 3.2: (A) Seeds Waste (B) Jatropha oil 3.3 Blends samples preparation After the extraction of Jatropha oil by expeller machine at Omdurman oil market. Processed this oil by normal purification and prepared the blendes samples by test tube that capacity two litters at internal combustion engines workshop at Sudan University. The first sample of blend composed 200 mL litters Jatropha oil + 1800
  • 51. 38 mL litters diesel (Jatrpoha oil concentration 10% from sample volume), second sample 300 mL litters Jatropha oil + 1700 mL litters diesel (Jatrpoha oil concentration 15% from sample volume)and third sample 400 mL litters Jatropha oil + 1600 mL litters diesel (Jatrpoha oil concentration 20% from sample volume). Figure 3.3: Blends preparing steps
  • 52. 39 3.4 Equipments of Blends Properties Tests The samples properties were inspected at Central laboratory for Science, Environmental and Soil Research (Sudanese Company for Electricity Distribution/ Ministry Of Electricity And Dams). The viscometer was used to determine the viscosity of Jatropha oil_ diesel blends. Relative density, or specific gravity is the ratio of the density (mass of a unit volume) of a substance to the density of a given reference material. Specific gravity usually means relative density with respect to water. The density meter was used to measure the density of blends at central laboratory.
  • 53. 40 Figure 3.4: Viscometer Figure 3.5: Density Meter
  • 54. 41 The cloud point of a fluid is the temperature at which dissolved solids are no longer completely soluble, precipitating as a second phase giving the fluid a cloudy appearance. The cloud point of blends was inspected by cloud point test tube. The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which it can vaporize to form an ignitable mixture in air. Measuring a flash point requires an ignition source. At the flash point, the vapor may cease to burn when the source of ignition is removed. The flash point of the blends was measured by Pensky-Martens Flash Point. Figure 3.6: Cloud Point Test Tube Device Figure 3.7: Pensky-Martens Flash Point
  • 55. 42 3.5 Tests Equipment The experimental installation used in this work presented here, consists of internal combustion engine Mitsubishi cyclone motor model 4D56_JG3553.The 4D5 engine is a range of four-cylinder belt-driven overhead camshaft diesel engines. However, production of the 4D5 (4D56) continued throughout the 1990s as a lower-cost option than the more modern power plants. Until now it is still in production, but made into a modern power plant by putting a common rail direct injection fuel system into the engine. The specification for the engine is shows in table 3.1. Table 3.1: Engine Specifications Engine name Mitsubishi cyclone motor Intercooled Turbo (TD04 water cooled Turbo) Model 4D56, JG3553 Displacement 2.5 L (2,476 cc) Bore 91.1 mm Stroke 95.0 mm Fuel type Diesel Power 78 kW (104 hp) at 4,300 rpm Torque 240 N·m (177 lb·ft) at 2,000 rpm Engine type Inline 4-cylinder Rocker arm Roller Follower type Fuel system Distribution type jet pump (indirect injection) Combustion chamber Swirl type Bore x Stroke 91.1 x 95mm Compression ratio 21:1 Lubrication System Pressure feed, full flow filtration Intercooler Type Aluminum Air to Air, Top-mounted Turbocharger Mitsubishi TD04-09B
  • 56. 43 Figure 3.8: photograph of the test rig. Figure 3.9: Dynamometer cycle components
  • 57. 44 The engine is coupled with a hydraulic dynamometer. A dynamometer was used to load the engine at known speeds. The dynamometer cycle consists of a water pump, water tank, pipes, valves and brake turbine used to braking engine shaft. 3.6 Flue Gas Analyzer EcoLine Portable industrial flue gas analyzer was used for monitoring NOX, SOX, COX hydrocarbons and H2S. EcoLine 6000 consists of two functional parts: the gas analysis unit and the remote control unit (RCU).Communication between the two devices is via standard RS232. All data collected by the analysis unit can be sent to the RCU as to be viewed, stored and printed. Gas analysis unit is a true, portable, flue gas laboratory. It includes: aspiration pump, filters, condensate drain with peristaltic pump, cells and electronics. Gas analysis unit can be positioned beside of the stack sampling point and can works, after programming, as a standalone unit (black-box). The operator can survey the overall inspection at distance by using the Remote Control Unit. RCU is used to send operative instructions to the unit, to display and memory store the analysis data, to printout data, and to transfer data to a Personal Computer. Flue gas sampling probes with different length shape and max. Operating temperature (800°C and 1000°C) is available to match the requirement of different applications Figure 3.6.
  • 58. 45 Figure 3.10: (A) Gas sampling probe (B) Remote control unit (RCU) (C) Gas analysis unit (D) Data transfer cable
  • 59. 46 3.6 Experimental procedure Investigated performance of engine fueled by Jatropha oil and diesel blends conducted at internal combustion engines workshop that belongs to Faculty of Engineering Sudan University of Science and Technology. The experiment procedure were listed below 1. The amount of fuel level was checked in outer tank where the amount of the sample was found to be two litters, check engine cooling water, check engine lubrication and check the dynamometer water 2. The previous data of RCU was removed 3. The engine was operated unloaded. The speed was gradually increased to 1600 r.p.m where at, the weight of fuel sample was recorded in kg. Another weight for the sample was recorded 30 seconds later, for purpose of knowing the fuel consumption in 30 seconds. The Gas sampling probe was fixed to the out let of the engines exhaust for 30 seconds. The data then was stored in the memory of R.C.U. the components of the exhaust fumes (NO, NO2, NOX, CO, SO2) in 30 seconds were recorded 4. Step no.3 was then repeated at the speeds 1800, 2000, 2200 r.p.m for the three fuel samples 5. The engine was loaded at the speed of 1600 r.p.m till the engine was about to stop. Fuel consumption during 30 seconds was recorded together with the data of the components of the exhaust fumes in the 30 seconds. The torque on the engine was also recorded 6. Step (5) was repeated at the speed 2200 r.p.m for the three fuel samples
  • 60. 47 CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results of blends fuel properties, engine performance and emission are presented and discussed below: 4.1 Physical and Chemical Properties Determination Standard methods (ASTM and Crakel Test) were used to determine the properties of the Jatropha oil blends at the Central laboratory for Science, Environment and Soil Research (Sudanese Company for Electricity Distribution/Ministry of Electricity and Dams). Summary of chemical and physical properties of the jatropha oil blends (J10%, J15%, J20%) were provided in Tables 4.1 and Appendix (A). The data obtained from inspection of various sample blends indicated an increase in density with an increase in Jatropha oil concentration. This increase caused by high density of pure Jatropha oil. The viscosity of fuel blend increased with increase in the concentration of Jatropha oil in the blend. By comparison with diesel viscosity the influence of Jatroph oil in the viscosity rise is very clear. The rise in viscosity results from high Jatropha oil viscosity that reached to (50.73 mm2 /s). Flash point of the fuel blend Jatropha oil and diesel obviously increases with increase in content of Jatropha oil in the blend. This increase is caused by low volatility of
  • 61. 48 pure Jatropha oil. The Cloud Point to be constant at low blending ratios of Jatropha oil with diesel fuel but compared with cloud Point of diesel fuel is evident influence of Jatropha oil in raise a cloud point of fuel blend due to the high viscosity of pure Jatropha oil. Increasing content of Jatropha oil in the fuel sample resulted in a decrease in the calorific value of the fuel. The calorific value of Jatropha oil and diesel blend at a blending ratio of 20% reaches to 45,090.56 kJ / kg in comparison with calorific value of pure diesel fuel this equivalent 46,000kJ / kg Table 4.1: The chemical and physical properties summarize of the Jatropha oil_diesel blends Fuel Property Diesel J10% J15% J20% Density @ 15°C, kg/L) 0.829 0.860 0.864 0.868 Kinematic Viscosity @ 40°C(mm2 /s) 2.4 3.91 4.526 5.059 Flash point (°C) 40 47 58 71 Cloud Point (°C) -34 11 12 11 Ash Content (% wt) 0.01 0.009 ND 0.005 Colorific Value (kJ/kg) 46,000 45,208.6 45,148.2 45,090.56
  • 62. 49 4.2 Engine performance The data was obtained from engine performance test listed in Appendix (B) and analyzed next. The important engine performance parameter is brake specific fuel consumption when operated without load. The first parameter for investigate the engine performance when operated without load is Specific fuel consumption. The variation of specific fuel consumption with the angular speed of the engine is presented in Figure 4.1. Obviously the increase in the concentration of Jatropha oil in the blend leads to increased fuel consumption especially at small and medium speeds, but at high speeds is less than diesel. The high viscosity of higher blends which cause fuel injection delay. Figure 4.1: Specific Fuel Consumption
  • 63. 50 The engine was loaded at two speeds 1600 and 2200 r.p.m that to known the engine performance at lower and higher loading. Furthermore the pervious researches mentioned the engine cylinder temperature impact on the fuel used is important to know the engine performance behavior. The engine cylinder temperature directly proportion with speed and loading of engine. The following engine parameters were computed with the engine under load by using standard equations provided in: (a)Brake specific fuel consumption (b)Brake power (c)Brake thermal efficiency Table (4.2) shows the variation of brake power with torque. The brake power slightly increases with an increase of engine torque. It is evident the effect of Jatropha oil lead to losses in engine power.
  • 64. 51 Table 4.2: The variation of Brake Power versus Torque Engine speed 1600 rpm 2200 rpm Type of Fuel Engine Torque (N.m) Brake Power (kW) Engine Torque (N.m) Brake Power (kW) Diesel 90 16.25251 110 25.34218 J10% 92 15.41475 99 22.80796 J15% 92 15.41475 100 23.03835 J20% 95 15.9174 102 23.49911
  • 65. 52 The variation of brake thermal efficiency with torque listed in table 4.3. Note the effect of the concentration of Jatropha oil in the blend is negative and lead to lower efficiency of the engine at low loading but at higher loading the blends is effectiveness than diesel. This caused by increased in cylinder temperature at higher loading. Table 4.3: The variation of Brake thermal efficiency versus Torque Engine speed 1600rpm 2200rpm Type of Fuel Engine Torque (N.m) Brake thermal efficiency% Engine Torque (N.m) Brake thermal efficiency% Diesel 90 33.1233 110 42.3782 J10% 92 33.9795 99 45.7061 J15% 92 33.417 100 46.4932 J20% 95 34.4378 102 45.0306
  • 66. 53 The variation of brake fuel consumption with load is represented in Table 4.4. Increase in the concentration of Jatropha oil in the fuel blend leads to an increase in fuel consumption. Table 4.4: The variation of Brake fuel consumption versus Torque Engine speed 1600rpm 2200rpm Type of Fuel Engine Torque (N.m) Brake fuel consumption (L/hr) Engine Torque (N.m) Brake fuel consumption (L/hr) Diesel 90 5.333 110 6.5 J10% 92 5 99 5.5 J15% 92 6.17 100 5.5 J20% 95 5.17 102 5.833
  • 67. 54 4.3 Engine Emissions Exhaust gases were analyzed for blend Jatropha oil and diesel to identify the impact of the following cases: 1. The engine running without load 2. The engine running under load 4.3.1 Emissions of engine running without load The relation between CO values and angular speed of engine is presented in Figure 4.2. The decline in the values of CO in fuel blend combustion outcomes is observe with high concentration of Jatropha oil especially at upper speeds of the engine. The amount of CO expected decrease with an increase in the content of Jatropha oil in the blend. Figure 4.3 shows the change in the volume of nitrogen monoxide emission with engine speed. One note, the values of nitrogen monoxide resulting from the combustion of diesel are greater than that resulting from the combustion of fuel blend Jatropha oil and diesel especially at higher speeds. The late fuel injection caused incomplete combustion because the higher viscosity of Jatropha oil.
  • 68. 55 Figure 4.2: Carbon Monoxide Emission Figure 4.3: Nitrogen monoxide emission
  • 69. 56 Figure 4.4 shows the variation of Nitrogen Oxide emission with angular speed of engine for Jatropha oil blends with Diesel in the test engine. Diesel has higher NOx emission compared to all other blends especially at higher engine speeds. The reduction in both NO & NOX is a clear advantage with use of Jatropha diesel blends. Figure 4.4: NOX emission
  • 70. 57 4.3.1 Emissions of engine running under load Table 4.5 shows the variation of Carbon monoxide emissions with the torque for Jatropha oil blends with Diesel in the test engine. The amount of CO is higher than diesel at low loading due to incomplete combustion resulted from lower cylinder temperature but CO at higher load less than diesel. Table 4.6: shows the variation of nitrogen monoxide emission with torque for Jatropha oil blends with diesel in the test engine. Noted here the NO emission lower than those without load. Generally the NO outcomes slightly increased with an increase of the content of Jatropha oil in the blend. The remote control unit of flue gas analyzer not gave (NO) results for diesel fuel. Table 4.5: The Variation of Carbon Monoxide Emission versus Torque Engine speed 1600 rpm 2200 rpm Type of Fuel Engine Torque (N.m) CO (ppm) Engine Torque (N.m) CO (ppm) Diesel 90 736 110 3749 J10% 92 2966 99 3195 J15% 92 2591 100 3554 J20% 95 3222 102 3518
  • 71. 58 Table 4.6: The Variation of Nitrogen Monoxide Emission versus Torque Engine speed 1600 2200 Type of Fuel Engine Torque (N.m) NO (ppm) Engine Torque (N.m) NO (ppm) J10% 92 101 99 110 J15% 92 119 100 113 J20% 95 119 102 127 Most previous studies that tested fuel blend Jatropha oil and diesel did not mention sulfur dioxide as one of the combustion outcomes. Table 4.7 shows the variation of the sulfur dioxide emission with brake torque of engine. Noted here the amount of SO2 is higher than diesel at low loading due to incomplete combustion resulted from lower cylinder temperature but SO2 at higher load less than diesel.
  • 72. 59 Table 4.7: The Variation of Sulfur Dioxide Emission versus Torque Engine speed 1600 rpm 2200 rpm Type of Fuel Engine Torque (N.m) SO2 (ppm) Engine Torque (N.m) SO2 (ppm) Diesel 90 126 110 966 J10% 92 377 99 379 J15% 92 413 100 484 J20% 95 453 102 386
  • 73. 60 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS 5.1 Conclusion The investigation of the various Jatropha oil and diesel blends has shows the following: 1. Fuel properties of tested Jatropha-diesel blends (J10, J15 and J20) such as density, viscosity, flash point, cloud point and calorific value was successfully tested and determined. 2. The density, viscosity, flash point and cloud point of fuel blends increases with increased in content of Jatropha oil in the blend 3. The calorific value of fuel blends slightly decrease with increase of concentration of Jatropha oil in the blend. 4. Engine performance and emission of Jatropha-diesel blends ( J10, J15 and J20) was successfully tested on 4-stroke, 4-cylinder and ID diesel engine 5. The brake fuel consumption slightly increased with increased in concentration of Jatropha oil in the blend 6. The brake thermal efficiency decreased and brake power slightly increased with the rise in content of Jatropha oil 7. The exhaust emissions (CO, NO, NOx SO2 ) decreased with an increase of Jatropha oil in the blend
  • 74. 61 5.2 Recommendations Further research in the usage of Jatropha oil in diesel engines can cover 1. .Tests of performance for use Jatropha oil (extracted from shelled seeds) and diesel and kerosene blends at Jatropha oil concentration above 20% in diesel engine (direct and indirect injection) should be carried out. 2. .High Jatropha oil diesel blending ratio maybe tested in a modified diesel engine with suitable injection timing and injection pressure should be carried out.
  • 75. 64 References 1. Abdel-Hamid, 2009 , Growing Jatropha in Dry, Desert Climatic Condition (experience in Egypt, Libya, Sudan, and Syria) , Green environmental consultants 2. Al-Amin_ Head of Studies at Sudan Trade Point,2011, jatropha is desert gold , report 23 , Ministry of Foreign Trade 3. Abdel Hai,2012 , 250 Feddans to be Cultivated with Jatropha in Northern State Nubi Lake , Sudan Vision , Issue #: 2741, Issue Date: 12th September, 2012 4. A b Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission: "Coconut Oil Fuel Research in the Republic of the Marshall Islands" 5. baganí, Henning, Rothkreuz ,Assessment of the impact of the dissemination of “the Jatropha System” on the ecology of the rural area and the social and economic situation of the rural population (target group) in selected countries in Africa,http://www.underutilizedspecies.org/documents/publications/jatropha_ curcas_africa.pdf 6. Bruwer, J. J., Boshoff, B. D., Hugo, F. J. C., DuPlessis, L. M., Fuls, J., Hawkins, C., Vander Walt, A.N. and Engelbert, A, 1981, The Utilization of Sunflower Seed Oil as Renewable Fuel Diesel Engines, In Agricultural Energy, Vol. 2, Biomass Energy/Crop Production, ASAE Publication 4-81. 7. Biofuel production technologies: status, prospects and implications for trade and development/United Nations Conference on Trade and Development/New York and Geneva, 2008 8. BioZio Clixoo ,A5C, Anugraha Buildings, 41 Nungambakkam High Road Chennai – 600034,Tamilnadu, India, Feb, 2011, Comprehensive Jatropha Report, A detailed report on the Jatropha Industry 9. Chalatlon1, Roy, Dutta,Kumar1, 2011," Jatropha oil production and an experimental investigation of its use as an alternative fuel in a DI diesel engine", Journal of Petroleum Technology and Alternative Fuels ,Vol. 2(5), pp. 76-85
  • 76. 65 10.Dunn, 2008,"Low-Temperature Flow Properties of Vegetable Oil/Cosolvent Blend Diesel Fuels". ddr.nal.usda.gov. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 11.EIA,2011, 2011 World Oil Consumption , U.S. energy information administration, http://www.eia.gov/countries/index.cfm?view=consumption 12.Eldoum, 2009, biodiesel production technology, energy researches institute, training . 13.Filemon , Jr., 2010, Biofuels from plant oils, National academy of science and technology, Bungay H. R., Science, 1982,643-646 14.Foidl, Eder, 1997,"Agro-industrial exploitation of Jatropha. In: Gubitz GM, Mittelbach M and Trabi M. editors. Bio-fuels and industrial products from Jatropha. Graz: Dbv-Verlag, pp. 88-91. 15.Gerpen , Peterson , Goering , 2007, Agricultural Equipment Technology Conference, Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers .2950 Niles Road, St. Joseph, MI 49085-9659 USA/Louisville, Kentucky, USA 11-14 February 2007 16.Gubitz , Mittelback , Trabi, 1999, "Exploitation of the tropical oil seed plant Jatropha Cucas L", Bioresour. Technol., 67: 73-82. 17.http://www.crimsonrenewable.com/ source U.S. Department of Energy, Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidelines (2nd Edition, March 2006) 18.Kpikpi, 2002,"Jatropha as vegetable source of renewable energy" Paper Presented at ANSTI Sub-network Meeting on Renewable Energy, pp. 18-22. 19.Kamarudin, et al, 2009, Performance Of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil,10TH Asian International Conference Of Fluid Machinery 21- 23 October 2009, Kuala lumpur Malaysia 20. Omer , September 2007, Renewable energy resources for electricity generation in Sudan , Volume 11, Issue 7, Pages 1481-1497 ,Sustainable Energy Reviews 21.Putten, Franken, Jongh, 2010, The JATROPHA Hand Book (From Cultivation to Application), FACT Foundation, Horsten 15612 AX Eindhoven The Netherlands 22.PassageMaker Magazine, Fall 1999 Edition , Diesel Fuel Basics
  • 77. 66 Written, edited, and designed by employees and contractors of Chevron Corporation,2007, Diesel Fuels Technical Review 23. Prasad, 2010, Experimental Investigation Performance and Emission Characteristics of diesel engine using bio-diesel as an alternate fuel/Research and development cell Jawaharlalnehru Technological University Kukatpally, Hyder Abad, India. 24.Reid, J. F., Hansen, A. C. and Goering, C. E., 1989, Quantifying Diesel Injector Coking with Computer Vision, Transactions of the ASAE 32(5): 1503-1506 25.Ragu, Ramadoss, Sairam, Arulkumar, 2011, Experimental Investigation on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Fueled with Preheated Rice Bran Oil, European Journal of Scientific Research, ISSN 1450-216X Vol.64 No.3, pp. 400-414 26.Rutz, Janssen, 2008,Biofuel Technology Handbook,Sylvensteinstr. 2 81369 München Germany,2nd Version, 27.Schoedder, C. , 1981, Rapeseed Oil as an Alternative Fuel for Agriculture, Beyond the Energy Crisis-- Opportunity and Challenge Volume III, Third International Conference on Energy Use Management, Berlin (West), Eds. R. A. Fazzolare and C. R. Smith, 1815-22, Pergamon Press, Oxford. 28.Singh, Singh, 2010, Biodiesel production through the use of different sources and characterization of oils and their esters as the substitute of diesel, journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser/ Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 200–216 29.Yarbrough, C. M., LePori, W. A. and Engler, C. R., 1981, Compression Ignition Performance Using Sunflower Seed Oil. ASAE Paper Number 81- 3576, St. Joseph, MI: ASAE.
  • 78. Appendix (B) The engine performance data for Jatropha oil- diesel blend J10%. When running engine without load Engine speed rpm Fuel Consumption (kg/30 sec) CO(ppm) NO2(ppm) SO2(ppm) NO(ppm) NOx 2200 1.975 1.950 342 4 0 265 268 2000 2.051 2.032 337 2 0 271 273 1800 2.095 2.077 358 1 0 292 293 1600 2.284 2.268 194 0 0 185 185 The engine performance data for Jatropha oil- diesel blend J10%. When running engine under load Engine speed rpm Torque (N.m) Fuel Consumption (kg/30 sec) CO(ppm) NO2(ppm) SO2(ppm) NO(ppm) NOx 2200 99 1.869 1.836 3195 0 379 110 110 1600 92 2.203 2.173 2966 0 377 101 101
  • 79. The engine performance data for Jatropha oil- diesel blend J15%. When running engine without load Engine speed rpm Fuel Consumption (kg/30 sec) CO(ppm) NO2(ppm) SO2(ppm) NO(ppm) NOx 2200 1.996 1.970 353 6 0 271 277 2000 2.060 2.038 359 4 0 281 285 1800 2.127 2.108 345 1 0 279 280 1600 2.300 2.283 339 2 0 300 302 The engine performance data for Jatropha oil- diesel blend J15%. When running engine under load Engine speed rpm Torque (N.m) Fuel Consumption (kg/30 sec) CO(ppm) NO2(ppm) SO2(ppm) NO(ppm) NOx 2200 100 1.842 1.809 3554 0 484 113 113 1600 92 2.242 2.205 2591 0 413 119 119
  • 80. The engine performance data for Jatropha oil- diesel blend J20%. When running engine without load Engine speed rpm Fuel Consumption (kg/30 sec) CO(ppm) NO2(ppm) SO2(ppm) NO(ppm) NOx 2200 1.647 1.621 328 2 0 255 256 2000 1.759 1.737 334 1 0 272 272 1800 1.815 1.795 373 1 0 308 309 1600 2.314 2.299 368 2 0 308 309 The engine performance data for Jatropha oil- diesel blend J20%. When running engine under load Engine speed rpm Torque (N.m) Fuel Consumption (kg/30 sec) CO(ppm) NO2(ppm) SO2(ppm) NO(ppm) NOx 2200 100 1.903 1.868 3518 0 386 127 127 1600 95 2.209 2.178 3222 0 453 119 119
  • 81. The engine performance data for pure diesel fuel. When running engine without load Engine speed rpm Fuel Consumption (kg/30 sec) CO(ppm) NO2(ppm) SO2(ppm) NO(ppm) NOx 2200 2.260 2.231 327 4 0 398 303 2000 2.307 2.289 365 3 0 336 338 1800 2.421 2.401 362 2 0 343 345 1600 2.475 2.460 265 1 0 241 242 The engine performance data for pure diesel fuel. When running engine under load Engine speed rpm Torque (N.m) Fuel Consumption (kg/30 sec) CO (ppm) NO2 (ppm) SO2 (ppm) NO (ppm) NOx (ppm) 2200 110 2.261 2.222 3749 0 966 0 0 1600 90 2.115 2.083 736 0 126 0 0