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PACKAGING
AND
LABELLING
PURANASREE M.S
LEVELS OF
PACKAGING:
Primary Secondary Tertiary
Primary packaging is in direct
contact with the product and is
intended for the customer to
identify, gain knowledge & to aid
product consumption.
● It’s the base packaging that
emphasis both utility &
appearance.
● It can be also referred to as
retail or consumer
packaging.
Some examples of primary packaging
are :
• Laminated pouches for dry
fruits,
• Tin cans for soft drinks,
• Laminated tubes for beauty
products,
• Composite can for chips.
PRIMARY PACKAGING:
Secondary Packaging :
It forms the second packaging layer that the customers don’t
usually see. It’s main use is to group and hold together
individual units of the product to deliver large quantities of
that product to the point of sale.
Example :
a cardboard box contains 50 packet of
biscuits.
• Tertiary packaging includes primary and secondary
packaging to, thus creates larger unit loads, the most common
forms of which are pallets , containers and the modular
cardboard boxes that they contain.
It is used for bulk handling , warehouse storage and transport
shipping.
TERTIARY PACKAGING :
Materials used in packaging :
PACKAGING TYPES :
Packaging Machineries:
• It is used throughout all packaging operations, involving primary packages to distribution
packs. This includes many packaging processes: fabrication, cleaning, filling, sealing,
combining, labeling, overwrapping, palletizing.
• Bakery goods shrinkwrapped by shrink film, heat sealer and heat tunnel on roller
conveyor
• Label printer applicator applying a label to adjacent panels of a corrugated box.
• Robots used to palletize bread
• Shrink film wrap being applied on PET bottles
History of Packaging :
● The Standards of Weights and Measures Act, 1976.
● The Edible Oil Packaging Order, 1998.
● The Food & Drug Administration (FDA) regulates :
Food , cosmetics,medical devices,animal foods &
drugs,radiological and biological products.The Legal
Metrology Act, 2009 and Packaged Commodities Rules,
2011.
● Bureau of Indian Standards.
● Food Safety and Standard Authority of India Act, 2006
and Rules, 2011.
● The Agmark Rules
Packaging Laws and Regulations
PACKAGING AS A “SILENT SALESMAN” :
● Helps to promote product.
● Differentiates product from rivals.
● Key part of the brand image.
● Aids identification & recognition.
● Shape, colour & size relate to customer motivation.
● Key factor in consumer decision making.
● Medium for advertising & sales promotion message.
Purpose of packaging:
 Protection from bacterial damage
 Protection from physical damage
 Contains the food product
 Preserves the product to extend shelf life
 Informs the consumer about the product-labelling
stops tampering by other consumers
 Attracts consumers to buy the product
 Eases storage & transportation
Packaging as a Marketing Tool :
Self-Service :
Due to an increasing number of super markets where a shopper passes by many items per
minute , it becomes necessary for the products to attract attention and make favourable
overall impression.
Consumer Affluence :
Due to rising consumer affluence, consumers are willing to pay a little more for the
convenience, appearance, dependability, and prestige of better packages.
Company and Brand Image :
Packages contribute to instant recognition of the company brand.
Innovation Opportunity :
Innovative packaging can bring large benefits customers and as a result large profits to
producers.
ADVANTAGES OF PACKAGING :
1.PROTECTION
 The basic benefit of packaging is the protection of the goods to be sold . It prevents
damage during transport and storage from the elements , vibration and compression
through a physical layer of protection.
2.INFORMATION
 Packaging can provide information to a consumer regarding the product contents. This
information may be promotional , factual or mandated by consumer law.
3.CONTAINTMENT
 Products that contains multiple items use packaging to keep all the items contained prior
to purchase. Product containment also allows a product to be sold in larger quantities.
Disadvantages of packaging:
● Extra cost
● Possible migration issues of complex packaging
materials into product.
● Lack of recyclability of disposable packages.
● Possible mistrust / confusion of technology.
 Deceptive packaging like
* over sized packaging
* coping of style &logo of rivals
* misleading labels
● Landfill impact.
● Production footprint
References:
1.Soroka (2002) Fundamentals of Packaging Technology, Institute of Packaging
Professionals ISBN 1-930268-25-4
2.Paula, Hook (May 11, 2017). “A History of Packaging”. Ohio State University. Retrieved
December 29, 2020.
3.Y. Schneider; C. Kluge; U. Weis; H. Rohm (2010). “Packaging Materials and Equipment”. In
Barry A. Law, A.Y. Tamime (ed.). Technology of Cheesemaking.
Video link :
https://youtu.be/xz9UM9ZVvXY

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Packaging and Labeling in food industry | Consumer Affairs

  • 2.
  • 4. Primary packaging is in direct contact with the product and is intended for the customer to identify, gain knowledge & to aid product consumption. ● It’s the base packaging that emphasis both utility & appearance. ● It can be also referred to as retail or consumer packaging. Some examples of primary packaging are : • Laminated pouches for dry fruits, • Tin cans for soft drinks, • Laminated tubes for beauty products, • Composite can for chips. PRIMARY PACKAGING:
  • 5. Secondary Packaging : It forms the second packaging layer that the customers don’t usually see. It’s main use is to group and hold together individual units of the product to deliver large quantities of that product to the point of sale. Example : a cardboard box contains 50 packet of biscuits.
  • 6. • Tertiary packaging includes primary and secondary packaging to, thus creates larger unit loads, the most common forms of which are pallets , containers and the modular cardboard boxes that they contain. It is used for bulk handling , warehouse storage and transport shipping. TERTIARY PACKAGING :
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9. Materials used in packaging :
  • 10.
  • 12. Packaging Machineries: • It is used throughout all packaging operations, involving primary packages to distribution packs. This includes many packaging processes: fabrication, cleaning, filling, sealing, combining, labeling, overwrapping, palletizing. • Bakery goods shrinkwrapped by shrink film, heat sealer and heat tunnel on roller conveyor • Label printer applicator applying a label to adjacent panels of a corrugated box. • Robots used to palletize bread • Shrink film wrap being applied on PET bottles
  • 13.
  • 15. ● The Standards of Weights and Measures Act, 1976. ● The Edible Oil Packaging Order, 1998. ● The Food & Drug Administration (FDA) regulates : Food , cosmetics,medical devices,animal foods & drugs,radiological and biological products.The Legal Metrology Act, 2009 and Packaged Commodities Rules, 2011. ● Bureau of Indian Standards. ● Food Safety and Standard Authority of India Act, 2006 and Rules, 2011. ● The Agmark Rules Packaging Laws and Regulations
  • 16.
  • 17. PACKAGING AS A “SILENT SALESMAN” : ● Helps to promote product. ● Differentiates product from rivals. ● Key part of the brand image. ● Aids identification & recognition. ● Shape, colour & size relate to customer motivation. ● Key factor in consumer decision making. ● Medium for advertising & sales promotion message.
  • 18. Purpose of packaging:  Protection from bacterial damage  Protection from physical damage  Contains the food product  Preserves the product to extend shelf life  Informs the consumer about the product-labelling stops tampering by other consumers  Attracts consumers to buy the product  Eases storage & transportation
  • 19. Packaging as a Marketing Tool : Self-Service : Due to an increasing number of super markets where a shopper passes by many items per minute , it becomes necessary for the products to attract attention and make favourable overall impression. Consumer Affluence : Due to rising consumer affluence, consumers are willing to pay a little more for the convenience, appearance, dependability, and prestige of better packages. Company and Brand Image : Packages contribute to instant recognition of the company brand. Innovation Opportunity : Innovative packaging can bring large benefits customers and as a result large profits to producers.
  • 20. ADVANTAGES OF PACKAGING : 1.PROTECTION  The basic benefit of packaging is the protection of the goods to be sold . It prevents damage during transport and storage from the elements , vibration and compression through a physical layer of protection. 2.INFORMATION  Packaging can provide information to a consumer regarding the product contents. This information may be promotional , factual or mandated by consumer law. 3.CONTAINTMENT  Products that contains multiple items use packaging to keep all the items contained prior to purchase. Product containment also allows a product to be sold in larger quantities.
  • 21. Disadvantages of packaging: ● Extra cost ● Possible migration issues of complex packaging materials into product. ● Lack of recyclability of disposable packages. ● Possible mistrust / confusion of technology.  Deceptive packaging like * over sized packaging * coping of style &logo of rivals * misleading labels ● Landfill impact. ● Production footprint
  • 22. References: 1.Soroka (2002) Fundamentals of Packaging Technology, Institute of Packaging Professionals ISBN 1-930268-25-4 2.Paula, Hook (May 11, 2017). “A History of Packaging”. Ohio State University. Retrieved December 29, 2020. 3.Y. Schneider; C. Kluge; U. Weis; H. Rohm (2010). “Packaging Materials and Equipment”. In Barry A. Law, A.Y. Tamime (ed.). Technology of Cheesemaking. Video link : https://youtu.be/xz9UM9ZVvXY