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Winter Tourism and Protected Areas
in the Harz Mts. – History, Problems
and Perspectives
Dr. Friedhart Knolle
Christian Reinboth
ISSRM 2014
10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
Agenda
(1) Topology and topography of the Harz mountain range
(2) Historical development of winter sports in the Harz
(3) Climate change and its effect on the Harz region
(4) Conflicts between sustainable tourism and winter sports
(5) The Wurmberg ski resort during the season of 2013/2014
We will be glad to answer all further questions after the presentation
For more information please visit: http://goslar.bund.net/presse/wurmberg/
(Credit: Harz National Park)
Topography of the Harz and protected areas in this region
10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
Historical winter sport traditions
Senior forester and skiing
pioneer Arthur Ulrichs
(1838 - 1927) in 1883
Credit: Dr. Falkner
The first skiing clubs were
founded after 1892
Credit: Helmut Tischler
10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
Historical winter sport traditions
Sankt Andreasberg during the 1920s
Advertising for the „German
Winter Fighting Games“ of 1934
Credit: Dr. Falkner
Museum of Skiing and Winter Sports in Braunlage, Germany
Credit: www.braunlage.de
10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
Expansion of the Wurmberg ski resort
Credit: BUND Westharz
Construction of the water storage basin on top of the Wurmberg in 2013
Credit: Wurmberg-Seilbahn GmbH
Construction of the water storage basin on top of the Wurmberg in 2013
Credit: Dr. Hermann Fischer
Construction of the water storage basin, several alpine ski
runs and the new parking place (rear) on top of the Wurmberg
Credit: Dr. Eick v. Ruschkowski
Climate monitoring station on top of the Brocken (1141 m)
10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
Average annual temperature 1848 – 2013
Credit: Deutscher
Wetterdienst (DWD)
10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
Sliding average for Braunlage and the Brocken
Credit: Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) /
Harzwasserwerke (modified by Prof. de Jong)
An almost conflict-free form of winter sports: Nordic Skiing
Credit: Dr. Ulrich Krynitz
10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
Conflicts with sustainable tourism
• The Harz is one of only eight regions in Germany (Eifel, Terra.vita, Westhavelland,
Rhön, Harz, Schwäbische Alb, Altmark and Schwarze Elster) which still exhibits a
nearly perfect dark sky (21.75 mag/arcsec²) almost unspoiled by light pollution.
• This makes Harz National Park one of the primary candidates for a „Dark Sky
Park“ designation from the IDA (International Dark Sky Association) as well
as a potential destination for sustainable astro-tourism.
• This outlook is threatened by the proposed installation of a floodlighting system
for the illumination of ski slopes at the Wurmberg (Hänel/BfN-Skript 336/2013).
Credit: Michael Schomann
The visible band of the Milky Way over Sankt Andreasberg
Credit: Oliver Maiwald
The 2012 Transit of Venus observed from Sankt Andreasberg
Credit: Christoph Ries
Wendelstein ski resort after deactivation of slope lighting
Credit: Christoph Ries
Wendelstein ski resort before deactivation of slope lighting
10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
Proposed illumination on the Wurmberg
Class I: Facilities for high performance sports and international sporting events
Class II: Facilities for important national sporting events with many spectators
Class III: Facilities for leisure sports, school sports and general training
The investor has proposed a 150 lx floodlighting.
Some concessions were made: The lighting system will only be in use during
three days per week for a maximum duration of four months per year.
Additionally, the lighting will be shut off after 22:30 p.m.
Class Illumination level Illumination equability
I 100 lx 0,5
II 30 lx 0,3
III 20 lx 0,2
Suggested illumination levels for ski slopes according to DIN EN 12 193:
10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
Performance during the season of 13/14
„Based on the available data, the authors estimate that the
production of high-quality artificial snow (no sludge) will
require sub-zero temperatures of at least -5°C.“
„The people living in the Harz might be peculiar, yet even
the land of witches and myths is governed by the laws
of nature. Water will freeze at 0°C – even in the Harz
and even at 100% air humidity.“
„As soon as the temperature falls below -3°C, we can
begin with the production of artificial snow.“
Report on artificial snow
production in the Harz
by de Jong / Knolle /
Reinboth (2012)
Press release by the
investor in reaction
to the report (2012)
Statement by the
investor for the Gos-
larsche Zeitung (2013)
Credit: Christian Reinboth
Failed efforts in producing artificial snow in December 2013
Failed efforts in producing artificial snow in December 2013
Credit: Christian Reinboth
10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
Performance during the season of 2013/14
• The opening of the ski resort had to be postponed twice (December 6th,
December 14th) because of the lack of snow. The resort finally opened
on January 11th – still without snow.
• The „naked sledding“ event, which draws about 10.000 visitors annually,
had to be moved from Braunlage to Cochstedt Airport in February of
2014 because of „springlike“ (MZ) weather conditions in the Harz.
• Even though city and investor still assume, that the installation will be able
to provide reliable snow coverage for 100 days per season on average, the
resort had only 40 stream days during the season of 2013/2014. Due to
the low turnover, the lighting installation will probably be postponed.
• In May of 2014, engineers concluded that the ski jump tower on top of the
Wurmberg (built in 1922) is so dilapidated, that it needs to be dismantled.
10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
Thanks for the attention!
http://www.gfn-harz.de
For more information please visit:
http://goslar.bund.net/presse/wurmberg/

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Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mts. – History, Problems and Perspectives

  • 1. Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mts. – History, Problems and Perspectives Dr. Friedhart Knolle Christian Reinboth ISSRM 2014
  • 2. 10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains Agenda (1) Topology and topography of the Harz mountain range (2) Historical development of winter sports in the Harz (3) Climate change and its effect on the Harz region (4) Conflicts between sustainable tourism and winter sports (5) The Wurmberg ski resort during the season of 2013/2014 We will be glad to answer all further questions after the presentation For more information please visit: http://goslar.bund.net/presse/wurmberg/
  • 3. (Credit: Harz National Park) Topography of the Harz and protected areas in this region
  • 4. 10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains Historical winter sport traditions Senior forester and skiing pioneer Arthur Ulrichs (1838 - 1927) in 1883 Credit: Dr. Falkner The first skiing clubs were founded after 1892 Credit: Helmut Tischler
  • 5. 10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains Historical winter sport traditions Sankt Andreasberg during the 1920s Advertising for the „German Winter Fighting Games“ of 1934 Credit: Dr. Falkner
  • 6. Museum of Skiing and Winter Sports in Braunlage, Germany Credit: www.braunlage.de
  • 7. 10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains Expansion of the Wurmberg ski resort
  • 8. Credit: BUND Westharz Construction of the water storage basin on top of the Wurmberg in 2013
  • 9. Credit: Wurmberg-Seilbahn GmbH Construction of the water storage basin on top of the Wurmberg in 2013
  • 10. Credit: Dr. Hermann Fischer Construction of the water storage basin, several alpine ski runs and the new parking place (rear) on top of the Wurmberg
  • 11. Credit: Dr. Eick v. Ruschkowski Climate monitoring station on top of the Brocken (1141 m)
  • 12. 10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains Average annual temperature 1848 – 2013 Credit: Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD)
  • 13. 10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains Sliding average for Braunlage and the Brocken Credit: Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) / Harzwasserwerke (modified by Prof. de Jong)
  • 14. An almost conflict-free form of winter sports: Nordic Skiing Credit: Dr. Ulrich Krynitz
  • 15. 10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains Conflicts with sustainable tourism • The Harz is one of only eight regions in Germany (Eifel, Terra.vita, Westhavelland, Rhön, Harz, Schwäbische Alb, Altmark and Schwarze Elster) which still exhibits a nearly perfect dark sky (21.75 mag/arcsec²) almost unspoiled by light pollution. • This makes Harz National Park one of the primary candidates for a „Dark Sky Park“ designation from the IDA (International Dark Sky Association) as well as a potential destination for sustainable astro-tourism. • This outlook is threatened by the proposed installation of a floodlighting system for the illumination of ski slopes at the Wurmberg (Hänel/BfN-Skript 336/2013).
  • 16. Credit: Michael Schomann The visible band of the Milky Way over Sankt Andreasberg
  • 17. Credit: Oliver Maiwald The 2012 Transit of Venus observed from Sankt Andreasberg
  • 18. Credit: Christoph Ries Wendelstein ski resort after deactivation of slope lighting
  • 19. Credit: Christoph Ries Wendelstein ski resort before deactivation of slope lighting
  • 20. 10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains Proposed illumination on the Wurmberg Class I: Facilities for high performance sports and international sporting events Class II: Facilities for important national sporting events with many spectators Class III: Facilities for leisure sports, school sports and general training The investor has proposed a 150 lx floodlighting. Some concessions were made: The lighting system will only be in use during three days per week for a maximum duration of four months per year. Additionally, the lighting will be shut off after 22:30 p.m. Class Illumination level Illumination equability I 100 lx 0,5 II 30 lx 0,3 III 20 lx 0,2 Suggested illumination levels for ski slopes according to DIN EN 12 193:
  • 21. 10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains Performance during the season of 13/14 „Based on the available data, the authors estimate that the production of high-quality artificial snow (no sludge) will require sub-zero temperatures of at least -5°C.“ „The people living in the Harz might be peculiar, yet even the land of witches and myths is governed by the laws of nature. Water will freeze at 0°C – even in the Harz and even at 100% air humidity.“ „As soon as the temperature falls below -3°C, we can begin with the production of artificial snow.“ Report on artificial snow production in the Harz by de Jong / Knolle / Reinboth (2012) Press release by the investor in reaction to the report (2012) Statement by the investor for the Gos- larsche Zeitung (2013)
  • 22. Credit: Christian Reinboth Failed efforts in producing artificial snow in December 2013
  • 23. Failed efforts in producing artificial snow in December 2013 Credit: Christian Reinboth
  • 24. 10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains Performance during the season of 2013/14 • The opening of the ski resort had to be postponed twice (December 6th, December 14th) because of the lack of snow. The resort finally opened on January 11th – still without snow. • The „naked sledding“ event, which draws about 10.000 visitors annually, had to be moved from Braunlage to Cochstedt Airport in February of 2014 because of „springlike“ (MZ) weather conditions in the Harz. • Even though city and investor still assume, that the installation will be able to provide reliable snow coverage for 100 days per season on average, the resort had only 40 stream days during the season of 2013/2014. Due to the low turnover, the lighting installation will probably be postponed. • In May of 2014, engineers concluded that the ski jump tower on top of the Wurmberg (built in 1922) is so dilapidated, that it needs to be dismantled.
  • 25. 10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains Thanks for the attention! http://www.gfn-harz.de For more information please visit: http://goslar.bund.net/presse/wurmberg/