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Module Name: Strategic Business Project
Module Code: BUSN 11076
Module Coordinator: Dr Chee Seng Chan
Student: XXX
Banner ID: XXXXXXXX
Research Title: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Abstract
XXXXXXXXXXX
Acknowledgement
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Table of Content
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Reference
Appendix
“The title of your questionnaire”
The full content of your questionnaire
SBP��ҵս����Ŀ�����IJο�����/1. SBP��Ŀ˵��/SBP
Structure and Contents.pptx
SBP Structure and Contents
It is suggested that you adopt the following format in presenting
your SBP:
1. Title Page: Please use the standard cover page attached as per
prescribed in SBP Handbook.
2. Abstract: It should provide a brief summary of the SBP not
exceeding 300 words
3. Acknowledgements: Acknowledgements of outside help and
support.
4. Table of Contents: It should list the sequence with page
numbers of all relevant subdivisions of the dissertation; i.e.
chapter headings, section and sub-section (if appropriate).
5. List of Tables
6. List of Figures / Illustrations
SBP Structure and Contents
7. Chapter 1: Introduction
8. Chapter 2: Literature Review
9. Chapter 3: Theoretical Framework and Research
Methodology
10. Chapter 4: Data Presentation, Analysis and Findings
11. Chapter 5: Conclusion (s) and Recommendations
12. Reference List: The SB should include a list of all relevant
texts / journals used following the Harvard Referencing
System / Style. Please refer to Referencing Guide .
13. Appendices: The appendices should only include material
that is not central to the arguments in the main text.
SBP Marking Criteria/ GuidePercentageMargin (up to
introduction, continuity and presentation (15%)Literature
review (25%)Research Methods (20%)Results & Discussion (
30%)Conclusion & Recommendations( 10%)
1. Abstract, introduction, continuity and presentation (15%)
In general, your markers will assess the clarity of stated aims
and objectives, relevance to sector related issues, feasibility of
aims of SBP, the rationale and significance of the research
undertaken.
Title: is the title focused, summative, and does it reflect the
proposed SBPcontent?
Abstract: is it short (300 words), self-contained, summative,
objective, precise and easy to read.
Introduction: is background information included? Is an
introduction to current research included and developed? An
introduction to the organisation (if applicable)?
1. Abstract, introduction, continuity and presentation (15%)
Have you demonstrated the relevance of your SBP to the field
and is it theoretically grounded? Links to relevant literature and
academic debates, the evidence of extensive reading will be
valued.
Aim(s): is the aim feasible and manageable (have resource and
data accessibility been taken into account)? Is the aim original
and does it have the potential to add insights to the field of
study? Does it conform to the right aim format?
Rationale and Significance of Study: is the sound rationale to
undertake the study included? Are the benefits / significance of
this study presented?
2. Literature Review (25%)
In general: Search for relevant literature. Critical assessment of
literature. Awareness of contribution of other researchers.
Awareness of relevant theories, concepts, models and
methodology. Direct linkage to SBP aims and objectives
identified.
Provide a critical review of relevant academic literature
Critique existing research and link it to aims / objectives
Review key academic theories
d. Demonstrate relevance to contemporary / current debates
2. Literature Review (25%)
Be current (not outdated sources)
Be related to previous published and “recognised” work
Be critical (sources that both support and oppose aims and
objectives)
Be able to differentiate fact and opinion
Assess strengths and weaknesses of previous work
Be objective, unbiased, coherent and cohesive
k. Adhere to the Harvard Referencing System
3. Theoretical Framework and Research Methodology (20%)
In general: Choice and use of research methods are appropriate
to the aims and objectives. Sound justification provided,
including evidence of secondary data supporting choice of
methods.
The type (s) of research undertaken
The theoretical / conceptual framework
The research methods
The research design
The data collection (i.e. sampling)
Ethical issues
Reliability and validity of the study
h. Limitations
4. Data Presentation, Analysis and Results/Findings (30%)
In general: Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data
followed by your findings. Clear relationship made between
aims & objectives, literature and findings.
Is the data appropriately presented i.e. graphically (quantitative
research) or verbatim (qualitative research)?
Is the data presentation factual or interpretative?
Does the analysis answer the research questions?
Does the analysis relate or is linked to previous knowledge in
the field?
Is the analysis built from the findings?
Is the analysis linked to the literature review?
g. Is the analysis analytical or merely descriptive?
5. Conclusions and Recommendations (10%)
In general: Aims and objectives are satisfied and appropriate
course (s) of action is / are recommended.
Are the conclusions drawn from the findings?
Are the conclusions linked to the literature?
Are the conclusions linked to aims and objectives?
Are the suggested recommendations linked to the deficiencies
identified in the research findings?
e. Are the suggested recommendations practical and
workable?
SBP��ҵս����Ŀ�����IJο�����/1. SBP��Ŀ˵��/SBP
Structure with Details.pdf
8.0 RESEARCH METHODS
These guidelines address postgraduate students who have
completed course
requirements and assumed to have sufficient background
experience of high-level
engagement activities like recognizing, relating, applying,
generating, reflecting and
theorizing issues. It is an ultimate period in our academic life
when we feel confident
at embarking on independent research.
It cannot be overemphasized that we must enjoy the experience
of research process
and not look at it as an academic chore.
To enable such a desired behaviour, these guidelines consider
the research process
in terms of the skills and knowledge needed to develop
independent and critical
styles of thinking in order to evaluate and use research as well
as to conduct fresh
research.
The guidelines should be viewed as briefs which the Research
Supervisors are expected
to exemplify based on their own experience as well as expertise.
8.1 Chapter 1 - Introduction
INTRODUCE the subject or problem to be studied. This might
require the
identification of key managerial concerns, theories, laws and
governmental rulings,
critical incidents or social changes, and current environmental
issues, that make the
subject critical, relevant and worthy of managerial or research
attention.
• To inform the Reader (stylistically - forthright, direct, and
brief / concise),
• The first sentence should begin with `This Study was
intended
to’….’ And immediately tell the Reader the nature of the study
for the
reader's interest and desire to read on.
8.1.1 The Research Problem
What is the statement of the problem? The statement of the
problem or problem
statement should follow logically from what has been set forth
in the background of
the problem by defining the specific research need providing
impetus for the
study, a need not met through previous research. Present a clear
and precise
statement of the central question of research, formulated to
address the need.
8.1.2 The Purpose of the Study
What is the purpose of the study? What are the RESEARCH
QUESTION (S) of
the study? What are the specific objective (s) of the study?
Define the specific
research objective (s) that would answer the research Question
(s) of the study.
8.1.3 The Rationale of the Study:
1. Why in a general sense?
2. One or two brief references to previous research or theories
critical in structuring
this study to support and understand the rationale.
3. The importance of the study for the reader to know, to fully
appreciate the need
for the study - and its significance.
4. Own professional experience that stimulated the study or
aroused interest in the
area of research.
5. The Need for the Study - will deal with valid questions or
professional concerns
to provide data leading to an answer - reference to
literature helpful and
appropriate.
8.1.4 The Significance of the Study:
1. Clearly describe the significance of the study.
2. Justify why the subject requires attention.
3. Identify key contributions of the research that can be
achieved.
4. Highlight the contributions that the study seeks to achieve
towards - management
practices; theoretical and methodological applications;
governmental procedures,
policies and laws; nation building.
8.1.5 The Scope of the Study:
1. Break general research problem down to specific sub
problems
2. Major analysis of the data exposed as one of sub problems
3. Identify the dimensions / population of the subject that you
plan to study.
4. Discussion on issues such as types of data the subjects or
sources of information
utilised, the time period involved and the geographic locations
covered in the research
may be discussed in this section.
5. What aspects of the subject do you intend to study? What are
the key questions to
be investigated?
8.1.6 Definition of Terms
Define the terms used in the study that are not usually
encountered by readers, generally.
If the study focuses on only one institution or company then a
short background history
of it should be included in this chapter.
8.1.7 Summary
A synopsis of the contents of the chapter that leads to the
introduction of the
following chapter.
8.2 Chapter 2 - Literature Review
1. Identify the appropriate academic and / or professional fields
2. Evaluate and critique the literature - challenge the
assumptions
3. Be highly selective and include only those aspects of the
research literature and
non-research or conceptual literature that are relevant to
developing the foundation
of the current study.
4. Each major previous study is discussed in a separate
paragraph (s) with the findings
summarised collectively - same as with non-research or
conceptual literature by
authorities who hold similar views.
5. A review of literature should read as a synthesis, written by
someone who has
read all of the literature and so is able to look across it all,
select the highlights,
and synthesise these into a totally integrated section in the
context of the current
study, for further use when writing the discussion of the results
and conclusions.
8.2.1 History of Research:
Provide a brief history of the empirical research on the subject.
Pioneering studies,
thrust of prior research on the subject i.e. which issues have
received attention, theories
explored, viewpoints expressed, and research methods typically
used.
8.2.2 Review of Key Studies
1. Identify and summarise the key empirical studies that have a
bearing on the
research.
2. Provide a tabular summary of the subjects, issues studied,
research methods used
and other pertinent details relating to the studies.
3. Summarise the findings of the studies.
8.2.3 Evaluation of Key Studies:
1. Evaluate the findings of the studies in the light of your
concerns.
2. What has been accomplished and what remains to be done?
3. How do you intend to use the experience of these studies in
your research?
8.2.4 Summary:
A synopsis of the contents of the hypotheses / research
questions and the
rationale derived from the researcher's experience and from the
readings of
research and conceptual literatures should be stated effectively
at the
conclusion of the review of literature chapter that leads on to
the following chapter.
8.3 Chapter 3 - Theoretical Framework and Research
Methodology
THEORETICAL / CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK - using
material from the previous
chapter, produce the working definitions of the main concepts
you will use in your study.
If possible, form them into a conceptual framework of theories
or hypotheses to be
tested.
8.3.1 Research Methodology
1. Discuss the nature of the questions you are asking and choose
an appropriate
methodological stance for answering them.
2. Justify the research methods you are using.
3. Describe the practical and technical aspects of conducting the
research.
8.3.2 Theoretical Framework
Identify the various variables investigated in the study.
Illustrate how the
variables interact with each other as hypothesised in the
research by the aid of
diagram (s) (if possible).
8.3.3 Research Approach
Describe the approach adopted in the study, justification for
using the approach and issues related to adopting the approach.
8.3.4 Research Subjects
1. Provide details about the population and sample used.
2. What sectors of the labour force, industry or groups is the
sample drawn?
3. What are the characteristics of the population sample?
4. What are the strong points and limitations of the sample?
5. What is the justification of choosing the sample?
6. Can the findings be generalised to the population?
8.3.5 Questionnaire
1. Describe the questionnaire used in the study
2. Background of the questionnaire
3. Is it original? If any items are taken from existing
questionnaire, identify the
sources
4. Describe the question categories
5. Describe the scaling methods used and state the reasons for
choosing them
6. Issues on validity and reliability
7. Pilot test to check the clarity and appropriateness of the
survey questionnaire prior
to the actual conduct of the actual survey.
8.3.6 Administration of the Questionnaire
1. Describe how the questionnaire was administered
2. Discuss problems encountered, if any, that affected the
results relating to sample
characteristics and their potential impact on reliability and
validity of the data.
3. Ensure that in collecting the data, individual respondents /
organization were duly
briefed and made aware of the ethical practices including
ensuring the
confidentiality of the information gathered and data protection,
voluntary and non
- monetary inducement to participate in the intended research.
Full consent of
participations by individual respondents is solicited without any
form of coercion.
8.3.7 Statistical Methods
1. Discuss the selected Descriptive and Inferential Statistical
methods [as in the
SPSS] used in analysing the results. Having selected the
variables for your study,
you assume that they would either help to define your
problem (dependent
variable/s) and its different components or that they were
contributory factors to
your problem (independent variable).
2. The purpose of data analysis is to identify whether these
assumptions were correct
or not, and to highlight possible new views on the problem
under study.
3. The ultimate purpose of analysis is to answer the research
questions outlined in
the objectives with your data.
8.3.8 Summary
1. A synopsis of the contents of what has been written about in
the Theoretical /
Conceptual Framework and Research Methodology used.
2. The description of the sample used.
3. Descriptive data and the instrument used.
4. The design of the study and the way data were collected.
5. The way data were analysed - assumptions and limitations of
the study.
8.4 Chapter 4 - Data Presentation, Analysis and Findings
1. Describe what you found out and what it means.
2. Refer back to the Literature Review and your
Theoretical/ Conceptual
Framework.
3. Present the Data in the form of tables, figures, charts or other
illustrations as
needed and sequenced in terms of the research questions or
hypotheses tested.
4. Discuss your findings in terms of what the data actually
means in terms of each
segment or cell of data gathered.
8.4.1 Summary
State the findings as concretely as possible in terms of each
segment or cell of
data gathered to answer the research questions and hypotheses.
8.5 Chapter 5 - Conclusions and Recommendations
1. As an introduction to the chapter, Summarise [recapitulate]
the argument of the
dissertation in terms of what you attempted to find out and what
you
accomplished i.e. address the research questions /
hypothesis(es).
2. The final chapter is entitled `Conclusions and
Recommendations'. Conclusions
here mean that for each of the findings that address the research
questions and
hypotheses, the researcher draws a conclusion.
3. Recommendations mean that for each Conclusion, the
researcher suggests a
recommendation.
4. Consider:
a. Discussion: Discuss the findings of Study in terms of the
main Research
Questions and Hypotheses as well as the Title of the Research
and relate the findings
to the Literature Review. In addition, try to explain the
significance and non-
significance of the results using available theory, data and facts
as well as the
validity and reliability of the findings and
arguments in the dissertation as a whole.
b. Implications: What are the substantive implications of the
experience for -
Management, unions and other interest groups; for public
policy; Nation building. -
The Methodological or procedural implications of the
experience for other
researchers.
c. Limitations of Research: Describe the possible limitations
faced in the study
especially from the methodological perspective.
d. Suggestions for Further or Additional Research: Provide
concrete suggestions
for FURTHER RESEARCH in the field or additional research
(if possible) in the
research methodological areas encountered in the study The
researcher's last
Recommendation will be Suggestions for Further
Research.
e. The FINAL CONCLUSION to the chapter addresses the
TITLE of the Research as
the title reflects the whole study. Discuss how the objectives
and research questions
of the study have been met with the research.
f. Highlight the key findings, implications, etc. that the
research has revealed.
SBP��ҵս����Ŀ�����IJο�����/1. SBP��Ŀ˵��/uws-
sbp-wb-en-GB (1).pdf
uws-sbp-wb-en-GB August 19, 2014 - 16:45 1
Strategic Business Project
Workbook
Stuart Paul
Release 1.1 2014
www.uws.ac.uk
uws-sbp-wb-en-GB August 19, 2014 - 16:45 2
Published by the University of the West of Scotland.
© 2014 University of the West of Scotland
The right of Stuart Paul to be identified as author of this work
has been asserted by him in accordance with Sections 77 and 78
of
the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of research or
private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the
Copyright,
Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be
reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means,
with
the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case
of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms and
licenses issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency.
www.uws.ac.uk
Captured, authored, published, delivered and managed in XML
CAPDM Limited, Edinburgh, Scotland www.capdm.comCapdm
uws-sbp-wb-en-GB August 19, 2014 - 16:45 3
Strategic Business Project iii
Contents
1 An Introduction to Business Research and Your MBA Project
Report 1
2 Literature Review 13
3 Quantitative Research Methods 20
4 Qualitative Research Methods 42
5 Writing Up Your MBA Project Report 55
uws-sbp-wb-en-GB August 19, 2014 - 16:45 4
Strategic Business Project iv
uws-sbp-wb-en-GB August 19, 2014 - 16:45 5
1
An Introduction to Business Research and Your
MBA Project Report
Learning outcomes
After completing the study of this topic you should be able to:
• know the main approaches to business research;
• be equipped to begin planning your MBA project.
The prescribed reading for this topic is from the core text:
Sekaran and Bougie (2010)
Research Methods for Business, Chapters 1 and 3.
Introduction
This short topic about business research and the MBA project
will set out the
following key areas:
• What is business research?
• Approaches to business research
• Planning Your MBA research project.
1.1 What is business research?
The core text for the module describes business research as a
‘systematic and
organized effort to investigate a specific problem in the work
setting, which needs
a solution’. Most business degrees at both undergraduate and
postgraduate levels
require students to undertake some form of research. As such it
can be one of the
most interesting parts of any degree course. It offers you a
degree of control and
autonomy over what you learn and how you do it. Of course, a
supervisor will be
appointed to help you as you go through the MBA project, but it
is very much down
to you to manage your time and effort to ensure a successful
completion of your
MBA. Collis & Hussey (2009) suggest that the purpose of
research can be:
• Review or synthesize existing knowledge
• Investigate existing situations or problems
• Provide solutions to problems
• Explore and analyse more general issues
• Construct or create new procedures or systems
• Explain new phenomenon
• Generate new knowledge
• Or a combination of any of the above!
Therefore, you are about to embark on a journey on which you
will not only learn
about research and how to do it, but you will also (with a bit of
luck!) contribute to
knowledge and understanding in an area of your choosing.
uws-sbp-wb-en-GB August 19, 2014 - 16:45 6
Strategic Business Project
2
1.2 Approaches to business research
Business research provides the necessary information that
guides managers in mak-
ing informed decisions to successfully deal with problems,
determine strategies and
arrive at solutions. This information (data) can either be
quantitative or qualitative.
• Quantitative data are data in the form of numbers and are
generally gathered
through structured questions, often utilising structured
questionnaires. Quant-
itative research concentrates on measuring the scale, range and
the frequency
of phenomena. Data from quantitative research are usually
highly detailed and
structured and are presented statistically.
• Qualitative data are data in the form of words as generated
from broad answers
to questions in interviews or from responses to open-ended
questions in a
questionnaire. Qualitative research is more subjective in nature
and usually
involves investigating less tangible aspects of a research
subject, for example,
values and perceptions.
These are two descriptions applied to types of research with
which you should
become familiar. Research is often described as:
• basic or applied, and as either
• inductive or deductive.
1.2.1 Basic or applied research
The focus of basic research is to improve knowledge generally
whereas applied
research addresses a particular situation or problem. For
example, a product may
not be selling well and the organisation wishes to address this
issue− this as applied
research. In your MBA project, you are required to engage in
applied research by
addressing a specific business or management issue. Ideally, the
research which you
undertake for your MBA project should be applied in that it
should have practical
value. To this extent it can be said to be similar to a
management consultancy report.
1.2.2 Inductive or deductive research
In an inductive approach to research, a researcher begins by
collecting data that are
relevant to his or her topic of interest. Once substantial amounts
of data have been
collected, the researcher will then look for patterns in the data,
working to develop
an explanation or theory for those patterns. In other words, this
research approach
moves from data to explanation (and sometimes theory), or from
the specific to the
general. Most qualitative based research studies are inductive.
Researchers adopting a deductive approach take the steps
described earlier for
inductive research and reverse their order. They start with a
theory that they find
compelling and then test its implications with data. That is, they
move from a more
general level to a more specific one. A deductive approach to
research is the one
that people typically associate with scientific investigation. The
researcher studies
what others have done, reads existing theories of whatever
phenomenon he or
she is studying, and then tests hypotheses that emerge from
those theories. Most
quantitative research studies are deductive in approach.
Reflective exercise 1.1
Every research approach has its advantages (i.e. its positive
features) and dis-
advantages (i.e. its points of criticism). Take a few minutes to
note down key
points in answer to the following two questions.
uws-sbp-wb-en-GB August 19, 2014 - 16:45 7
An Introduction to Business Research and Your MBA Project
Report
3
What are the advantages of applying an inductive/qualitative
approach utilising
interviews to a research project?
What are the advantages of applying a deductive/quantitative
approach util-
ising a structured questionnaire to a research project?
Once you have answered these two questions, consider the
points below. Do your
answers match these?
Inductive/qualitative approach
Advantages
• You can use a relatively small sample for your research.
• Data can be gathered which is ‘rich’ in personal comment and
personal insights.
• The ‘why’ is automatically addressed in the data.
• With interviews, respondents are free to answer any way they
would like− they
aren’t constrained to a pre-determined set of possible responses
as you might
see on a survey.
Disadvantages
• The findings are subjective and it can be difficult to generalise
from the research.
• Your research would be very hard to reproduce if another
researcher wanted to
reproduce your research and test your findings.
• A qualitative approach is often time consuming − interviewing
people takes
time.
• And, because time is very often linked with cost, qualitative
approaches can be
expensive.
Deductive/quantitative approach
Advantages
• It can be an extremely efficient approach for gathering data,
especially for large
groups of people.
• Quantitative methods are easier to replicate and this can make
it easier for
other researchers to test your findings.
uws-sbp-wb-en-GB August 19, 2014 - 16:45 8
Strategic Business Project
4
Disadvantages
• Not a particular good approach to take if you are trying to
explain why things
happen.
• Assumes that researchers can be objective, but researchers
may allow their own
values and interests to influence the research.
• You need to use a large sample to be able to make
generalisations from the
results.
For your MBA project, the decision to adopt a
qualitative/inductive approach or a
quantitative/deductive approach will be determined by:
• The issue you wish to research; and by
• Your own skills and preferences.
1.3 Planning your MBA project research
Experience has shown that the main stages of an MBA project
research can be sub-
divided into 8 main stages. However, in practice these stages
are likely to overlap and
the transition between one stage and another is not always
clear-cut. In practice,
it is often necessary to move back and forth between stages to,
for example, read
additional material, collect additional data, or adjust a
timescale. It is rare for an
MBA project to proceed smoothly and in a ‘straight line’.
Indeed, it is arguable that
one of the distinguishing features of the successful MBA
researcher is her/his ability
to capitalise on opportunities, manage setbacks and still deliver
a quality project on-
time. Notwithstanding, timeous delivery of an MBA project will
be greatly enhanced
if a student carefully works out a timetable for each stage of the
research. The 8 main
stages of an MBA project are shown below. Think about what
you want to achieve
in your MBA project. Can you put in tentative dates to each of
the stages?
Stage 1. Establish a general field of interest− discuss with
supervisor/tutor
Stage completed by:
Stage 2. Undertake background reading on your research area
and consider appro-
priate …
Running head: WORKPLACE DIVERSITY: NESTLE INDIA
1
WORKPLACE DIVERSITY: NESTLE INDIA 3
Workplace Diversity: Nestle India
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Workplace Diversity: Nestle India
Background Information
In current business settings, managers cannot underrate the
impact of diversity in the organization. For the past few years,
diversity’s concept has changed from being a constitutional
obligation to strategic focus in profit-oriented organizations. As
organizations and companies strive to achieve the goal of
becoming an employer of choice and attain sustainable
competitive advantage, the concept of diversity becomes critical
(Shaari, 2020). However, embracing diversity alone cannot
bring the desired success; there is a need for organizations to
competently manage diversity by recognizing, acknowledging,
appreciating, and implementing policies that safeguard diversity
of employees. Indian employment law requires organizations
operating in India to have diversity and inclusiveness policies.
The paper evaluates the connection between workers diversity
and organizational productivity.
Research Problem
Ingrained frameworks of inequality and hierarchy that
make Indian society have paralyzed Nestle India operations, in
which specific group of people get promoted, employed,
compensated, and rewarded because of their caste, gender,
religion, or birthplace, and a subordinate social status given to
female and other marginalized groups (Philip, 2019).
The Purpose of the Study
The study attempts to explore and elaborate on and clarify the
link between Nestle India workforce diversity and Nestle India
performance.
The General objective
What is the relationship between workforce diversity and
organizational performance?
Specific Objectives
1. To determine the link between ethnicity and organization
performance
2. To determine work experience policies on organization
performance.
3. To establish the approaches of workplace diversity on
organization performance
Research Questions
1. What is the link between diversity at the workplace and
organization performance?
2. What are approaches of workplace diversity on organizational
performance?
3. What are the workplace diversity policies on organization
productivity?
The Significance of the Study
The study benefits employees, management, and the
organization in general in the respective areas of performance;
and emphasis on the influence of workplace balance as real to
an employee, management and the entire organization. It
promotes the meeting of the legal requirement of Equal
Employment Opportunity. If the recommendations are put in
place, the organization will have high-level productivity, the
exchange of a variety of ideas, and increase creativity.
The Rationale of the Study
The study topic is a current or emerging issue in all profit-
oriented organizations across the world and is dynamic. In a
study conducted by Upadhya (2007) revealed that there is a
need to overcome market imperfections resulting from
workforce imbalance to initiate market competitiveness.
Donnely (2015), highlighted the significance of an organization
that promotes diversity and inclusion management by having
effective equal opportunity policies and practices. In addition to
these two pieces of research on the topic, the existing
relationship between diversity and performance aroused the
researcher’s interests to conduct the study to get in-depth
knowledge.
Scope of the Study
The research setting is Nestle India and will be conducted
on the company’s employees and management. It will target 140
workers with 42 workers as sample size and will get restricted
to two variables of workplace diversity and organization
performance.
Study Assumptions
H1. Male and female workers have different perceptions
regarding the influence of diversity on organizational
performance.
H1. Diversity has a significant impact on organizational
performance.
Literature Review
History of Research
According to Downey (2020), the concept of diversity in
the workplace originated from America, whereby President
Truman in 1948 desegregated the military with Executive Order
9981. This order illegalized discrimination of members of
armed forces on the basis of their religion, color, race, or nation
of origin. The effectiveness of the Order 9981 was felt in 1953,
in which former discriminated African Americans soldiers, now
95% of them served in integrated units. After 40 years, a period
in which technology had advanced, a journalist at the San Jose
Mercury News and CNN Money started to investigate the
workplace diversity at the Silicon Valley tech firms (Downey,
2020). The organizations under investigation blocked the U.S.
Department of Labor from releasing data on the grounds of
“business secrecy.”
Review of Key Studies
A study by Wahab, (2018) on ways that Malaysian Law
enhances people with disability-focused on physical appearance
as a critical element of diversity at the workplace. This research
linked diversity and inclusivity as vital components of
improving innovations, competitive advantage, and
productivity. Companies’ commitments to promote diversity
depend on the available labor laws or state laws that promote
diversity among companies, particularly to create and support
the employment of people with disability. Wahab found that
workforce diversity is inevitable under the current globalization
era. Differences that are resulting from varying age, disabilities,
race, and gender if integrated lead to creativity and unique
experiences in the workplace (Wahab, 2018). Malaysian
legislation through various provisions promotes the concept of
diversity at the workplace for people with disabilities.
According to research by Manaf et al., (2018) conducted
on 1,083 workers from 80 companies in India, the researcher
revealed that perceptions of workers differ depending on their
religion, age, gender, and competency towards diversity
problems that companies address. The main areas leading to
varying perceptions among employees are recruitment,
selection, and placement; the retention of diverse workers, and
promotions at the workplace. The findings revealed that female
workers and ethnic groups, value companies’ efforts of
enhancing diversity more than men who dominate the
workplaces. The research Guillaume et al., (2017) was based on
the application of workplace diversity on relational demography
such as an individual extent of dissimilarity from colleagues,
teamwork, and organization in general. The researcher found
that level of organizational outcome depends on the diversity
management within the company. Also, cross-categorization,
Faultline, and status variations between demographic subgroups
make diversity critical.
Summary of The Findings of The Studies
Three studies by Guillaume et al., (2017), Manaf et al.,
(2018), and Wahab, (2018) focused on how diversity within the
organization establishes and its impacts. The findings share the
same concept that diversity is critical in the workplace. Age,
gender, ethnicity, physical appearance, and race are significant
elements identified by the findings to cause differences that
bring workplace diversity. Diversity management approaches,
such as government laws on diversity, are required to ensure
equality across all employees.
Evaluation of Key Studies
The findings support the study objectives of the research
proposal and give insights into the causes of differences at the
workplace. They relate organizational performance to individual
workers’ traits that shape the general performance, both at
personal and corporate levels. From the research findings, the
components of diversity have been identified, their impact on
workers and relationships at the workplace. However, the
findings have not highlighted strategies that companies have put
in place to manage diversity to promote coerciveness among
workers. Research helps in identification of areas of a
knowledge gap that keeps the researcher on the right track of
conducting relevant research.
Theoretical Framework and Research Methodology
Theoretical Framework
The study has both independent and dependent variables.
Organizational performance has both an outcome and behavioral
aspects as dependent variables. Employees’ personality traits,
company policies on diversity, and training programs make
independent variables of the study.
Independent Variable
Personality traits
Attitudes, perceptions, age, gender, disability, religion, race,
birthplace
DEPENDANT VARIABLES Dépendent Variable
Organization Performance
Outcome aspect
Behavioral aspect
Company policies on diversity
Government laws on equality at workplace
Diversity training programs
Research Design
A quantitative design with descriptive approach will be
used to describe workplace diversity within Nestle Company.
Since the study emphasizes on a description of a particular
group, sex, beliefs, gender, attitude, and age are significant
variables for description among workers. It will be the best
approach to how the variables relate to specific outcomes or
occurrences within the company.
Target population, Sampling Techniques, and Sample Size
The study target population is Nestle company’s
employees and consists of 140 individuals. Sampling method,
random sampling will be applied to select 42 participants by
ensuring each participant has an equal probability of being
selected. These 42 respondents form the research sample size to
facilitate the study.
Questionnaires
Participants will fill closed-ended questions. They are
useful since they establish the number of participants who have
certain beliefs. The questionnaires will be particular to provide
short and precise answers regarding the issue under the study
(Ratelle, 2019). The determination of the degree of validity and
reliability relies on the questionnaire that will be structured
with the guidance of the research objectives and distributed to a
sample size of 7 employees nearby Letrix firm before the main
study at Nestle India. Respondents used in the pilot test will be
excluded from the actual study when determining the reliability
of the research methods. This pilot study will assist the
researcher in identifying the weakness and some complexities in
the questionnaire for collecting data.
Administration of the Questionnaire
A questionnaire will be self-administered using the ‘drop
and pick later’ approach to selected Neste India workers to
gather information. After the permission is sought from the
company’s top management, the researcher will administer the
questionnaire to the participants and collect them after 12
hours. Participants will not indicate their names or anything on
the questionnaire to ensure their confidentiality gets protected
(Beal, 2019). Afterwards, the researcher will discuss with
participants to note some aspects concerning the study topic.
Statistical Methods
Descriptive data analysis methods such as graphical
representation will aid the analysis of numerical data obtained
from measures of central tendency, measures of variability, and
measures of divergence from normality (Zyphur, 2019). The
analyzed descriptive data will reveal the existing relationship
between variables in a sample. Also, inferential statistics will
be used to make and describe inferences regarding the entire
population.
References
Beal, C. C., Ogola, G., & Allen, L. (2019). Validity and
Reliability of the Responses to Ischemic Stroke Symptoms
Questionnaire. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 51(6), 287-
291.
Donnelly, R. (2015). Tensions and challenges in the
management of diversity and inclusion in IT services
multinationals in India. Human Resource Management, 54(2),
199-215.
Downey, M. (2020). " Island of Integration": Desegregation of
the Women's Army Corps at Fort Lee, Virginia, 1948-1954.
Guillaume, Y. R., Dawson, J. F., Otaye‐Ebede, L., Woods, S.
A., & West, M. A. (2017). Harnessing demographic differences
in organizations: What moderates the effects of workplace
diversity? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38(2), 276-303.
Manaf, A. R. A., Othman, S. Z., Saad, Z. M., Jamaluddin, Z., &
Noor, A. A. M. (2018). Employability of Persons with
Disabilities: Job Coaches’ Perspectives. International Journal of
Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(6), 254-
269.
Philip, J., & Soumyaja, D. (2019). Workplace diversity and
inclusion: policies and best practices for organizations
employing transgender people in India. International Journal of
Public Policy, 15(3-4), 299-314.
Ratelle, J. T., Sawatsky, A. P., & Beckman, T. J. (2019).
Quantitative Research Methods in Medical Education.
Anesthesiology: The Journal of the American Society of
Anesthesiologists, 131(1), 23-35.
Shaari, N., Subramaniam, G., & Hassan, R. (2020). Workplace
Diversity in Malaysia Multicultural Society: Prospects and
Challenges. International Journal of Business and Economy,
2(1), 10-19.
Upadhya, C. (2007). Employment, exclusion, and ‘merit’ in the
Indian IT industry. Economic and Political Weekly, 42(20),
1863-186.
Wahab, H. A., & Jaafar, H. J. (2018). Workplace diversity: How
does Malaysian law promote people with disability?
International Journal, 3(9), 14-23.
Zyphur, M. J., & Pierides, D. C. (2019). Statistics and
probability have always been value-laden: An historical
ontology of quantitative research methods. Journal of Business
Ethics, 1-18.
Appendix A
Activity
Week
May
June
1
2
3
4
1
2
4
Identifying study topic
Review and revise of the topic
Pre-test items with representative sample
Questionnaire preparation
Participants’ recruitment
Statistical data analysis
Preparation and submission of the research project
8.0 RESEARCH METHODS
These guidelines address postgraduate students who have
completed course
requirements and assumed to have sufficient background
experience of high-level
engagement activities like recognizing, relating, applying,
generating, reflecting and
theorizing issues. It is an ultimate period in our academic life
when we feel confident
at embarking on independent research.
It cannot be overemphasized that we must enjoy the experience
of research process
and not look at it as an academic chore.
To enable such a desired behaviour, these guidelines consider
the research process
in terms of the skills and knowledge needed to develop
independent and critical
styles of thinking in order to evaluate and use research as well
as to conduct fresh
research.
The guidelines should be viewed as briefs which the Research
Supervisors are expected
to exemplify based on their own experience as well as expertise.
8.1 Chapter 1 - Introduction
INTRODUCE the subject or problem to be studied. This might
require the
identification of key managerial concerns, theories, laws and
governmental rulings,
critical incidents or social changes, and current environmental
issues, that make the
subject critical, relevant and worthy of managerial or research
attention.
• To inform the Reader (stylistically - forthright, direct, and
brief / concise),
• The first sentence should begin with `This Study was
intended
to’….’ And immediately tell the Reader the nature of the study
for the
reader's interest and desire to read on.
8.1.1 The Research Problem
What is the statement of the problem? The statement of the
problem or problem
statement should follow logically from what has been set forth
in the background of
the problem by defining the specific research need providing
impetus for the
study, a need not met through previous research. Present a clear
and precise
statement of the central question of research, formulated to
address the need.
8.1.2 The Purpose of the Study
What is the purpose of the study? What are the RESEARCH
QUESTION (S) of
the study? What are the specific objective (s) of the study?
Define the specific
research objective (s) that would answer the research Question
(s) of the study.
8.1.3 The Rationale of the Study:
1. Why in a general sense?
2. One or two brief references to previous research or theories
critical in structuring
this study to support and understand the rationale.
3. The importance of the study for the reader to know, to fully
appreciate the need
for the study - and its significance.
4. Own professional experience that stimulated the study or
aroused interest in the
area of research.
5. The Need for the Study - will deal with valid questions or
professional concerns
to provide data leading to an answer - reference to
literature helpful and
appropriate.
8.1.4 The Significance of the Study:
1. Clearly describe the significance of the study.
2. Justify why the subject requires attention.
3. Identify key contributions of the research that can be
achieved.
4. Highlight the contributions that the study seeks to achieve
towards - management
practices; theoretical and methodological applications;
governmental procedures,
policies and laws; nation building.
8.1.5 The Scope of the Study:
1. Break general research problem down to specific sub
problems
2. Major analysis of the data exposed as one of sub problems
3. Identify the dimensions / population of the subject that you
plan to study.
4. Discussion on issues such as types of data the subjects or
sources of information
utilised, the time period involved and the geographic locations
covered in the research
may be discussed in this section.
5. What aspects of the subject do you intend to study? What are
the key questions to
be investigated?
8.1.6 Definition of Terms
Define the terms used in the study that are not usually
encountered by readers, generally.
If the study focuses on only one institution or company then a
short background history
of it should be included in this chapter.
8.1.7 Summary
A synopsis of the contents of the chapter that leads to the
introduction of the
following chapter.
8.2 Chapter 2 - Literature Review
1. Identify the appropriate academic and / or professional fields
2. Evaluate and critique the literature - challenge the
assumptions
3. Be highly selective and include only those aspects of the
research literature and
non-research or conceptual literature that are relevant to
developing the foundation
of the current study.
4. Each major previous study is discussed in a separate
paragraph (s) with the findings
summarised collectively - same as with non-research or
conceptual literature by
authorities who hold similar views.
5. A review of literature should read as a synthesis, written by
someone who has
read all of the literature and so is able to look across it all,
select the highlights,
and synthesise these into a totally integrated section in the
context of the current
study, for further use when writing the discussion of the results
and conclusions.
8.2.1 History of Research:
Provide a brief history of the empirical research on the subject.
Pioneering studies,
thrust of prior research on the subject i.e. which issues have
received attention, theories
explored, viewpoints expressed, and research methods typically
used.
8.2.2 Review of Key Studies
1. Identify and summarise the key empirical studies that have a
bearing on the
research.
2. Provide a tabular summary of the subjects, issues studied,
research methods used
and other pertinent details relating to the studies.
3. Summarise the findings of the studies.
8.2.3 Evaluation of Key Studies:
1. Evaluate the findings of the studies in the light of your
concerns.
2. What has been accomplished and what remains to be done?
3. How do you intend to use the experience of these studies in
your research?
8.2.4 Summary:
A synopsis of the contents of the hypotheses / research
questions and the
rationale derived from the researcher's experience and from the
readings of
research and conceptual literatures should be stated effectively
at the
conclusion of the review of literature chapter that leads on to
the following chapter.
8.3 Chapter 3 - Theoretical Framework and Research
Methodology
THEORETICAL / CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK - using
material from the previous
chapter, produce the working definitions of the main concepts
you will use in your study.
If possible, form them into a conceptual framework of theories
or hypotheses to be
tested.
8.3.1 Research Methodology
1. Discuss the nature of the questions you are asking and choose
an appropriate
methodological stance for answering them.
2. Justify the research methods you are using.
3. Describe the practical and technical aspects of conducting the
research.
8.3.2 Theoretical Framework
Identify the various variables investigated in the study.
Illustrate how the
variables interact with each other as hypothesised in the
research by the aid of
diagram (s) (if possible).
8.3.3 Research Approach
Describe the approach adopted in the study, justification for
using the approach and issues related to adopting the approach.
8.3.4 Research Subjects
1. Provide details about the population and sample used.
2. What sectors of the labour force, industry or groups is the
sample drawn?
3. What are the characteristics of the population sample?
4. What are the strong points and limitations of the sample?
5. What is the justification of choosing the sample?
6. Can the findings be generalised to the population?
8.3.5 Questionnaire
1. Describe the questionnaire used in the study
2. Background of the questionnaire
3. Is it original? If any items are taken from existing
questionnaire, identify the
sources
4. Describe the question categories
5. Describe the scaling methods used and state the reasons for
choosing them
6. Issues on validity and reliability
7. Pilot test to check the clarity and appropriateness of the
survey questionnaire prior
to the actual conduct of the actual survey.
8.3.6 Administration of the Questionnaire
1. Describe how the questionnaire was administered
2. Discuss problems encountered, if any, that affected the
results relating to sample
characteristics and their potential impact on reliability and
validity of the data.
3. Ensure that in collecting the data, individual respondents /
organization were duly
briefed and made aware of the ethical practices including
ensuring the
confidentiality of the information gathered and data protection,
voluntary and non
- monetary inducement to participate in the intended research.
Full consent of
participations by individual respondents is solicited without any
form of coercion.
8.3.7 Statistical Methods
1. Discuss the selected Descriptive and Inferential Statistical
methods [as in the
SPSS] used in analysing the results. Having selected the
variables for your study,
you assume that they would either help to define your
problem (dependent
variable/s) and its different components or that they were
contributory factors to
your problem (independent variable).
2. The purpose of data analysis is to identify whether these
assumptions were correct
or not, and to highlight possible new views on the problem
under study.
3. The ultimate purpose of analysis is to answer the research
questions outlined in
the objectives with your data.
8.3.8 Summary
1. A synopsis of the contents of what has been written about in
the Theoretical /
Conceptual Framework and Research Methodology used.
2. The description of the sample used.
3. Descriptive data and the instrument used.
4. The design of the study and the way data were collected.
5. The way data were analysed - assumptions and limitations of
the study.
8.4 Chapter 4 - Data Presentation, Analysis and Findings
1. Describe what you found out and what it means.
2. Refer back to the Literature Review and your
Theoretical/ Conceptual
Framework.
3. Present the Data in the form of tables, figures, charts or other
illustrations as
needed and sequenced in terms of the research questions or
hypotheses tested.
4. Discuss your findings in terms of what the data actually
means in terms of each
segment or cell of data gathered.
8.4.1 Summary
State the findings as concretely as possible in terms of each
segment or cell of
data gathered to answer the research questions and hypotheses.
8.5 Chapter 5 - Conclusions and Recommendations
1. As an introduction to the chapter, Summarise [recapitulate]
the argument of the
dissertation in terms of what you attempted to find out and what
you
accomplished i.e. address the research questions /
hypothesis(es).
2. The final chapter is entitled `Conclusions and
Recommendations'. Conclusions
here mean that for each of the findings that address the research
questions and
hypotheses, the researcher draws a conclusion.
3. Recommendations mean that for each Conclusion, the
researcher suggests a
recommendation.
4. Consider:
a. Discussion: Discuss the findings of Study in terms of the
main Research
Questions and Hypotheses as well as the Title of the Research
and relate the findings
to the Literature Review. In addition, try to explain the
significance and non-
significance of the results using available theory, data and facts
as well as the
validity and reliability of the findings and
arguments in the dissertation as a whole.
b. Implications: What are the substantive implications of the
experience for -
Management, unions and other interest groups; for public
policy; Nation building. -
The Methodological or procedural implications of the
experience for other
researchers.
c. Limitations of Research: Describe the possible limitations
faced in the study
especially from the methodological perspective.
d. Suggestions for Further or Additional Research: Provide
concrete suggestions
for FURTHER RESEARCH in the field or additional research
(if possible) in the
research methodological areas encountered in the study The
researcher's last
Recommendation will be Suggestions for Further
Research.
e. The FINAL CONCLUSION to the chapter addresses the
TITLE of the Research as
the title reflects the whole study. Discuss how the objectives
and research questions
of the study have been met with the research.
f. Highlight the key findings, implications, etc. that the
research has revealed.

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Module Name Strategic Business ProjectModule Co.docx

  • 1. Module Name: Strategic Business Project Module Code: BUSN 11076 Module Coordinator: Dr Chee Seng Chan Student: XXX Banner ID: XXXXXXXX Research Title: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Abstract XXXXXXXXXXX Acknowledgement XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Table of Content XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3
  • 2. Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Reference Appendix “The title of your questionnaire” The full content of your questionnaire SBP��ҵս����Ŀ�����IJο�����/1. SBP��Ŀ˵��/SBP Structure and Contents.pptx SBP Structure and Contents It is suggested that you adopt the following format in presenting your SBP: 1. Title Page: Please use the standard cover page attached as per prescribed in SBP Handbook. 2. Abstract: It should provide a brief summary of the SBP not exceeding 300 words 3. Acknowledgements: Acknowledgements of outside help and support. 4. Table of Contents: It should list the sequence with page numbers of all relevant subdivisions of the dissertation; i.e. chapter headings, section and sub-section (if appropriate). 5. List of Tables 6. List of Figures / Illustrations SBP Structure and Contents 7. Chapter 1: Introduction 8. Chapter 2: Literature Review 9. Chapter 3: Theoretical Framework and Research Methodology 10. Chapter 4: Data Presentation, Analysis and Findings
  • 3. 11. Chapter 5: Conclusion (s) and Recommendations 12. Reference List: The SB should include a list of all relevant texts / journals used following the Harvard Referencing System / Style. Please refer to Referencing Guide . 13. Appendices: The appendices should only include material that is not central to the arguments in the main text. SBP Marking Criteria/ GuidePercentageMargin (up to introduction, continuity and presentation (15%)Literature review (25%)Research Methods (20%)Results & Discussion ( 30%)Conclusion & Recommendations( 10%) 1. Abstract, introduction, continuity and presentation (15%) In general, your markers will assess the clarity of stated aims and objectives, relevance to sector related issues, feasibility of aims of SBP, the rationale and significance of the research undertaken. Title: is the title focused, summative, and does it reflect the proposed SBPcontent? Abstract: is it short (300 words), self-contained, summative, objective, precise and easy to read. Introduction: is background information included? Is an introduction to current research included and developed? An introduction to the organisation (if applicable)? 1. Abstract, introduction, continuity and presentation (15%) Have you demonstrated the relevance of your SBP to the field and is it theoretically grounded? Links to relevant literature and
  • 4. academic debates, the evidence of extensive reading will be valued. Aim(s): is the aim feasible and manageable (have resource and data accessibility been taken into account)? Is the aim original and does it have the potential to add insights to the field of study? Does it conform to the right aim format? Rationale and Significance of Study: is the sound rationale to undertake the study included? Are the benefits / significance of this study presented? 2. Literature Review (25%) In general: Search for relevant literature. Critical assessment of literature. Awareness of contribution of other researchers. Awareness of relevant theories, concepts, models and methodology. Direct linkage to SBP aims and objectives identified. Provide a critical review of relevant academic literature Critique existing research and link it to aims / objectives Review key academic theories d. Demonstrate relevance to contemporary / current debates 2. Literature Review (25%) Be current (not outdated sources) Be related to previous published and “recognised” work Be critical (sources that both support and oppose aims and objectives) Be able to differentiate fact and opinion
  • 5. Assess strengths and weaknesses of previous work Be objective, unbiased, coherent and cohesive k. Adhere to the Harvard Referencing System 3. Theoretical Framework and Research Methodology (20%) In general: Choice and use of research methods are appropriate to the aims and objectives. Sound justification provided, including evidence of secondary data supporting choice of methods. The type (s) of research undertaken The theoretical / conceptual framework The research methods The research design The data collection (i.e. sampling) Ethical issues Reliability and validity of the study h. Limitations 4. Data Presentation, Analysis and Results/Findings (30%) In general: Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data followed by your findings. Clear relationship made between aims & objectives, literature and findings. Is the data appropriately presented i.e. graphically (quantitative research) or verbatim (qualitative research)?
  • 6. Is the data presentation factual or interpretative? Does the analysis answer the research questions? Does the analysis relate or is linked to previous knowledge in the field? Is the analysis built from the findings? Is the analysis linked to the literature review? g. Is the analysis analytical or merely descriptive? 5. Conclusions and Recommendations (10%) In general: Aims and objectives are satisfied and appropriate course (s) of action is / are recommended. Are the conclusions drawn from the findings? Are the conclusions linked to the literature? Are the conclusions linked to aims and objectives? Are the suggested recommendations linked to the deficiencies identified in the research findings? e. Are the suggested recommendations practical and workable? SBP��ҵս����Ŀ�����IJο�����/1. SBP��Ŀ˵��/SBP Structure with Details.pdf
  • 7. 8.0 RESEARCH METHODS These guidelines address postgraduate students who have completed course requirements and assumed to have sufficient background experience of high-level engagement activities like recognizing, relating, applying, generating, reflecting and theorizing issues. It is an ultimate period in our academic life when we feel confident at embarking on independent research. It cannot be overemphasized that we must enjoy the experience of research process and not look at it as an academic chore. To enable such a desired behaviour, these guidelines consider the research process in terms of the skills and knowledge needed to develop independent and critical styles of thinking in order to evaluate and use research as well as to conduct fresh research.
  • 8. The guidelines should be viewed as briefs which the Research Supervisors are expected to exemplify based on their own experience as well as expertise. 8.1 Chapter 1 - Introduction INTRODUCE the subject or problem to be studied. This might require the identification of key managerial concerns, theories, laws and governmental rulings, critical incidents or social changes, and current environmental issues, that make the subject critical, relevant and worthy of managerial or research attention. • To inform the Reader (stylistically - forthright, direct, and brief / concise), • The first sentence should begin with `This Study was intended to’….’ And immediately tell the Reader the nature of the study for the reader's interest and desire to read on.
  • 9. 8.1.1 The Research Problem What is the statement of the problem? The statement of the problem or problem statement should follow logically from what has been set forth in the background of the problem by defining the specific research need providing impetus for the study, a need not met through previous research. Present a clear and precise statement of the central question of research, formulated to address the need. 8.1.2 The Purpose of the Study What is the purpose of the study? What are the RESEARCH QUESTION (S) of the study? What are the specific objective (s) of the study? Define the specific research objective (s) that would answer the research Question (s) of the study. 8.1.3 The Rationale of the Study: 1. Why in a general sense?
  • 10. 2. One or two brief references to previous research or theories critical in structuring this study to support and understand the rationale. 3. The importance of the study for the reader to know, to fully appreciate the need for the study - and its significance. 4. Own professional experience that stimulated the study or aroused interest in the area of research. 5. The Need for the Study - will deal with valid questions or professional concerns to provide data leading to an answer - reference to literature helpful and appropriate. 8.1.4 The Significance of the Study: 1. Clearly describe the significance of the study. 2. Justify why the subject requires attention. 3. Identify key contributions of the research that can be achieved. 4. Highlight the contributions that the study seeks to achieve
  • 11. towards - management practices; theoretical and methodological applications; governmental procedures, policies and laws; nation building. 8.1.5 The Scope of the Study: 1. Break general research problem down to specific sub problems 2. Major analysis of the data exposed as one of sub problems 3. Identify the dimensions / population of the subject that you plan to study. 4. Discussion on issues such as types of data the subjects or sources of information utilised, the time period involved and the geographic locations covered in the research may be discussed in this section. 5. What aspects of the subject do you intend to study? What are the key questions to be investigated? 8.1.6 Definition of Terms
  • 12. Define the terms used in the study that are not usually encountered by readers, generally. If the study focuses on only one institution or company then a short background history of it should be included in this chapter. 8.1.7 Summary A synopsis of the contents of the chapter that leads to the introduction of the following chapter. 8.2 Chapter 2 - Literature Review 1. Identify the appropriate academic and / or professional fields 2. Evaluate and critique the literature - challenge the assumptions 3. Be highly selective and include only those aspects of the research literature and non-research or conceptual literature that are relevant to developing the foundation
  • 13. of the current study. 4. Each major previous study is discussed in a separate paragraph (s) with the findings summarised collectively - same as with non-research or conceptual literature by authorities who hold similar views. 5. A review of literature should read as a synthesis, written by someone who has read all of the literature and so is able to look across it all, select the highlights, and synthesise these into a totally integrated section in the context of the current study, for further use when writing the discussion of the results and conclusions. 8.2.1 History of Research: Provide a brief history of the empirical research on the subject. Pioneering studies, thrust of prior research on the subject i.e. which issues have received attention, theories explored, viewpoints expressed, and research methods typically used.
  • 14. 8.2.2 Review of Key Studies 1. Identify and summarise the key empirical studies that have a bearing on the research. 2. Provide a tabular summary of the subjects, issues studied, research methods used and other pertinent details relating to the studies. 3. Summarise the findings of the studies. 8.2.3 Evaluation of Key Studies: 1. Evaluate the findings of the studies in the light of your concerns. 2. What has been accomplished and what remains to be done? 3. How do you intend to use the experience of these studies in your research? 8.2.4 Summary: A synopsis of the contents of the hypotheses / research
  • 15. questions and the rationale derived from the researcher's experience and from the readings of research and conceptual literatures should be stated effectively at the conclusion of the review of literature chapter that leads on to the following chapter. 8.3 Chapter 3 - Theoretical Framework and Research Methodology THEORETICAL / CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK - using material from the previous chapter, produce the working definitions of the main concepts you will use in your study. If possible, form them into a conceptual framework of theories or hypotheses to be tested. 8.3.1 Research Methodology 1. Discuss the nature of the questions you are asking and choose an appropriate methodological stance for answering them.
  • 16. 2. Justify the research methods you are using. 3. Describe the practical and technical aspects of conducting the research. 8.3.2 Theoretical Framework Identify the various variables investigated in the study. Illustrate how the variables interact with each other as hypothesised in the research by the aid of diagram (s) (if possible). 8.3.3 Research Approach Describe the approach adopted in the study, justification for using the approach and issues related to adopting the approach. 8.3.4 Research Subjects 1. Provide details about the population and sample used. 2. What sectors of the labour force, industry or groups is the sample drawn?
  • 17. 3. What are the characteristics of the population sample? 4. What are the strong points and limitations of the sample? 5. What is the justification of choosing the sample? 6. Can the findings be generalised to the population? 8.3.5 Questionnaire 1. Describe the questionnaire used in the study 2. Background of the questionnaire 3. Is it original? If any items are taken from existing questionnaire, identify the sources 4. Describe the question categories 5. Describe the scaling methods used and state the reasons for choosing them 6. Issues on validity and reliability 7. Pilot test to check the clarity and appropriateness of the survey questionnaire prior to the actual conduct of the actual survey.
  • 18. 8.3.6 Administration of the Questionnaire 1. Describe how the questionnaire was administered 2. Discuss problems encountered, if any, that affected the results relating to sample characteristics and their potential impact on reliability and validity of the data. 3. Ensure that in collecting the data, individual respondents / organization were duly briefed and made aware of the ethical practices including ensuring the confidentiality of the information gathered and data protection, voluntary and non - monetary inducement to participate in the intended research. Full consent of participations by individual respondents is solicited without any form of coercion. 8.3.7 Statistical Methods 1. Discuss the selected Descriptive and Inferential Statistical methods [as in the
  • 19. SPSS] used in analysing the results. Having selected the variables for your study, you assume that they would either help to define your problem (dependent variable/s) and its different components or that they were contributory factors to your problem (independent variable). 2. The purpose of data analysis is to identify whether these assumptions were correct or not, and to highlight possible new views on the problem under study. 3. The ultimate purpose of analysis is to answer the research questions outlined in the objectives with your data. 8.3.8 Summary 1. A synopsis of the contents of what has been written about in the Theoretical / Conceptual Framework and Research Methodology used. 2. The description of the sample used. 3. Descriptive data and the instrument used.
  • 20. 4. The design of the study and the way data were collected. 5. The way data were analysed - assumptions and limitations of the study. 8.4 Chapter 4 - Data Presentation, Analysis and Findings 1. Describe what you found out and what it means. 2. Refer back to the Literature Review and your Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework. 3. Present the Data in the form of tables, figures, charts or other illustrations as needed and sequenced in terms of the research questions or hypotheses tested. 4. Discuss your findings in terms of what the data actually means in terms of each segment or cell of data gathered. 8.4.1 Summary State the findings as concretely as possible in terms of each segment or cell of
  • 21. data gathered to answer the research questions and hypotheses. 8.5 Chapter 5 - Conclusions and Recommendations 1. As an introduction to the chapter, Summarise [recapitulate] the argument of the dissertation in terms of what you attempted to find out and what you accomplished i.e. address the research questions / hypothesis(es). 2. The final chapter is entitled `Conclusions and Recommendations'. Conclusions here mean that for each of the findings that address the research questions and hypotheses, the researcher draws a conclusion. 3. Recommendations mean that for each Conclusion, the researcher suggests a recommendation. 4. Consider: a. Discussion: Discuss the findings of Study in terms of the main Research Questions and Hypotheses as well as the Title of the Research
  • 22. and relate the findings to the Literature Review. In addition, try to explain the significance and non- significance of the results using available theory, data and facts as well as the validity and reliability of the findings and arguments in the dissertation as a whole. b. Implications: What are the substantive implications of the experience for - Management, unions and other interest groups; for public policy; Nation building. - The Methodological or procedural implications of the experience for other researchers. c. Limitations of Research: Describe the possible limitations faced in the study especially from the methodological perspective. d. Suggestions for Further or Additional Research: Provide concrete suggestions for FURTHER RESEARCH in the field or additional research (if possible) in the research methodological areas encountered in the study The researcher's last
  • 23. Recommendation will be Suggestions for Further Research. e. The FINAL CONCLUSION to the chapter addresses the TITLE of the Research as the title reflects the whole study. Discuss how the objectives and research questions of the study have been met with the research. f. Highlight the key findings, implications, etc. that the research has revealed. SBP��ҵս����Ŀ�����IJο�����/1. SBP��Ŀ˵��/uws- sbp-wb-en-GB (1).pdf uws-sbp-wb-en-GB August 19, 2014 - 16:45 1 Strategic Business Project Workbook Stuart Paul Release 1.1 2014 www.uws.ac.uk uws-sbp-wb-en-GB August 19, 2014 - 16:45 2
  • 24. Published by the University of the West of Scotland. © 2014 University of the West of Scotland The right of Stuart Paul to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with Sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms and licenses issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. www.uws.ac.uk Captured, authored, published, delivered and managed in XML CAPDM Limited, Edinburgh, Scotland www.capdm.comCapdm uws-sbp-wb-en-GB August 19, 2014 - 16:45 3 Strategic Business Project iii Contents 1 An Introduction to Business Research and Your MBA Project Report 1 2 Literature Review 13 3 Quantitative Research Methods 20
  • 25. 4 Qualitative Research Methods 42 5 Writing Up Your MBA Project Report 55 uws-sbp-wb-en-GB August 19, 2014 - 16:45 4 Strategic Business Project iv uws-sbp-wb-en-GB August 19, 2014 - 16:45 5 1 An Introduction to Business Research and Your MBA Project Report Learning outcomes After completing the study of this topic you should be able to: • know the main approaches to business research; • be equipped to begin planning your MBA project. The prescribed reading for this topic is from the core text: Sekaran and Bougie (2010) Research Methods for Business, Chapters 1 and 3. Introduction This short topic about business research and the MBA project will set out the following key areas:
  • 26. • What is business research? • Approaches to business research • Planning Your MBA research project. 1.1 What is business research? The core text for the module describes business research as a ‘systematic and organized effort to investigate a specific problem in the work setting, which needs a solution’. Most business degrees at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels require students to undertake some form of research. As such it can be one of the most interesting parts of any degree course. It offers you a degree of control and autonomy over what you learn and how you do it. Of course, a supervisor will be appointed to help you as you go through the MBA project, but it is very much down to you to manage your time and effort to ensure a successful completion of your MBA. Collis & Hussey (2009) suggest that the purpose of research can be: • Review or synthesize existing knowledge • Investigate existing situations or problems • Provide solutions to problems • Explore and analyse more general issues • Construct or create new procedures or systems
  • 27. • Explain new phenomenon • Generate new knowledge • Or a combination of any of the above! Therefore, you are about to embark on a journey on which you will not only learn about research and how to do it, but you will also (with a bit of luck!) contribute to knowledge and understanding in an area of your choosing. uws-sbp-wb-en-GB August 19, 2014 - 16:45 6 Strategic Business Project 2 1.2 Approaches to business research Business research provides the necessary information that guides managers in mak- ing informed decisions to successfully deal with problems, determine strategies and arrive at solutions. This information (data) can either be quantitative or qualitative. • Quantitative data are data in the form of numbers and are generally gathered through structured questions, often utilising structured questionnaires. Quant- itative research concentrates on measuring the scale, range and the frequency
  • 28. of phenomena. Data from quantitative research are usually highly detailed and structured and are presented statistically. • Qualitative data are data in the form of words as generated from broad answers to questions in interviews or from responses to open-ended questions in a questionnaire. Qualitative research is more subjective in nature and usually involves investigating less tangible aspects of a research subject, for example, values and perceptions. These are two descriptions applied to types of research with which you should become familiar. Research is often described as: • basic or applied, and as either • inductive or deductive. 1.2.1 Basic or applied research The focus of basic research is to improve knowledge generally whereas applied research addresses a particular situation or problem. For example, a product may not be selling well and the organisation wishes to address this issue− this as applied research. In your MBA project, you are required to engage in applied research by addressing a specific business or management issue. Ideally, the research which you undertake for your MBA project should be applied in that it should have practical
  • 29. value. To this extent it can be said to be similar to a management consultancy report. 1.2.2 Inductive or deductive research In an inductive approach to research, a researcher begins by collecting data that are relevant to his or her topic of interest. Once substantial amounts of data have been collected, the researcher will then look for patterns in the data, working to develop an explanation or theory for those patterns. In other words, this research approach moves from data to explanation (and sometimes theory), or from the specific to the general. Most qualitative based research studies are inductive. Researchers adopting a deductive approach take the steps described earlier for inductive research and reverse their order. They start with a theory that they find compelling and then test its implications with data. That is, they move from a more general level to a more specific one. A deductive approach to research is the one that people typically associate with scientific investigation. The researcher studies what others have done, reads existing theories of whatever phenomenon he or she is studying, and then tests hypotheses that emerge from those theories. Most quantitative research studies are deductive in approach. Reflective exercise 1.1 Every research approach has its advantages (i.e. its positive
  • 30. features) and dis- advantages (i.e. its points of criticism). Take a few minutes to note down key points in answer to the following two questions. uws-sbp-wb-en-GB August 19, 2014 - 16:45 7 An Introduction to Business Research and Your MBA Project Report 3 What are the advantages of applying an inductive/qualitative approach utilising interviews to a research project? What are the advantages of applying a deductive/quantitative approach util- ising a structured questionnaire to a research project? Once you have answered these two questions, consider the points below. Do your answers match these? Inductive/qualitative approach Advantages • You can use a relatively small sample for your research. • Data can be gathered which is ‘rich’ in personal comment and personal insights. • The ‘why’ is automatically addressed in the data.
  • 31. • With interviews, respondents are free to answer any way they would like− they aren’t constrained to a pre-determined set of possible responses as you might see on a survey. Disadvantages • The findings are subjective and it can be difficult to generalise from the research. • Your research would be very hard to reproduce if another researcher wanted to reproduce your research and test your findings. • A qualitative approach is often time consuming − interviewing people takes time. • And, because time is very often linked with cost, qualitative approaches can be expensive. Deductive/quantitative approach Advantages • It can be an extremely efficient approach for gathering data, especially for large groups of people. • Quantitative methods are easier to replicate and this can make it easier for other researchers to test your findings.
  • 32. uws-sbp-wb-en-GB August 19, 2014 - 16:45 8 Strategic Business Project 4 Disadvantages • Not a particular good approach to take if you are trying to explain why things happen. • Assumes that researchers can be objective, but researchers may allow their own values and interests to influence the research. • You need to use a large sample to be able to make generalisations from the results. For your MBA project, the decision to adopt a qualitative/inductive approach or a quantitative/deductive approach will be determined by: • The issue you wish to research; and by • Your own skills and preferences. 1.3 Planning your MBA project research Experience has shown that the main stages of an MBA project research can be sub- divided into 8 main stages. However, in practice these stages are likely to overlap and
  • 33. the transition between one stage and another is not always clear-cut. In practice, it is often necessary to move back and forth between stages to, for example, read additional material, collect additional data, or adjust a timescale. It is rare for an MBA project to proceed smoothly and in a ‘straight line’. Indeed, it is arguable that one of the distinguishing features of the successful MBA researcher is her/his ability to capitalise on opportunities, manage setbacks and still deliver a quality project on- time. Notwithstanding, timeous delivery of an MBA project will be greatly enhanced if a student carefully works out a timetable for each stage of the research. The 8 main stages of an MBA project are shown below. Think about what you want to achieve in your MBA project. Can you put in tentative dates to each of the stages? Stage 1. Establish a general field of interest− discuss with supervisor/tutor Stage completed by: Stage 2. Undertake background reading on your research area and consider appro- priate … Running head: WORKPLACE DIVERSITY: NESTLE INDIA 1 WORKPLACE DIVERSITY: NESTLE INDIA 3
  • 34. Workplace Diversity: Nestle India Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Workplace Diversity: Nestle India Background Information In current business settings, managers cannot underrate the impact of diversity in the organization. For the past few years, diversity’s concept has changed from being a constitutional obligation to strategic focus in profit-oriented organizations. As organizations and companies strive to achieve the goal of becoming an employer of choice and attain sustainable competitive advantage, the concept of diversity becomes critical (Shaari, 2020). However, embracing diversity alone cannot bring the desired success; there is a need for organizations to competently manage diversity by recognizing, acknowledging, appreciating, and implementing policies that safeguard diversity of employees. Indian employment law requires organizations operating in India to have diversity and inclusiveness policies.
  • 35. The paper evaluates the connection between workers diversity and organizational productivity. Research Problem Ingrained frameworks of inequality and hierarchy that make Indian society have paralyzed Nestle India operations, in which specific group of people get promoted, employed, compensated, and rewarded because of their caste, gender, religion, or birthplace, and a subordinate social status given to female and other marginalized groups (Philip, 2019). The Purpose of the Study The study attempts to explore and elaborate on and clarify the link between Nestle India workforce diversity and Nestle India performance. The General objective What is the relationship between workforce diversity and organizational performance? Specific Objectives 1. To determine the link between ethnicity and organization performance 2. To determine work experience policies on organization performance. 3. To establish the approaches of workplace diversity on organization performance Research Questions 1. What is the link between diversity at the workplace and organization performance? 2. What are approaches of workplace diversity on organizational performance? 3. What are the workplace diversity policies on organization productivity? The Significance of the Study The study benefits employees, management, and the organization in general in the respective areas of performance; and emphasis on the influence of workplace balance as real to an employee, management and the entire organization. It promotes the meeting of the legal requirement of Equal
  • 36. Employment Opportunity. If the recommendations are put in place, the organization will have high-level productivity, the exchange of a variety of ideas, and increase creativity. The Rationale of the Study The study topic is a current or emerging issue in all profit- oriented organizations across the world and is dynamic. In a study conducted by Upadhya (2007) revealed that there is a need to overcome market imperfections resulting from workforce imbalance to initiate market competitiveness. Donnely (2015), highlighted the significance of an organization that promotes diversity and inclusion management by having effective equal opportunity policies and practices. In addition to these two pieces of research on the topic, the existing relationship between diversity and performance aroused the researcher’s interests to conduct the study to get in-depth knowledge. Scope of the Study The research setting is Nestle India and will be conducted on the company’s employees and management. It will target 140 workers with 42 workers as sample size and will get restricted to two variables of workplace diversity and organization performance. Study Assumptions H1. Male and female workers have different perceptions regarding the influence of diversity on organizational performance. H1. Diversity has a significant impact on organizational performance. Literature Review History of Research According to Downey (2020), the concept of diversity in the workplace originated from America, whereby President Truman in 1948 desegregated the military with Executive Order 9981. This order illegalized discrimination of members of armed forces on the basis of their religion, color, race, or nation of origin. The effectiveness of the Order 9981 was felt in 1953,
  • 37. in which former discriminated African Americans soldiers, now 95% of them served in integrated units. After 40 years, a period in which technology had advanced, a journalist at the San Jose Mercury News and CNN Money started to investigate the workplace diversity at the Silicon Valley tech firms (Downey, 2020). The organizations under investigation blocked the U.S. Department of Labor from releasing data on the grounds of “business secrecy.” Review of Key Studies A study by Wahab, (2018) on ways that Malaysian Law enhances people with disability-focused on physical appearance as a critical element of diversity at the workplace. This research linked diversity and inclusivity as vital components of improving innovations, competitive advantage, and productivity. Companies’ commitments to promote diversity depend on the available labor laws or state laws that promote diversity among companies, particularly to create and support the employment of people with disability. Wahab found that workforce diversity is inevitable under the current globalization era. Differences that are resulting from varying age, disabilities, race, and gender if integrated lead to creativity and unique experiences in the workplace (Wahab, 2018). Malaysian legislation through various provisions promotes the concept of diversity at the workplace for people with disabilities. According to research by Manaf et al., (2018) conducted on 1,083 workers from 80 companies in India, the researcher revealed that perceptions of workers differ depending on their religion, age, gender, and competency towards diversity problems that companies address. The main areas leading to varying perceptions among employees are recruitment, selection, and placement; the retention of diverse workers, and promotions at the workplace. The findings revealed that female workers and ethnic groups, value companies’ efforts of enhancing diversity more than men who dominate the workplaces. The research Guillaume et al., (2017) was based on the application of workplace diversity on relational demography
  • 38. such as an individual extent of dissimilarity from colleagues, teamwork, and organization in general. The researcher found that level of organizational outcome depends on the diversity management within the company. Also, cross-categorization, Faultline, and status variations between demographic subgroups make diversity critical. Summary of The Findings of The Studies Three studies by Guillaume et al., (2017), Manaf et al., (2018), and Wahab, (2018) focused on how diversity within the organization establishes and its impacts. The findings share the same concept that diversity is critical in the workplace. Age, gender, ethnicity, physical appearance, and race are significant elements identified by the findings to cause differences that bring workplace diversity. Diversity management approaches, such as government laws on diversity, are required to ensure equality across all employees. Evaluation of Key Studies The findings support the study objectives of the research proposal and give insights into the causes of differences at the workplace. They relate organizational performance to individual workers’ traits that shape the general performance, both at personal and corporate levels. From the research findings, the components of diversity have been identified, their impact on workers and relationships at the workplace. However, the findings have not highlighted strategies that companies have put in place to manage diversity to promote coerciveness among workers. Research helps in identification of areas of a knowledge gap that keeps the researcher on the right track of conducting relevant research. Theoretical Framework and Research Methodology Theoretical Framework The study has both independent and dependent variables. Organizational performance has both an outcome and behavioral aspects as dependent variables. Employees’ personality traits, company policies on diversity, and training programs make independent variables of the study.
  • 39. Independent Variable Personality traits Attitudes, perceptions, age, gender, disability, religion, race, birthplace DEPENDANT VARIABLES Dépendent Variable Organization Performance Outcome aspect Behavioral aspect Company policies on diversity Government laws on equality at workplace Diversity training programs Research Design A quantitative design with descriptive approach will be used to describe workplace diversity within Nestle Company. Since the study emphasizes on a description of a particular group, sex, beliefs, gender, attitude, and age are significant variables for description among workers. It will be the best approach to how the variables relate to specific outcomes or occurrences within the company. Target population, Sampling Techniques, and Sample Size The study target population is Nestle company’s employees and consists of 140 individuals. Sampling method, random sampling will be applied to select 42 participants by ensuring each participant has an equal probability of being selected. These 42 respondents form the research sample size to facilitate the study. Questionnaires Participants will fill closed-ended questions. They are
  • 40. useful since they establish the number of participants who have certain beliefs. The questionnaires will be particular to provide short and precise answers regarding the issue under the study (Ratelle, 2019). The determination of the degree of validity and reliability relies on the questionnaire that will be structured with the guidance of the research objectives and distributed to a sample size of 7 employees nearby Letrix firm before the main study at Nestle India. Respondents used in the pilot test will be excluded from the actual study when determining the reliability of the research methods. This pilot study will assist the researcher in identifying the weakness and some complexities in the questionnaire for collecting data. Administration of the Questionnaire A questionnaire will be self-administered using the ‘drop and pick later’ approach to selected Neste India workers to gather information. After the permission is sought from the company’s top management, the researcher will administer the questionnaire to the participants and collect them after 12 hours. Participants will not indicate their names or anything on the questionnaire to ensure their confidentiality gets protected (Beal, 2019). Afterwards, the researcher will discuss with participants to note some aspects concerning the study topic. Statistical Methods Descriptive data analysis methods such as graphical representation will aid the analysis of numerical data obtained from measures of central tendency, measures of variability, and measures of divergence from normality (Zyphur, 2019). The analyzed descriptive data will reveal the existing relationship between variables in a sample. Also, inferential statistics will be used to make and describe inferences regarding the entire population.
  • 41. References Beal, C. C., Ogola, G., & Allen, L. (2019). Validity and Reliability of the Responses to Ischemic Stroke Symptoms Questionnaire. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 51(6), 287- 291. Donnelly, R. (2015). Tensions and challenges in the management of diversity and inclusion in IT services multinationals in India. Human Resource Management, 54(2), 199-215. Downey, M. (2020). " Island of Integration": Desegregation of the Women's Army Corps at Fort Lee, Virginia, 1948-1954. Guillaume, Y. R., Dawson, J. F., Otaye‐Ebede, L., Woods, S. A., & West, M. A. (2017). Harnessing demographic differences in organizations: What moderates the effects of workplace diversity? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38(2), 276-303. Manaf, A. R. A., Othman, S. Z., Saad, Z. M., Jamaluddin, Z., & Noor, A. A. M. (2018). Employability of Persons with Disabilities: Job Coaches’ Perspectives. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(6), 254- 269. Philip, J., & Soumyaja, D. (2019). Workplace diversity and inclusion: policies and best practices for organizations employing transgender people in India. International Journal of Public Policy, 15(3-4), 299-314. Ratelle, J. T., Sawatsky, A. P., & Beckman, T. J. (2019). Quantitative Research Methods in Medical Education. Anesthesiology: The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, 131(1), 23-35.
  • 42. Shaari, N., Subramaniam, G., & Hassan, R. (2020). Workplace Diversity in Malaysia Multicultural Society: Prospects and Challenges. International Journal of Business and Economy, 2(1), 10-19. Upadhya, C. (2007). Employment, exclusion, and ‘merit’ in the Indian IT industry. Economic and Political Weekly, 42(20), 1863-186. Wahab, H. A., & Jaafar, H. J. (2018). Workplace diversity: How does Malaysian law promote people with disability? International Journal, 3(9), 14-23. Zyphur, M. J., & Pierides, D. C. (2019). Statistics and probability have always been value-laden: An historical ontology of quantitative research methods. Journal of Business Ethics, 1-18. Appendix A Activity Week May
  • 43. June 1 2 3 4 1 2 4 Identifying study topic Review and revise of the topic Pre-test items with representative sample Questionnaire preparation
  • 44. Participants’ recruitment Statistical data analysis Preparation and submission of the research project 8.0 RESEARCH METHODS
  • 45. These guidelines address postgraduate students who have completed course requirements and assumed to have sufficient background experience of high-level engagement activities like recognizing, relating, applying, generating, reflecting and theorizing issues. It is an ultimate period in our academic life when we feel confident at embarking on independent research. It cannot be overemphasized that we must enjoy the experience of research process and not look at it as an academic chore. To enable such a desired behaviour, these guidelines consider the research process in terms of the skills and knowledge needed to develop independent and critical styles of thinking in order to evaluate and use research as well as to conduct fresh research. The guidelines should be viewed as briefs which the Research Supervisors are expected
  • 46. to exemplify based on their own experience as well as expertise. 8.1 Chapter 1 - Introduction INTRODUCE the subject or problem to be studied. This might require the identification of key managerial concerns, theories, laws and governmental rulings, critical incidents or social changes, and current environmental issues, that make the subject critical, relevant and worthy of managerial or research attention. • To inform the Reader (stylistically - forthright, direct, and brief / concise), • The first sentence should begin with `This Study was intended to’….’ And immediately tell the Reader the nature of the study for the reader's interest and desire to read on. 8.1.1 The Research Problem What is the statement of the problem? The statement of the
  • 47. problem or problem statement should follow logically from what has been set forth in the background of the problem by defining the specific research need providing impetus for the study, a need not met through previous research. Present a clear and precise statement of the central question of research, formulated to address the need. 8.1.2 The Purpose of the Study What is the purpose of the study? What are the RESEARCH QUESTION (S) of the study? What are the specific objective (s) of the study? Define the specific research objective (s) that would answer the research Question (s) of the study. 8.1.3 The Rationale of the Study: 1. Why in a general sense? 2. One or two brief references to previous research or theories critical in structuring
  • 48. this study to support and understand the rationale. 3. The importance of the study for the reader to know, to fully appreciate the need for the study - and its significance. 4. Own professional experience that stimulated the study or aroused interest in the area of research. 5. The Need for the Study - will deal with valid questions or professional concerns to provide data leading to an answer - reference to literature helpful and appropriate. 8.1.4 The Significance of the Study: 1. Clearly describe the significance of the study. 2. Justify why the subject requires attention. 3. Identify key contributions of the research that can be achieved. 4. Highlight the contributions that the study seeks to achieve towards - management practices; theoretical and methodological applications; governmental procedures,
  • 49. policies and laws; nation building. 8.1.5 The Scope of the Study: 1. Break general research problem down to specific sub problems 2. Major analysis of the data exposed as one of sub problems 3. Identify the dimensions / population of the subject that you plan to study. 4. Discussion on issues such as types of data the subjects or sources of information utilised, the time period involved and the geographic locations covered in the research may be discussed in this section. 5. What aspects of the subject do you intend to study? What are the key questions to be investigated? 8.1.6 Definition of Terms Define the terms used in the study that are not usually encountered by readers, generally.
  • 50. If the study focuses on only one institution or company then a short background history of it should be included in this chapter. 8.1.7 Summary A synopsis of the contents of the chapter that leads to the introduction of the following chapter. 8.2 Chapter 2 - Literature Review 1. Identify the appropriate academic and / or professional fields 2. Evaluate and critique the literature - challenge the assumptions 3. Be highly selective and include only those aspects of the research literature and non-research or conceptual literature that are relevant to developing the foundation of the current study. 4. Each major previous study is discussed in a separate paragraph (s) with the findings
  • 51. summarised collectively - same as with non-research or conceptual literature by authorities who hold similar views. 5. A review of literature should read as a synthesis, written by someone who has read all of the literature and so is able to look across it all, select the highlights, and synthesise these into a totally integrated section in the context of the current study, for further use when writing the discussion of the results and conclusions. 8.2.1 History of Research: Provide a brief history of the empirical research on the subject. Pioneering studies, thrust of prior research on the subject i.e. which issues have received attention, theories explored, viewpoints expressed, and research methods typically used. 8.2.2 Review of Key Studies
  • 52. 1. Identify and summarise the key empirical studies that have a bearing on the research. 2. Provide a tabular summary of the subjects, issues studied, research methods used and other pertinent details relating to the studies. 3. Summarise the findings of the studies. 8.2.3 Evaluation of Key Studies: 1. Evaluate the findings of the studies in the light of your concerns. 2. What has been accomplished and what remains to be done? 3. How do you intend to use the experience of these studies in your research? 8.2.4 Summary: A synopsis of the contents of the hypotheses / research questions and the rationale derived from the researcher's experience and from the readings of
  • 53. research and conceptual literatures should be stated effectively at the conclusion of the review of literature chapter that leads on to the following chapter. 8.3 Chapter 3 - Theoretical Framework and Research Methodology THEORETICAL / CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK - using material from the previous chapter, produce the working definitions of the main concepts you will use in your study. If possible, form them into a conceptual framework of theories or hypotheses to be tested. 8.3.1 Research Methodology 1. Discuss the nature of the questions you are asking and choose an appropriate methodological stance for answering them. 2. Justify the research methods you are using. 3. Describe the practical and technical aspects of conducting the
  • 54. research. 8.3.2 Theoretical Framework Identify the various variables investigated in the study. Illustrate how the variables interact with each other as hypothesised in the research by the aid of diagram (s) (if possible). 8.3.3 Research Approach Describe the approach adopted in the study, justification for using the approach and issues related to adopting the approach. 8.3.4 Research Subjects 1. Provide details about the population and sample used. 2. What sectors of the labour force, industry or groups is the sample drawn? 3. What are the characteristics of the population sample? 4. What are the strong points and limitations of the sample?
  • 55. 5. What is the justification of choosing the sample? 6. Can the findings be generalised to the population? 8.3.5 Questionnaire 1. Describe the questionnaire used in the study 2. Background of the questionnaire 3. Is it original? If any items are taken from existing questionnaire, identify the sources 4. Describe the question categories 5. Describe the scaling methods used and state the reasons for choosing them 6. Issues on validity and reliability 7. Pilot test to check the clarity and appropriateness of the survey questionnaire prior to the actual conduct of the actual survey. 8.3.6 Administration of the Questionnaire
  • 56. 1. Describe how the questionnaire was administered 2. Discuss problems encountered, if any, that affected the results relating to sample characteristics and their potential impact on reliability and validity of the data. 3. Ensure that in collecting the data, individual respondents / organization were duly briefed and made aware of the ethical practices including ensuring the confidentiality of the information gathered and data protection, voluntary and non - monetary inducement to participate in the intended research. Full consent of participations by individual respondents is solicited without any form of coercion. 8.3.7 Statistical Methods 1. Discuss the selected Descriptive and Inferential Statistical methods [as in the SPSS] used in analysing the results. Having selected the variables for your study, you assume that they would either help to define your
  • 57. problem (dependent variable/s) and its different components or that they were contributory factors to your problem (independent variable). 2. The purpose of data analysis is to identify whether these assumptions were correct or not, and to highlight possible new views on the problem under study. 3. The ultimate purpose of analysis is to answer the research questions outlined in the objectives with your data. 8.3.8 Summary 1. A synopsis of the contents of what has been written about in the Theoretical / Conceptual Framework and Research Methodology used. 2. The description of the sample used. 3. Descriptive data and the instrument used. 4. The design of the study and the way data were collected. 5. The way data were analysed - assumptions and limitations of the study.
  • 58. 8.4 Chapter 4 - Data Presentation, Analysis and Findings 1. Describe what you found out and what it means. 2. Refer back to the Literature Review and your Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework. 3. Present the Data in the form of tables, figures, charts or other illustrations as needed and sequenced in terms of the research questions or hypotheses tested. 4. Discuss your findings in terms of what the data actually means in terms of each segment or cell of data gathered. 8.4.1 Summary State the findings as concretely as possible in terms of each segment or cell of data gathered to answer the research questions and hypotheses. 8.5 Chapter 5 - Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 59. 1. As an introduction to the chapter, Summarise [recapitulate] the argument of the dissertation in terms of what you attempted to find out and what you accomplished i.e. address the research questions / hypothesis(es). 2. The final chapter is entitled `Conclusions and Recommendations'. Conclusions here mean that for each of the findings that address the research questions and hypotheses, the researcher draws a conclusion. 3. Recommendations mean that for each Conclusion, the researcher suggests a recommendation. 4. Consider: a. Discussion: Discuss the findings of Study in terms of the main Research Questions and Hypotheses as well as the Title of the Research and relate the findings to the Literature Review. In addition, try to explain the significance and non-
  • 60. significance of the results using available theory, data and facts as well as the validity and reliability of the findings and arguments in the dissertation as a whole. b. Implications: What are the substantive implications of the experience for - Management, unions and other interest groups; for public policy; Nation building. - The Methodological or procedural implications of the experience for other researchers. c. Limitations of Research: Describe the possible limitations faced in the study especially from the methodological perspective. d. Suggestions for Further or Additional Research: Provide concrete suggestions for FURTHER RESEARCH in the field or additional research (if possible) in the research methodological areas encountered in the study The researcher's last Recommendation will be Suggestions for Further Research.
  • 61. e. The FINAL CONCLUSION to the chapter addresses the TITLE of the Research as the title reflects the whole study. Discuss how the objectives and research questions of the study have been met with the research. f. Highlight the key findings, implications, etc. that the research has revealed.