Research Proposal Seminar

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  • Portrait of Sir Issac Newton, source Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:GodfreyKneller-IsaacNewton-1689.jpg. Made available under the wikimedia commons. How to Write a Lab Report
  • Research Proposal Seminar

    1. 2. How to write a Research Proposal NIDHEESHA T FIRST YEAR MSC NURSING Presented by:
    2. 3. How to write a Research Proposal
    3. 4. Research Proposal Why all this fuss about a detailed proposal for my study before I even begin?. Things are going to change once I get into the study! That is true. Changes are inevitable. But a little thought now will save you a lot of grief later on!
    4. 5. <ul><li>A plan of action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A prerequisite for Research investigation </li></ul></ul>What is a Proposal?
    5. 6. <ul><li>“ Good research proposals both give an overview of the project and a well informed discussion of the nuts and bolts of the proposed research” (Burnett 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Connects with current literature </li></ul><ul><li>Well though out, viable and timely </li></ul>What is a Proposal?
    6. 7. <ul><li>A written Plan of a Study </li></ul><ul><li>---The Research Proposal identifies problems, states questions or hypotheses, identifies variables and define terms. </li></ul><ul><li>---The subjects to be included in the sample, the instrument to be used, the research design chosen, the procedures to be followed, how the data will be analyzed----all are spelled out in some detail. </li></ul>What is a Proposal?
    7. 8. Purpose of a Research Proposal <ul><li>Research proposal is intended to convince others that you have a worthwhile research project and that you have the competence and the work-plan to complete it. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of a proposal is to tell your idea to the funding agency. This means that the investigator must convince the funding agency that: </li></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>The written proposal: </li></ul><ul><li>• Assists the investigators to clarify their thoughts and to think about all aspects of the study </li></ul><ul><li>• Is a necessary guide if a team (not a single investigator) is working on the research </li></ul><ul><li>• Is essential if the study involves research on human subjects or is on experimental animals, in order to get the institution’s ethical approval </li></ul><ul><li>• Is an essential component of a research proposal submitted for funding </li></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Background and significance of the </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Literature Review </li></ul><ul><li>Operational definition </li></ul>Steps in Developing Research Proposal
    10. 11. Contd… <ul><li>Conceptual frame work </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Research Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Research approach </li></ul><ul><li>Study design </li></ul><ul><li>Setting </li></ul>
    11. 12. Contd… <ul><li>Sampling technique </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion and exclusion criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Tools and techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot study </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for data analysis </li></ul>
    12. 13. Contd… <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Work plan </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Appendices </li></ul>
    13. 14. <ul><ul><li>In an introduction, the writer should </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>create reader interest in the topic, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lay the broad foundation for the problem that leads to the study, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>place the study within the larger context of the scholarly literature, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reach out to a specific audience. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction should be clear and Explain: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What the research topic is? </li></ul><ul><li>Why have you chosen it? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is the topic important? </li></ul>Introduction of the Research Proposal
    14. 15. Title of the Research Project <ul><li>A good title should be short, accurate, and concise. </li></ul><ul><li>It may need to be revised after completion of the proposal writing to reflect more closely the sense of the study. </li></ul><ul><li>The title should be descriptive. It should make the central objectives and variables of the study clear to the reader (reviewer). </li></ul><ul><li>The title provides the &quot;key words&quot; for the classification and indexing of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to specify what population or universe will be investigated . </li></ul>
    15. 16. Background of the study <ul><li>“ The introduction is the part of the paper that provides readers with the background information for the research reported in the paper. Its purpose is to establish a framework for the research, so that readers can understand how it is related to other research” (Wilkinson, 1991). </li></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li>what contributions will it give to the field. </li></ul><ul><li>State how your findings CAN MAKE THE DIFFERENCE and WHY it is IMPORTANT that the research be carried out. </li></ul>Significance of the study
    17. 18. <ul><li>Significance of the study contains three paragraphs based on three questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Why the study is important? </li></ul><ul><li>How the study is important? </li></ul><ul><li>For whom the study is important? </li></ul> Contd…..
    18. 19. <ul><li>The purpose states succinctly what the researcher proposes to investigate. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose should be a concise statement, providing a framework to which details are added later. </li></ul>Purpose of the Study
    19. 20. Problem to be Investigated
    20. 21. Significance Of the study Research questions or Hypothesis Statement of The problem Definition of Terms Problem to be Investigated
    21. 22. Statement of the Problem <ul><li>“ A problem might be defined as the issue that exists in the literature, theory, or practice that leads to a need for the study” (Creswell, 1994). </li></ul><ul><li>Effective problem statements answer the question “Why does this research need to be conducted.” </li></ul>
    22. 23. Statement of the Problem <ul><li>Normally a research topic should satisfy the following criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>(i) state the key variables included in the study, </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) state relationship between variables, </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) state population to which results would be applicable, </li></ul><ul><li>(iv) avoid redundant words, and </li></ul><ul><li>(v) use only acceptable scientific terms. </li></ul>
    23. 24. Objectives of the Study <ul><li>Objectives should be clearly stated and specific in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Each sub objective should delineate only one issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Action oriented words such as, “to determine”, “to find out”, “to ascertain” in formulating sub objectives, which should be numerically stated. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives should be attainable, measurable, achievable and testable. </li></ul>
    24. 25. <ul><li>Objectives should be stated using “action verbs” that are specific enough to be measured: </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. To determine …, To compare…, To verify…, To calculate…, To describe…, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use vague non-action verbs such as: T o appreciate … To understand… To believe </li></ul> How should objectives be stated?
    25. 26. Contd… <ul><li>Objectives should be: </li></ul><ul><li>Logical and coherent </li></ul><ul><li>Feasible </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic, considering local conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Defined in operational terms that can be measured </li></ul><ul><li>Phrased to clearly meet the purpose of the study (relevant) </li></ul>
    26. 27. <ul><li>Objectives should be: </li></ul><ul><li>Logical and coherent </li></ul><ul><li>Feasible </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic, considering local conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Defined in operational terms that can be measured </li></ul><ul><li>Phrased to clearly meet the purpose of the study (relevant) </li></ul>What are the characteristics of well-constructed objectives?
    27. 28. Literature Review <ul><li>Purpose is to define what was known about the subject covered in the report before the work was done </li></ul><ul><li>“ If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.” </li></ul><ul><li>[Newton, 1675] </li></ul>
    28. 29. <ul><li>Shows that you are aware of the literature study that is required in your research area. </li></ul><ul><li>Your review a substantial amount of reading materials before writing your proposal. </li></ul><ul><li>Shows that you have the theoretical knowledge in your chosen research area </li></ul>
    29. 30. <ul><li>All key terms should be defined. </li></ul><ul><li>In a hypothesis testing study, these are primarily the terms that describe the variables of the study. </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher’s task is to make his/her definitions as clear as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to authoritative sources for definitions. </li></ul>Operational Definitions
    30. 31. <ul><li>A research problem should, </li></ul><ul><li>where possible, be set within the framework of A theory. </li></ul><ul><li>A ‘theory’ is simply defined as an interrelated set of propositions aimed at explaining A phenomenon </li></ul>
    31. 32. Research Questions or Hypotheses <ul><li>Based on your experience with the study problem, it might be possible to develop explanations for the problem, which can then be tested. If so, you can formulate hypotheses in addition to the study objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>A HYPOTHESIS is a prediction of a relationship between one or more factors and the problem under study that can be tested. </li></ul><ul><li>a hypothesis represents a declarative statement of the relations between two or more variables (Kerlinger, 1979; Krathwohl, 1988). </li></ul>
    32. 33. <ul><li>Must state each hypothesis explicitly </li></ul><ul><li>It is advised that the hypothesis be stated in the form of a null hypothesis as a guide to statistical analysis </li></ul>
    33. 34. <ul><li>Describe data that you will use in the research, the methodology to be adopted and justify your choice of methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Inform readers </li></ul><ul><li>a. kinds of data going to be collected </li></ul><ul><li>b. research procedure (interviews? observations? questionnaires?) </li></ul>Methodology
    34. 35. <ul><li>If outside organisations involved, explain how you are going to get hold of the data. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate why the methodology is used. </li></ul><ul><li>If existing methodology is not to be used, explain why you need to use an adapted methodology. </li></ul> contd….
    35. 36. <ul><li>Design – a description of the approach to be used to reach objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly indicate the methods of data collection either within a quantitative or qualitative methodology; as well as the techniques for data collection, e.g. questionnaires, and measurement (the validation of the techniques). Indicate whether field workers will be used to collect data and whether computer programmes will be employed to analyse the data. </li></ul> Research Design
    36. 37. <ul><li>A population can be defined as including all people or items with the characteristic one wishes to understand </li></ul><ul><li>Population sampling refers to the process through which a group of representative individuals is selected from a population for the purpose of statistical analysis. </li></ul>Population and Sampling
    37. 38. <ul><li>In this subsection of the method section you describe any apparatus and or instruments you propose to use in your research study. </li></ul><ul><li>The following information should be included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General description of the apparatus or instruments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variables measured by instruments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability and validity of instruments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why the instruments or apparatus are used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference indicating where apparatus or instruments can be obtained. </li></ul></ul> Tools and techniques
    38. 39. <ul><li>It may be possible to pre-test: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The reactions of respondents to the research procedures and to questions related to sensitive issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The appropriateness of study type and research tools selected for the purpose of the study. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The appropriateness of format and wording of questionnaires and interview schedules and the accuracy of the translations </li></ul></ul>Pilot study
    39. 40. <ul><ul><li>The time needed to carry out interviews, observations or measurements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The feasibility of the designed sampling procedures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The feasibility of the designed procedures for data processing and analysis. </li></ul></ul>Contd. ..
    40. 41. <ul><li>The investigator should write up: </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the general plan for collecting the data. </li></ul><ul><li>the procedures that will be used (population survey, in-depth interviews, non-participant observation, focus group dynamics, content analysis, etc.), </li></ul><ul><li>how and when the procedures will be used, and the instruments that will be used to collect information (questionnaire, interview guide, observation recording form, guide for a focus group moderator, content analysis guide, etc.). </li></ul> Data Collection plan
    41. 42. <ul><ul><ul><li>Specify the procedures you will use, and label them accurately (e.g., ANOVA, MANCOVA, HLM, ethnography, case study, grounded theory). If coding procedures are to be used, describe in reasonable detail. Communicate your precise intentions and reasons for these intentions to the reader. This helps you and the reader evaluate the choices you made and procedures you followed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate briefly any analytic tools you will have available and expect to use (e.g., Ethnograph, SAS, SPSS, SYSTAT ). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a well thought-out rationale for your decision to use the design, methodology, and analyses you have selected. </li></ul></ul></ul>Data Analysis plan
    42. 43. <ul><li>For studies in humans (or involving human biological materials), the protocol must be approved by the local, institutional or equivalent ethics committee and/or national ethics committee. </li></ul><ul><li>For animal studies approval is required from the animal welfare committee of the institute or its equivalent. </li></ul><ul><li>If no such committee exists, a statement signed by the principal investigator(s) should indicate that the research will be carried out in accordance with the International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research involving Animals. </li></ul> Ethical considerations
    43. 44. <ul><li>A consent form, where appropriate, must be developed and attached to the protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>It should be written in the prospective subjects’ mother tongue. </li></ul><ul><li>The consent form has two parts: </li></ul><ul><li>a) a statement describing the study and the nature of the subject’s involvement in it; and </li></ul><ul><li>b) a certificate of consent attesting to the subject’s consent. </li></ul><ul><li>Both parts should be written in simple language so that the subject can easily understand the contents. As much as possible, the use of medical terminology in writing up the consent form </li></ul>
    44. 45. <ul><li>The budget section should contain a detailed item-wise breakdown of the funds requested for, along with a justification for each item. </li></ul>Budget
    45. 46. References <ul><li>References should be written in Vancouver style. </li></ul><ul><li>Citing References </li></ul><ul><li>Number references consecutively throughout the body of the text in the order in which they are first mentioned. </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT include references in your abstract. Identify references in text, tables and legends by numerals in parenthesis e.g. (1), (2,3) or (3-6). </li></ul><ul><li>Some journals require references to be indicated in superscript which makes typing more difficult. </li></ul>
    46. 47. Cont.. <ul><li>DO NOT use abstracts as your source of information, you must consult the full text of the article before using it as a cited reference. </li></ul><ul><li>When citing authors in the text, acknowledge only the first author where there are three or more authors, e.g. Williams et al. (1994) stated that .....(1). Where there are two authors cite both, e.g. Jones and Smith (1997) reported that ....(2). Note that a reference at the end of a sentence is included before the period. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
    47. 48. <ul><li>The list of references must begin on a new page and they are cited by number and sequenced by order of citation. Include all authors in the list of references </li></ul>
    48. 49. Appendices <ul><li>Include in the appendices of your proposal any additional information you think might be helpful to a proposal reviewer. </li></ul><ul><li>Biographical data on the principal investigator </li></ul><ul><li>The study questionnaire (and/or other data collection tools) </li></ul><ul><li>The informed consent form </li></ul><ul><li>A copy of the approval from the Institutional Review Board </li></ul>
    49. 50. <ul><li>Every effort should be made to limit the length of a proposal. As a rule of thumb, the proposal should not exceed 5,000 words (about 18-20 typed, double-spaced pages). </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, the proposal must be of adequate length to describe, in fair detail, the nature of the proposed project as outlined above. It will be necessary to edit the work to stay within the word limit. </li></ul>
    50. 51. <ul><li>The thesis may use any of the common referencing systems (e.g., APA, MLA, and CMS). Whatever the style and format used, the most important rule is to be consistent. </li></ul><ul><li>Plagiarism is a serious offence. Academic, ethical and moral standards must be maintained. </li></ul><ul><li>Footnotes should be placed at the foot of the page and not at the end of the chapter. It makes for easy reading. </li></ul>
    51. 52. <ul><li>Ensure that the thesis is devoid of grammatical errors. Computers do provide some clues for spelling and grammar, but a good editing job is absolutely essential. </li></ul>
    52. 53. References
    53. 54.
    54. 55.

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