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Module 6
6.1 Engine Testing and Performance: Measurement of various performance parameters,
Performance characteristic of SI and CI Engine, Effect of load and speed on performance
parameters,
Heat balance sheet.
6.2 Engine Emission and Control: Sources of Engine Emissions, Constituents of S.I. and C.I.
Engine exhaust
and their effects on environment and health. Study of emission (Euro & Bharat stage)
norms,
Control methods for S.I and C I engine emissions
18 Marks 5 Theory 13 Numerical
ηb= ___B.P ___
mf X C.V
ηi= ___I.P ___
mf X C.V
ηm= ___B.P ___
I.P
ηV= ___Mass of actual charge inducted ___________________
Mass of charge corresponding to swept vol at atm P &T
OR Actual volume of charge inhaled at suction condn___________________
Swept volume
Performance Characteristics of an Engine
Engine Performance Characteristics are the Graphical Representation of Engine Performance.
Laboratory tests are performed to determine I.P., B.P., mechanical efficiency, thermal
efficiency and specific fuel consumption.
The performance characteristics of S.I. and C.I. engines are being discussed below
Fig. 9.14 (a),(b)&(c) represent performance characteristic curves for variable speed S.I. engine.
1. S.I. Engines
It can be observed that the I.P. increases when i.m.e.p or the speed or both of them
increase.
 The I.P. increases first with the increase in speed if the inlet conditions are kept constant.

 However, after certain limit the rate of increase of I.P. is reduced with increase in speed
because of drop in pressure at intake and reduction in volumetric efficiency.
 Mechanical losses increase with increase in speed due to which the increase in I.P. is
offset by the increased losses; therefore, the mechanical efficiency reduces with increase
in speed as shown in Fig. (b).
The effect on brake specific fuel consumption (b.s.f.c.) with variation in speed is also
represented in Fig. (b). At low speeds with increase in speed the b.s.f.c. reduces since
the volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency are high.
After certain speed the b.s.f.c. increases because of reduction in volumetric
efficiency and increased mechanical losses.
Point-X represents the economical speed for minimum fuel consumption for the
engine.
Fig.(c) shows the variation of volumetric efficiency with speed. The volumetric
efficiency reduces with the increase in speed because of drop in pressure at suction
caused by increase in velocity of charge to be inducted.
The suction valve will only open when pressure inside the cylinder is slightly below
the surrounding pressure, thus the effective suction stroke is reduced.
It reduces the volume of mixture inducted lowering the volumetric efficiency.
2. C.I. Engines:
Fig. Performance curve for CI engine Fig. Performance curve for SI and CI
engine at constant speed
It could be seen that in case of S.I. engines the b.s.f.c. first decreases with increase in
load while working at part loads upto a certain minimum value and then it starts
increasing rapidly with further increase in loads
Beyond full load the curve starts forming a loop backward beyond point - X which shows
that the output decreases but the fuel consumption increases. It is due to the fact that the
mixture supplied to the engine is too rich and lot goes as unburnt in the exhaust. Such a
condition of the engine is called choking. In case of C.I. engines the b.s.f.c. Vs B.P. curve is
more uniform and the specific fuel consumption is lower than S.I. engines.
Heat balance sheet
Heat balance sheet represents an account of the heat supplied in fuel and released in
combustion and its utilization in the engine. Necessary information concerning the
performance of the engine is obtained from the heat balance sheet.
In order to draw a heat balance sheet, a complete test on the engine must be carried out
while the engine is run at constant load.
Heat supplied: Energy is supplied to the engine in the form of fuel supplied to the engine, its
heat being released during combustion.
𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑=𝑚𝑓×𝐶.𝑉. 𝑘𝐽/𝑚𝑖𝑛 Where, mf = mass flow rate of fuel (kg/min) C.V. = Calorific
value of fuel in kJ/kg
Heat expenditure / Heat utilised:
Heat energy of the fuel is partly converted into useful work equivalent to its B.P. and the
remainder is carried away by cooling water, exhaust gases and some of heat is lost in radiation,
ncomplete combustion, lubricating oil, which remains unaccounted for.
Note: Frictional power is not accounted in the heat calculations since friction work is converted
nto heat which in turn is transferred partly to cooling water and remainder is carried away by
exhaust gases.
What is Emission Norms?
Emission standards dictate the maximum amount of a certain pollutant allowed
to be discharged into the atmosphere from a single source
In case of Engines maximum prescribed level of CO,HC and NO2 are set by GOI which a
vehicle is permitted to emit from its exhaust while running.
All Automobile manufacturer are expected to adhere to these norms.
What is Euro norms?
Euro norms refer to the permissible emission levels, for both petrol and diesel vehicles,
which have been implemented in Europe. ...
It requires manufacturers to reduce the existing polluting emission levels in a more
efficient manner by making certain technical changes in their vehicles.
Euro I norms were implemented from 1992 up to the year 2008 in phased manner
(Euro 1 to Euro V )n
What is India (Bharat ) norms?
Vehicle emission norms were introduced in India in 1991 for petrol and in 1992 for diesel vehicles.
After Supreme Court hearing EURO I norms were implemented in New Delhi from 1St June 1999
As GOI MVR (Motor Vehicle Regulation).
These norms are know n as INDIA 2000 ( BHARAT I Norms)
EURO II were implemented from year 2002 known as BHARAT II Norms
Details in below table (Next Slide)
Hurdles in following stricter norms
Upgrading the emission norms requires the manufacturing companies to upgrade their
technology, which in turn increases the cost of the vehicle. Cost is one of the main reasons for
the slow upgrade of emission standards.
However, there are also arguments that the increase in cost is made up by savings in health
costs as the pollutants causing diseases are decreased with the upgrade in emission standards.
Fuels also play a crucial role in meeting these emission norms.
Fuel specifications have also been aligned to its corresponding European production norms.
Mod6_Engine Testing and Performance.pptx
Mod6_Engine Testing and Performance.pptx
Mod6_Engine Testing and Performance.pptx
Mod6_Engine Testing and Performance.pptx
Mod6_Engine Testing and Performance.pptx
Mod6_Engine Testing and Performance.pptx
Mod6_Engine Testing and Performance.pptx
Mod6_Engine Testing and Performance.pptx
Mod6_Engine Testing and Performance.pptx

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Mod6_Engine Testing and Performance.pptx

  • 1. Module 6 6.1 Engine Testing and Performance: Measurement of various performance parameters, Performance characteristic of SI and CI Engine, Effect of load and speed on performance parameters, Heat balance sheet. 6.2 Engine Emission and Control: Sources of Engine Emissions, Constituents of S.I. and C.I. Engine exhaust and their effects on environment and health. Study of emission (Euro & Bharat stage) norms, Control methods for S.I and C I engine emissions 18 Marks 5 Theory 13 Numerical
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  • 9. ηb= ___B.P ___ mf X C.V ηi= ___I.P ___ mf X C.V
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  • 13. ηV= ___Mass of actual charge inducted ___________________ Mass of charge corresponding to swept vol at atm P &T OR Actual volume of charge inhaled at suction condn___________________ Swept volume
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  • 15. Performance Characteristics of an Engine Engine Performance Characteristics are the Graphical Representation of Engine Performance. Laboratory tests are performed to determine I.P., B.P., mechanical efficiency, thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption. The performance characteristics of S.I. and C.I. engines are being discussed below Fig. 9.14 (a),(b)&(c) represent performance characteristic curves for variable speed S.I. engine. 1. S.I. Engines It can be observed that the I.P. increases when i.m.e.p or the speed or both of them increase.  The I.P. increases first with the increase in speed if the inlet conditions are kept constant.   However, after certain limit the rate of increase of I.P. is reduced with increase in speed because of drop in pressure at intake and reduction in volumetric efficiency.  Mechanical losses increase with increase in speed due to which the increase in I.P. is offset by the increased losses; therefore, the mechanical efficiency reduces with increase in speed as shown in Fig. (b).
  • 16. The effect on brake specific fuel consumption (b.s.f.c.) with variation in speed is also represented in Fig. (b). At low speeds with increase in speed the b.s.f.c. reduces since the volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency are high. After certain speed the b.s.f.c. increases because of reduction in volumetric efficiency and increased mechanical losses. Point-X represents the economical speed for minimum fuel consumption for the engine. Fig.(c) shows the variation of volumetric efficiency with speed. The volumetric efficiency reduces with the increase in speed because of drop in pressure at suction caused by increase in velocity of charge to be inducted. The suction valve will only open when pressure inside the cylinder is slightly below the surrounding pressure, thus the effective suction stroke is reduced. It reduces the volume of mixture inducted lowering the volumetric efficiency.
  • 17. 2. C.I. Engines: Fig. Performance curve for CI engine Fig. Performance curve for SI and CI engine at constant speed It could be seen that in case of S.I. engines the b.s.f.c. first decreases with increase in load while working at part loads upto a certain minimum value and then it starts increasing rapidly with further increase in loads Beyond full load the curve starts forming a loop backward beyond point - X which shows that the output decreases but the fuel consumption increases. It is due to the fact that the mixture supplied to the engine is too rich and lot goes as unburnt in the exhaust. Such a condition of the engine is called choking. In case of C.I. engines the b.s.f.c. Vs B.P. curve is more uniform and the specific fuel consumption is lower than S.I. engines.
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  • 20. Heat balance sheet Heat balance sheet represents an account of the heat supplied in fuel and released in combustion and its utilization in the engine. Necessary information concerning the performance of the engine is obtained from the heat balance sheet. In order to draw a heat balance sheet, a complete test on the engine must be carried out while the engine is run at constant load. Heat supplied: Energy is supplied to the engine in the form of fuel supplied to the engine, its heat being released during combustion. 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑=𝑚𝑓×𝐶.𝑉. 𝑘𝐽/𝑚𝑖𝑛 Where, mf = mass flow rate of fuel (kg/min) C.V. = Calorific value of fuel in kJ/kg
  • 21. Heat expenditure / Heat utilised: Heat energy of the fuel is partly converted into useful work equivalent to its B.P. and the remainder is carried away by cooling water, exhaust gases and some of heat is lost in radiation, ncomplete combustion, lubricating oil, which remains unaccounted for. Note: Frictional power is not accounted in the heat calculations since friction work is converted nto heat which in turn is transferred partly to cooling water and remainder is carried away by exhaust gases.
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  • 32. What is Emission Norms? Emission standards dictate the maximum amount of a certain pollutant allowed to be discharged into the atmosphere from a single source In case of Engines maximum prescribed level of CO,HC and NO2 are set by GOI which a vehicle is permitted to emit from its exhaust while running. All Automobile manufacturer are expected to adhere to these norms. What is Euro norms? Euro norms refer to the permissible emission levels, for both petrol and diesel vehicles, which have been implemented in Europe. ... It requires manufacturers to reduce the existing polluting emission levels in a more efficient manner by making certain technical changes in their vehicles. Euro I norms were implemented from 1992 up to the year 2008 in phased manner (Euro 1 to Euro V )n
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  • 34. What is India (Bharat ) norms? Vehicle emission norms were introduced in India in 1991 for petrol and in 1992 for diesel vehicles. After Supreme Court hearing EURO I norms were implemented in New Delhi from 1St June 1999 As GOI MVR (Motor Vehicle Regulation). These norms are know n as INDIA 2000 ( BHARAT I Norms) EURO II were implemented from year 2002 known as BHARAT II Norms Details in below table (Next Slide) Hurdles in following stricter norms Upgrading the emission norms requires the manufacturing companies to upgrade their technology, which in turn increases the cost of the vehicle. Cost is one of the main reasons for the slow upgrade of emission standards. However, there are also arguments that the increase in cost is made up by savings in health costs as the pollutants causing diseases are decreased with the upgrade in emission standards. Fuels also play a crucial role in meeting these emission norms. Fuel specifications have also been aligned to its corresponding European production norms.