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AIRBAGS: A Safety Restraint
System of an automobile
INTRODUCTION
➢Seat belts provided the sole form of safety
in cars.
➢Airbags were developed.
➢A soft pillow to land against in a crash.
➢They are gas-inflated cushions.
➢The first patent on an inflatable crash
landing device was filed during World War
II.
➢Airbags are the subject of serious
scientific research and tests.
BASICS OF AIRBAGS
❖Newton’s second law of motion.
➢If objects aren’t restrained they will continue
moving at the speed of the moving car even if
the car is stopped by a collision.
➢All airbags need to do is slow down
the passengers speed to zero.
MAIN PARTS OF AN AIRBAG
➢ Bag
Made of thin nylon fabric,folded into a steering wheel
or dashboard or more recently the door or seat.
➢ Sensor
Tells the bag to inflate
➢ Inflation system
The rapid pulse of hot nitrogen gas to inflate the bag.
WORKING
➢During collision, a mechanical switch is flipped
and an electrical contact takes place.
➢Sensors send an electric current to the inflation
system.
➢Inflation system contains sodium azide and
potassium nitrate.
➢Electric current heats the filament which ignites
the capsule containing Nitrogen gas.
➢The gas expands quickly and inflation of air
bags takes place, which literally bursts from its
storage site in the steering wheel.
2 NaN3 → 2 Na + 3 N2 (g)
10 Na + 2 KNO3 → K2O + 5 Na2O + N2 (g)
K2O + Na2O + 2 SiO2 → K2O3Si + Na2O3Si (silicate glass)
This is how it takes place..
MECHANICAL CRASH SENSORS
• CRASH SENSOR WITH DAMPING
BALL IN-TUBE SENSOR
THE AIRFLOW GENEARTES AN AERODYNAMIC DRAG FORCE THAT DAMPENS THE
BALL MOTION.
• SPRING MASS SENSOR
ROLOMITE SENSOR
Roller- suspended with a tensioned baned.
Substantial collision- roller overcomes a spring force and rotates forward.
Impact-moving contact of the metallic band touches a fixed contact and
closes a circuit.
Parameters- distance of trigger
- magnitude of the spring.
Future of airbags
❖ Smart Restraint Systems
➢Adapts its geometry, performance or
behavior to suit various impacts and occupant
position.
➢Includes weight sensors.
➢Determine type of occupant in the seat.
i.e child or adult.
➢Detect the distance of passenger from
airbags.
MODERN TYPES OF AIRBAGS
❖ Side air bag
➢Cars that currently offer side airbags
represent the new wave of occupant
protection.
➢Provides protection during side collisons.
➢This prevents the airbag on the
undamaged side of the car from inflating.
❖ Curtain airbags
➢Inflates in front of windows to provide
passengers better head and neck protection.
➢More efficient at tipping and side impacts.
❖ Door air bag
➢The door has more space, allowing for
a bigger bag that provides more
coverage. Developed by Ford and
Renault.
➢Door-mounted side air bags must
begin deploying in mere 5 or 6
Airbag checks
➢Turn the key and look at the dashboard to
find the airbag light on for 7-10 sec. & then it
goes off.
➢Problems occur when
•
•
•
1. Light does not come on.
2. If light does not go off after the period.
3. If light comes while driving.
CONCLUSIONS
➢Since safety of human life is of high
priority, Air bags are of greater importance
in the present vehicles.
➢Safety bags must be implemented for
safe riding and for saving precious lives.
➢Let’s hope every automobile
manufacturer implements the same.
References
[1] A Safety Restraint System of an Automobile.
Tasnim N. Shaikh et al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications www.ijera.com
Vol. 3, Issue 5, Sep-Oct 2013, pp.615-621
[2] A Treatise on crash sensing for automotive airbag systems IEEE /ASME transactions on
Mechatronics, Vol. 7, No. 2, JUNE 2002 by Ching-Yao Chan .
THANK YOU

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fdocuments.in_airbags-ppt.pptx

  • 1. AIRBAGS: A Safety Restraint System of an automobile
  • 2. INTRODUCTION ➢Seat belts provided the sole form of safety in cars. ➢Airbags were developed. ➢A soft pillow to land against in a crash. ➢They are gas-inflated cushions. ➢The first patent on an inflatable crash landing device was filed during World War II. ➢Airbags are the subject of serious scientific research and tests.
  • 3. BASICS OF AIRBAGS ❖Newton’s second law of motion. ➢If objects aren’t restrained they will continue moving at the speed of the moving car even if the car is stopped by a collision. ➢All airbags need to do is slow down the passengers speed to zero.
  • 4. MAIN PARTS OF AN AIRBAG ➢ Bag Made of thin nylon fabric,folded into a steering wheel or dashboard or more recently the door or seat. ➢ Sensor Tells the bag to inflate ➢ Inflation system The rapid pulse of hot nitrogen gas to inflate the bag.
  • 5. WORKING ➢During collision, a mechanical switch is flipped and an electrical contact takes place. ➢Sensors send an electric current to the inflation system. ➢Inflation system contains sodium azide and potassium nitrate. ➢Electric current heats the filament which ignites the capsule containing Nitrogen gas. ➢The gas expands quickly and inflation of air bags takes place, which literally bursts from its storage site in the steering wheel.
  • 6. 2 NaN3 → 2 Na + 3 N2 (g) 10 Na + 2 KNO3 → K2O + 5 Na2O + N2 (g) K2O + Na2O + 2 SiO2 → K2O3Si + Na2O3Si (silicate glass)
  • 7. This is how it takes place..
  • 8. MECHANICAL CRASH SENSORS • CRASH SENSOR WITH DAMPING BALL IN-TUBE SENSOR THE AIRFLOW GENEARTES AN AERODYNAMIC DRAG FORCE THAT DAMPENS THE BALL MOTION.
  • 9. • SPRING MASS SENSOR ROLOMITE SENSOR Roller- suspended with a tensioned baned. Substantial collision- roller overcomes a spring force and rotates forward. Impact-moving contact of the metallic band touches a fixed contact and closes a circuit. Parameters- distance of trigger - magnitude of the spring.
  • 10. Future of airbags ❖ Smart Restraint Systems ➢Adapts its geometry, performance or behavior to suit various impacts and occupant position. ➢Includes weight sensors. ➢Determine type of occupant in the seat. i.e child or adult. ➢Detect the distance of passenger from airbags.
  • 11. MODERN TYPES OF AIRBAGS ❖ Side air bag ➢Cars that currently offer side airbags represent the new wave of occupant protection. ➢Provides protection during side collisons. ➢This prevents the airbag on the undamaged side of the car from inflating.
  • 12. ❖ Curtain airbags ➢Inflates in front of windows to provide passengers better head and neck protection. ➢More efficient at tipping and side impacts. ❖ Door air bag ➢The door has more space, allowing for a bigger bag that provides more coverage. Developed by Ford and Renault. ➢Door-mounted side air bags must begin deploying in mere 5 or 6
  • 13.
  • 14. Airbag checks ➢Turn the key and look at the dashboard to find the airbag light on for 7-10 sec. & then it goes off. ➢Problems occur when • • • 1. Light does not come on. 2. If light does not go off after the period. 3. If light comes while driving.
  • 15. CONCLUSIONS ➢Since safety of human life is of high priority, Air bags are of greater importance in the present vehicles. ➢Safety bags must be implemented for safe riding and for saving precious lives. ➢Let’s hope every automobile manufacturer implements the same.
  • 16. References [1] A Safety Restraint System of an Automobile. Tasnim N. Shaikh et al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 5, Sep-Oct 2013, pp.615-621 [2] A Treatise on crash sensing for automotive airbag systems IEEE /ASME transactions on Mechatronics, Vol. 7, No. 2, JUNE 2002 by Ching-Yao Chan .