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ANATOMY

                                                                                                                               [ID 189]
Bowel components
quot;Dow Jones Industrial Average Closing S tock Reportquot;:
   From proximal to distal:
Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum
Appendix
Colon
S igmoid
Rectum
   Alternatively: to include the cecum, quot;Dow Jones Industrial Climbing Average Closing S tock Reportquot;.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Alimentary
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                     Hi Yield [ID 3225]
Diaphragm apertures: spinal levels
Aortic hiatus = 12 letters = T12
Oesophagus = 10 letters = T10
Vena cava = 8 letters = T8
Knowledge Level 1, System: Alimentary
Oriade Adeoye Dept. of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, OAU, Ile-Ife


                                                                                                                                [ID 58]
Duodenum: lengths of parts
quot;Counting 1 to 4 but staggeredquot;:
1st part: 2 inches
2nd part: 3 inches
3rd part: 4 inches
4th part: 1 inch
Knowledge Level 5, System: Alimentary
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                               [ID 114]
Liver inferior markings showing right/left lobe vs. vascular divisions
There's a Hepatic quot;Hquot; on inferior of liver. One vertical stick of the H is the dividing line for anatomical
right/left lobe and the other vertical stick is the divider for vascular halves. Stick that divides the liver into
vascular halves is the one with vena cava impression (since vena cava carries blood, it's fortunate that it's
the divider for blood halves).
Knowledge Level 5, System: Alimentary
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin




                                                                                                                       Hi Yield [ID 72]
Meckel's diverticulum details
2 inches long.
2 feet from end of ileum.
2 times more common in men.
2% occurrence in population.
2 types of tissues may be present.
   Note: quot;di-quot; means quot;twoquot;, so diverticulum is the thing with all the twos.
Knowledge Level 2, System: Alimentary
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin


                                                                                                                     Hi Yield [ID 2516]
Aorta vs. vena cava: right vs. left
Aorta and right each have 5 letters, so aorta is on the right.
Vena and cava and left each have 4 letters, so vena cava is on the left.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin


                                                                                                                                [ID 29]
Aortic arch: major branch order
quot;Know your ABC'Squot;:
Aortic arch gives rise to:
Brachiocephalic trunk
left Common Carotid
left S ubclavian
   Beware though trick question of 'What is first branch of aorta?' Technically, it's the coronary arteries.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                               Hi Yield [ID 2681]
Atrioventricular valves
quot;LAB RATquot;:
Left Atrium: Bicuspid
Right Atrium: Tricuspid
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Amir A. Ghaferi Johns Hopkins School of Medicine


                                                                                                                        [ID 1208]
Axillary artery branches
quot;S crew The Lawyer S ave A Patientquot;:
S uperior thoracic
Thoracoacromiol
Lateral thoracic
S ubscapular
Anterior circumflex humeral
Posterior circumflex humeral
Alternatively: quot;S ome Times Life S eems A Painquot;.
Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous contributor and Joe Azzopardi Not specified and Xarabank


                                                                                                                         [ID 608]
Brachial artery: recurrent and collateral branches
quot;I Am Pretty S exyquot;
Inferior ulnar collateral artery goes with Anterior ulnar recurrent artery.
Posterior ulnar recurrent artery goes with S uperior ulnar collateral artery.
   Alternatively: quot;I Am Pretty S martquot;.
Knowledge Level 5, System: Cardiovascular
Paul's Boutique Western University College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific


                                                                                                                         [ID 669]
Carotid sheath contents
quot;I See 10 CC's in the IVquot;:
I See (I.C.) = Internal Carotid artery
10 = CN 10 (Vagus nerve)
CC = Common Carotid artery
IV = Internal Jugular Vein
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                               Hi Yield [ID 1094]
Cavernous sinus contents
O TOM CAT:
O TOM are lateral wall components, in order from superior to inferior.
CA are the components within the sinus, from medial to lateral. CA ends at the level of T from O TOM.
  See diagram.
Occulomotor nerve (III)
Trochlear nerve (IV)
Ophthalmic nerve (V1)
Maxillary nerve (V2)
Carotid artery
Abducent nerve (VI)
T: When written, connects to the T of OTOM.
Knowledge Level 4, System: Cardiovascular
Jonathan Vafai New York University School of Medicine


                                                                                                               Hi Yield [ID 1833]
Coelic trunk: branches
Left Hand S ide (LHS):
Left gastric artery
Hepatic artery
S plenic artery
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Dr. Harsh Sharma


                                                                                       [ID 613]
Descending abdominal aorta branches from diaphragm to iliacs
quot;Prostitutes Cause S agging S wollen Red Testicles [in men] Living In S inquot;:
Phrenic [inferior]
Celiac
S uperior mesenteric
S uprarenal [middle]
Renal
Testicular [quot;in menquot; only]
Lumbars
Inferior mesenteric
S acral
Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular
Josser Mt. Sinai Medical School


                                                                                       [ID 291]
External carotid artery branches
quot;S ome Anatomists Like F*#king, Others Prefer S & Mquot;:
S uperior thyroid
Ascending pharyngeal
Lingual
Facial
Occipital
Posterior auricular
S uperficial temporal
Maxillary
   Alternatively: As S he Lay Flat, Oscar's Passion S lowly Mountedquot;.
Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                               Hi Yield [ID 10]
Femoral triangle: arrangement of contents
NAVEL:
  From lateral hip towards medial navel:
Nerve (directly behind sheath)
Artery (within sheath)
Vein (within sheath)
Empty space (between vein and lymph)
Lymphatics (with deep inguinal node)
  Nerve/Artery/Vein are all called Femoral.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Andrew J. Vasil UMD School of Medicine, Duluth, MN


                                                                                     [ID 1938]
Heart valve sequence
quot;Try Pulling My Aortaquot;:
Tricuspid
Pulmonary
Mitral
Aorta
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Michael Franco Melbourne University, Australia


                                                                                     [ID 1091]
Inferior vena cava tributaries
quot;I Like To Rise S o Highquot;:
Illiacs
Lumbar
Testicular
Renal
S uprarenal
Hepatic vein.
    Think of the IVC wanting to rise high up to the heart.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular
Usman Ahmad KMC


                                                                                                             [ID 1169]
Internal iliac artery: anterior branches
What Bill admitted to Hilary: quot;I Milked Our Insatiable Intern's Udders Under the Deskquot;:
Inferior gluteal
Middle rectal
Obturator
Inferior vesical artery
Internal pudendal artery
Umbilical
U/D=Uterine artery (female)/ Deferential artery (male)
Knowledge Level 4, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                               [ID 502]
Internal jugular vein: tributaries
quot;Medical S chools Let Confident People Inquot;:
   From inferior to superior:
Middle thyroid
S uperior thyroid
Lingual
Common facial
Pharyngeal
Inferior petrosal sinus
Knowledge Level 6, System: Cardiovascular
LaShawn A. Weaver Medical University of South Carolina


                                                                                                               [ID 270]
Liver: side with ligamentum venosum/ caudate lobe vs. side with quadrate lobe/ ligamentum teres
quot;VC goes with VCquot;:
The Venosum and Caudate is on same side as Vena Cava [posterior]. Therefore, quadrate and teres must
be on anterior by default.
  See inferior-view diagram.
Knowledge Level 4, System: Cardiovascular
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin




                                                                                                       Hi Yield [ID 79]
Lung lobe numbers: right vs. left
Tricuspid heart valve and tri-lobed lung both on the right side.
Bicuspid and bi-lobed lung both on the left side.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin


                                                                                                               [ID 935]
Maxillary artery branches
quot;DAM I AM Piss Drunk But S tupid Drunk I Prefer, Must Phone Alcoholics Anonymousquot;:
Deep auricular
Anterior tympanic
Middle meningeal
Inferior alveolar
Accessory meningeal
Masseteric
Pterygoid
Deep temporal
Buccal
S phenopalatine
Descending palatine
Infraorbital
Posterior superior alveolar
Middle superior alveolar
Pharyngeal
Anterior superior alveolar
Artery of the pterygoid canal
Knowledge Level 7, System: Cardiovascular
Imani Walker and Fareeda Hamid New York College of Osteopathic Medicine


                                                                                                                          [ID 511]
Portal-systemic anastomoses: main 2 places that retroperitoneals connect into systemic
RetroPeritoneals hook up with Renal and Paravertebral veins.
Knowledge Level 6, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                          [ID 278]
Saphenous veins: path of great vs. small at malleolus
quot;MAGdelaine has varicose veinsquot; [The saphenous veins are important for varicose veins]:
Medial maleolus, Anterior to maleolus, and Great saphenous go together.
Then the opposites of these go together: Small saphenous is posterior to the lateral maleolus.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin


                                                                                                                          [ID 324]
Thoracic cage: relations to the important venous structures
Behind the sternoclavicular joints: the brachiocephalic veins begin.
Behind the 1st costal cartilage on the right the superior vena cava begins.
Behind the 2nd costal cartilage on the right the azygos vein ends.
Behind the 3rd costal cartilage on the right the superior vena cava ends.
Knowledge Level 6, System: Cardiovascular
Fred Reid Undergrad at St-Andrews, UK


                                                                                                                         [ID 1207]
Thoracoacromial artery branches
ABCD:
Acromial
Breast (pectoral)
Clavicular
Deltoid
Knowledge Level 6, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous contributor UCLA School of Medicine


                                                                                                                          [ID 258]
Scalp layers
SCALP:
   From superficial to deep:
S kin
Connective tissue
Aponeurosis
Loose areolar tissue
Pericranium
Knowledge Level 1, System: Integumental
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                           [ID 56]
Ureter to ovarian/testicular artery relation
quot;Water under the bridgequot;:
The ureters (which carry water), are posterior to the ovarian/testicular artery.
  Clinically important, since a common surgical error is to cut ureter instead of ovarian artery when removing uterus.
Knowledge Level 2, System: Kidney/Urine
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                           [ID 54]
Spleen: dimensions, weight, surface anatomy
quot;1,3,5,7,9,11quot;:
Spleen dimensions are 1 inch x 3 inches x 5 inches.
Weight is 7 ounces.
It underlies ribs 9 through 11.
Knowledge Level 5, System: Lymphoid
Anonymous Contributor
[ID 26]
Thoracic duct: relation to azygous vein and esophagus
quot;The duck between 2 goosesquot;:
Thoracic duct (duck) is between 2 gooses, azygous and esophagus.
Knowledge Level 5, System: Lymphoid
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                                   [ID 162]
Abdominal muscles
quot;Spare TIRE around their abdomenquot;:
Transversus abdominis
Internal abdominal oblique
Rectus abdominis
External abdominal oblique
Knowledge Level 1, System: Muscle
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                                  [ID 1117]
Anterior forearm muscles: superficial group
quot;Pimps F*ck Prostitutes For Funquot;:
Pronator teres
Flexor carpi radialis
Palmaris longous
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Flexor digitorum superficialis
Knowledge Level 3, System: Muscle
Rob


                                                                                                                                    [ID 27]
Bicipital groove: attachments of muscles near it
quot;The lady between two majorsquot;:
Teres major attaches to medial lip of groove.
Pectoralis major to lateral lip of groove.
Latissimus (Lady) is on floor of groove, between the 2 majors.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Muscle
Sandeep


                                                                                                                                    [ID 92]
Brachioradialis: function, innervation, one relation, one attachment
BrachioRadialis:
Function: Its the Beer Raising muscle, flexes elbow, strongest when wrist is oriented like holding a beer.
Innervation: Breaks Rule: it’s a flexor muscle, But Radial. (Radial nerve usually is for extensors: Recall BEST rule: B was for
brachioradialis).
Important relation: Behind it is the Radial nerve in the cubital fossa.
Attachment: Attaches to Bottom of Radius.
Knowledge Level 4, System: Muscle
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin


                                                                                                                                    [ID 94]
Elbow: muscles that flex it
Three B's Bend the elBow:
Brachialis
Biceps
Brachioradialis
Knowledge Level 2, System: Muscle
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                                     [ID 6]
Elbow: which side has common flexor origin
FM (as in FM Radio):
Flexor Medial, so Common Flexor Origin is on the medial side.
Knowledge Level 2, System: Muscle
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                                   [ID 661]
Erector spinae muscles
quot;I Love S exquot;:
   From lateral to medial:
Iliocostalis
Longissimus
S pinalis
   Alternatively: quot;I Long for S pinachquot;
   quot;Sexquot; helps you think of quot;Erectorquot;, but quot;Longquot; and quot;Spinachquot; help you remember the muscles' names.
Knowledge Level 7, System: Muscle
Michael A. Chaplin SUNY-HSCB Downstate College of Medicine


                                                                                                              [ID 1416]
Eye rotation by oblique muscles
quot;I Love S &Mquot;:
Inferior oblique: Lateral eye rotation.
S uperior oblique: Medial eye rotation.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Muscle
CS Eddleman Medical Student, Texas Tech SOM


                                                                                                               [ID 293]
Interossei muscles: actions of dorsal vs. palmar in hand
quot;PAd and DAbquot;:
The Palmar Adduct and the Dorsal Abduct.
  Use your hand to dab with a pad.
Knowledge Level 5, System: Muscle
Dr. Atif Farooq and Anonymous Contributor Rawalpindi Medical College, Pakistan and Not Specified


                                                                                                               [ID 646]
Intrinsic muscles of hand (palmar surface)
quot;A OF A OF Aquot;:
  Thenar, lateral to medial:
Abductor pollicis longus
Opponens pollicis
Flexor pollicis brevis
Adductor pollicis.
  Hypothenar, lateral to medial:
Opponens digiti minimi
Flexor digiti minimi
Abductor digiti minimi
Knowledge Level 4, System: Muscle
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                               [ID 102]
Inversion vs. eversion muscles in leg
Second letter rule for inversion/eversion:
   Eversion muscles:
pErineus longus
pErineus brevis
pErineus terius
   Inversion muscles:
tIbialis anterior
tIbialis posterior
Knowledge Level 6, System: Muscle
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin


                                                                                                                 [ID 5]
Lumbricals action
Lumbrical action is to hold a pea, that is to flex the metacarpophalangeal joint and extend the
interphalangeal joints. When look at hand in this position, can see this makes an quot;Lquot; shape, since L is for
Lumbrical.
Knowledge Level 4, System: Muscle
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin




                                                                                                              [ID 1291]
Muscles: potentially absent ones
Muscles which may be absent but may be important:
5 P's:
Palmaris longus [upper limb]
Plantaris [lower limb]
Peroneus tertius [lower limb]
Pyramidalis [anterior abdominal wall]
Psoas minor [posterior abdominal wall]
Knowledge Level 3, System: Muscle
Shebrain Cairo University


                                                                                                                                      [ID 57]
Oblique muscles: direction of externals vs. internals
quot;Hands in your pocketsquot;:
When put hands in your pockets, fingers now lie on top of external obliques and fingers point their direction of fibers: down and towards
midline.
  Note: quot;obliquequot; tells that must be going at an angle.
  Internal obliques are at right angles to external.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Muscle
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                                    [ID 202]
Plantarflexion vs. dorsiflexion
Plantar flexion occurs when you squish a Plant with your foot.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Muscle
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                                       [ID 9]
Popliteal fossa: muscles arrangement
The two Semi's go together, Semimembranosus and Semitendonosus.
The Membranosus is Medial and since the two semis go together, Semitendonosus is also medial.
Therefore, Biceps Femoris has to be lateral.
Of the semi's, to remember which one is superficial: the Tendonosus is on Top.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Muscle
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                                      [ID 70]
Pterygoid muscles: function of lateral vs. medial
quot;Look at how your jaw ends up when saying first syllable of 'Lateral' or 'Medial' quot;:
quot;Laquot;: your jaw is now open, so Lateral opens mouth.
quot;Mequot;: your jaw is still closed, so medial closes the mandible.
Knowledge Level 4, System: Muscle
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin


                                                                                                                            Hi Yield [ID 35]
Rotator cuff muscles
quot;The SITS musclesquot;:
   Clockwise from top:
S upraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres minor
S ubscapularis
   A pro baseball pitcher has injured his rotator cuff muscles. As a result, he SITS out for the rest of the
game, and then gets sent to the minor leagues.
Knowledge Level 2, System: Muscle
Anne Conlin and Robert O'Connor University of Western Ontario Medical School, London, Canada and University College Dublin


                                                                                                                                    [ID 547]
Serratus anterior: innervation
SALT:
S erratus Anterior = Long Thoracic.
Knowledge Level 2, System: Muscle
Erin B. Dominiak Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine


                                                                                                                            Hi Yield [ID 25]
Serratus anterior: innervation and action
quot;C5-6-7 raise your arms up to heavenquot;:
Long thoracic nerve roots (567) innervate Serratus anterior.
  Test C567 roots clinically by ability to raise arm past 90 degrees.
Knowledge Level 2, System: Muscle
Anonymous Contributor
[ID 101]
Soleus vs. gastrocnemius muscle function
quot;Stand on your Soles. Explosive gasquot;:
You stand on soles of your shoes, so Soleus is for posture.
Gasoline is explosive, so Gastrocnemius is for explosive movement.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Muscle
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin


                                                                                                                             [ID 2346]
Supination vs. pronation
quot;SOUPinationquot;: Supination is to turn your arm palm up, as if you are holding a bowl of soup.
quot;POUR-nationquot;: Pronation is to turn your arm with the palm down, as if you are pouring out whatever is your bowl.
  Alternatively, Pronation donation: Pronation is palm facing downward, as if making a donation.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Muscle
LCK and Anonymous Contributor University of Ottawa and Not Specified


                                                                                                                    Hi Yield [ID 1943]
Bell's palsy: symptoms
BELL'S Palsy:
Blink reflex abnormal
Earache
Lacrimation [deficient, excess]
Loss of taste
S udden onset
Palsy of VII nerve muscles
   All symptoms are unilateral.
Knowledge Level 4, System: Nervous
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin


                                                                                                                     Hi Yield [ID 135]
Brachial plexus branches
quot;My Aunt Raped My Unclequot;:
  From lateral to medial:
Musculocutaneous
Axillary
Radial
Median
Ulnar
Knowledge Level 1, System: Nervous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                               [ID 18]
Brachial plexus subunits
quot;Randy Travis Drinks Cold Beerquot;:
Roots
Trunks
Divisions
Cords
Branches
  Alternatively: quot;Read The Damn Cadaver Book!quot;
  Alternatively: quot;Real Texans Drink Coors Beerquot;.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Nervous
Karl and Anonymous Contributor Boston U. School of Medicine and Not Specified


                                                                                                                              [ID 465]
Brachial plexus: branches of posterior cord
STAR:
S ubscapular [upper and lower]
Thoracodorsal
Axillary
Radial
Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous
Zaineb Vakil Gulf Medical College Ajman


                                                                                                                      Hi Yield [ID 14]
Buttock quadrant safest for needle insertion
quot;Shut up and butt outquot;:
The Upper Outer quadrant of the Buttock safely avoids hitting sciatic nerve.
Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous
Anonymous Contributor
Hi Yield [ID 126]
Carpal tunnel syndrome causes
MEDIAN TRAP:
Myxoedema
Edema premenstrually
Diabetes
Idiopathic
Agromegaly
Neoplasm
Trauma
Rheumatoid arthritis
Amyloidosis
Pregnancy
   Mnemonic fits nicely since median nerve is trapped.
Knowledge Level 4, System: Nervous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                             [ID 268]
Cervical plexus: arrangement of the important nerves
quot;GLASTquot;:
   4 compass points: clockwise from north on the right side of neck:
Great auricular
Lesser occipital
Accessory nerve pops out between L and S
S upraclavicular
Transverse cervical
   See diagram.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Nervous
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin


                                                                                                                    Hi Yield [ID 550]
Deep tendon reflexes: root supply
  God designed body reflexes according to a nursery rhyme:
One, two-- buckle my shoe. Three, four-- kick the door. Five, six-- pick up sticks. Seven, eight-- shut the gate.
S1,2 = ankle jerk
L3,4 = knee jerk
C5,6 = biceps and brachioradialis
C7,8 = triceps
Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous
Bryan Traynor Massachussetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, USA


                                                                                                                     Hi Yield [ID 23]
Diaphragm innervation
quot;3, 4, 5 keeps the diaphragm alivequot;:
Diaphragm innervation is cervical roots 3, 4, and 5.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Nervous
Michael Nawfal


                                                                                                                    Hi Yield [ID 572]
Extraocular muscles cranial nerve innervation
quot;LR6SO4 rest 3quot;:
Lateral Rectus is 6th
S uperior Oblique is 4th
rest are all 3rd cranial nerve
Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous
Atul Singh Detroit Medical Center


                                                                                                                             [ID 863]
Facial nerve: branches after Stylomastoid foramen
quot;Ten Zulus Buggered My Cat (Painfully)quot;:
  From superior to inferior:
Temporal branch
Zygomatic branch
Buccal branch
Mandibular branch
Cervical branch
(Posterior auricular nerve)
  Alternatively: quot;PAssing Through Zanzibar By Motor Carquot; (PA for Posterior Auricular).
Knowledge Level 1, System: Nervous
Stephan Sanders and Kris Downing Nottingham Medical School, UK and UCR/UCLA Biomedical Sciences Program, USA
[ID 329]
Lingual nerve course
The Lingual nerve
Took a curve
Around the Hyoglossus.
quot;Well I'll be f*#ked!quot;
Said Wharton's Duct,
quot;The bastard's gone and crossed us!quot;
Knowledge Level 6, System: Nervous
Sam Hinton University of California, San Diego


                                                                                                         [ID 643]
Lumbar plexus
quot;I, I Get Laid On Fridaysquot;:
Iliohypogastric [L1]
Ilioinguinal [L1]
Genitofemoral [L1, L2]
Lateral femoral cutaneous [L2, L3]
Obtruator [L2, L3, L4]
Femoral [L2, L3, L4]
   Alternatively: quot;I twice Get Laid On Fridaysquot;.
   Alternatively: quot;Interested In Getting Laid On Fridays?quot;
Knowledge Level 3, System: Nervous
Alfred Munoz MCP-Hahnemann School Of Medicine


                                                                                                         [ID 263]
Lumbar plexus roots
quot;2 from 1, 2 from 2, 2 from 3quot;:
2 nerves from 1 root: Ilioinguinal (L1), Iliohypogastric (L1).
2 nerves from 2 roots: Genitofemoral (L1,L2), Lateral Femoral (L2,L3).
2 nerves from 3 roots: Obturator (L2,L3,L4), Femoral (L2,L3,L4).
Knowledge Level 4, System: Nervous
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin


                                                                                                          [ID 36]
Median nerve: hand muscles innervated
quot;The LOAF musclesquot;:
Lumbricals 1 and 2
Opponens pollicis
Abductor pollicis brevis
Flexor pollicis brevis
  Alternatively: LLOAF, with 2 L's, to recall there's 2 lumbricals.
  To remember that these are the Median nerve muscles, think quot;Meat LOAFquot;.
Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous
Samuel Atom Baek Kim


                                                                                                          [ID 86]
Median nerve: recognizing it in an opened axilla
The Median nerve is the Middle of a giant capital quot;Mquot; formed by the musculocutaneous and ulnar nerves.
Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin




                                                                                                         [ID 127]
Pectoral nerves: path of lateral vs. medial
quot;Lateral Less, Medial Morequot;:
Lateral pectoral nerve only goes through Pectoralis major, but
Medial pectoral nerve goes though both Pectoralis major and minor.
Knowledge Level 5, System: Nervous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                          [ID 33]
Pelvis: sacral innervation
quot;S2,3,4 keeps the 3 P's off the floor (Penis, Poo, and Pee).
  S2,3,4 innervates the anal sphincter, urethral sphicter, and causes erection.
Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous
Anonymous Contributor National University of Ireland, Galway and University of Sydney, Australia


                                                                                                                                        [ID 28]
Penis autonomic innervation actions
quot;Parasympathetic Puts it up. S ympathetic S purts it outquot;.
Alternatively: quot;Point and S hootquot;: Parasympathetic Points it, S ympathetic S hoots out the semen.
  Erection and Ejaculation (Emission).
Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous
Andrew J. Vasil and John Nguyen University of Minnesota School of Medicine and University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston


                                                                                                                                      [ID 1184]
Radial nerve: muscles innervated
quot;Try A Big Chocolate Chip S undae, Double Dip Cherries And Peanuts Preferably Includedquot;:
   In order of their innervation, proximal to distal:
Triceps
Anconeus
Brachioradialis
ext. Carpi radialis longus
ext. Carpi radialis brevis
S upinator
ext. Digitorum
ext.Digiti minimi
ext. Carpi ulnaris
Abductor poll. longus
ext. Poll. brevis
ext. P poll. longus
ext. Indicis
   For the neighboring words that start with the same letter (eg: chocolate and chip), notice that the longer word in the mnemonic,
corresponds to the longer of the two muscle names (ex: ext. carpi radialis longus and ext. carpi radialis brevis)
Knowledge Level 6, System: Nervous
Anonymous Contributor Medical College of Ohio


                                                                                                                                        [ID 16]
Radial nerve: muscles supplied (simplified)
quot;BEST musclesquot;:
Brachioradialis
Extensors
S upinator
Triceps
Knowledge Level 1, System: Nervous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                                      [ID 2046]
Scalp: nerve supply
GLASS:
Greater occipital/ Greater auricular
Lesser occipital
Auriculotemporal
S upratrochlear
S upraorbital
Knowledge Level 5, System: Nervous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                           Hi Yield [ID 1040]
Spinal cord: length in vertebral column
SCULL:
S pinal Cord Until L2 (LL).
Knowledge Level 3, System: Nervous
Lior Greenberg Technion Faculty of Medicine, Haifa, Israel


                                                                                                                           Hi Yield [ID 2382]
Thigh: innervation by compartment
quot;MAP OF Sciaticquot;:
Medial compartment: Obturator
Anterior compartment: Femoral
Posterior compartment: Sciatic
  So all the thigh muscles in that compartment get innervated by that nerve.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Nervous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                        Hi Yield [ID 38]
Trigeminal nerve: where branches exit skull
quot;S tanding Room Onlyquot;:
S uperior orbital fissure is V1
foramen Rotundum is V2
foramen Ovale is V3
Knowledge Level 1, System: Nervous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                       Hi Yield [ID 304]
V3 innervated muscles (branchial arch 1 derivatives)
quot;M.D. My TVquot;:
Mastication [masseter, temporalis, pterygoids]
Digastric [anterior belly]
Mylohyoid
tensor Tympani
tensor Veli palatini
Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous
Christian Erickson Duke University


                                                                                                               [ID 1024]
V3: sensory branches
quot;Buccaneers Are Inferior Linguistsquot;:
Buccal
Auriculotemporal
Inferior alveolar
Lingual
Knowledge Level 5, System: Nervous
Jennifer Chuang University of Vermont School of Medicine


                                                                                                                [ID 449]
Vagus nerve: path into thorax
quot;I Left my Aunt in Vegasquot;:
Left Vagus nerve goes Anterior descending into the thorax.
Knowledge Level 4, System: Nervous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                [ID 262]
Anatomical planes: coronal, horizontal, sagittal
Coronal: A classic painting/stained glass window of a saint/angel has a corona radiating around the
person's head. The plane of the glass/page is cutting their head in the coronal plane.
Horizontal: Someone coming over the horizon has their abdomen cut in the horizontal plane.
Sagittal: the remaining one by default.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin




                                                                                                               [ID 1271]
Cubital fossa contents
quot;Really Need Booze To Be At My Nicestquot;:
  From lateral to medial:
Radial Nerve
Biceps Tendon
Brachial Artery
Median Nerve
Knowledge Level 2, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                      Hi Yield [ID 3262]
Hand: nerve lesions
DR CUMA:
Drop=Radial nerve
Claw=Ulnar nerve
Median nerve=Ape hand (or Apostol [preacher] hand)
Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                              Hi Yield [ID 2010]
Inguinal canal: walls
quot;MALT: 2M, 2A, 2L, 2Tquot;:
  Starting from superior, moving around in order to posterior:
Superior wall (roof): 2 Muscles:
  internal oblique Muscle
  transverse abdominus Muscle
Anterior wall: 2 Aponeuroses:
  Aponeurosis of external oblique
  Aponeurosis of internal oblique
Lower wall (floor): 2 Ligaments:
  inguinal Ligament
  lacunar Ligament
Posterior wall: 2Ts:
  Transversalis fascia
  conjoint Tendon
Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Miruna Segarceanu UMF Carol Davila, Bucharest, Romania


                                                                                       [ID 2355]
Mediastinums: posterior mediastinum structures
There are 4 birds:
The esophaGOOSE (esophagus)
The vaGOOSE nerve
The azyGOOSE vein
The thoracic DUCK (duct)
Knowledge Level 2, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Aron Flagg Finch University of Health Sciences / The Chicago Medical School


                                                                                        [ID 166]
Perineal vs. peroneal
Perineal is in between the legs.
Peroneal is on the leg.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                               Hi Yield [ID 510]
Retroperitoneal structures list
SAD PUCKER:
S uprarenal glands
Aorta & IVC
Duodenum (half)
Pancreas
Ureters
Colon (ascending & descending)
Kidneys
Esophagus (anterior & left covered)
Rectum
Knowledge Level 2, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Ron Norman AECC


                                                                                       [ID 1123]
Superior mediastinum contents
quot;BATS & TENTquot;:
Brachiocephalic veins
Arch of aorta
Thymus
S uperior vena cava
Trachea
Esophagus
Nerves (vagus & phrenic)
Thoracic duct
Knowledge Level 2, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Sumeet Verma East Carolina University SOM


                                                                                                                           Hi Yield [ID 1986]
Superior mediastinum: contents
PVT Left BATTLE:
Phrenic nerve
Vagus nerve
Thoracic duct
Left recurrent laryngeal nerve (not the right)
Brachiocephalic veins
Aortic arch (and its 3 branches)
Thymus
Trachea
Lymph nodes
Esophagus
Knowledge Level 2, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Anonymous Contributor University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine


                                                                                                                                     [ID 392]
Supine vs. prone body position
quot;Supine is on your spine.
Therefore, prone's the quot;otherquot; one.
  Also, prone to suffocate in prone position.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Carol Kasper and Sandy Honeycutt MacMurray College, Jacksonville, IL, USA and Nursing student


                                                                                                                            Hi Yield [ID 832]
Bronchi: which is more vertical
quot;Right on Redquot;:
Many places allow making a right hand turn at a red light, if you first come to a complete stop.
A child swallowing a red penny is more likely to get it stopped down the right bronchus, since it is more vertical.
Knowledge Level 4, System: Pulmonary
Lior Greenberg Technion Faculty of Medicine, Haifa, Israel


                                                                                                                                    [ID 1049]
Bronchopulmonary segments of right lung
quot;A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palmquot;:
   In order from superior to inferior:
Apical
Posterior
Anterior
Lateral
Medial
S uperior
Medial basal
Anterior basal
Lateral basal
Posterior basal
Knowledge Level 7, System: Pulmonary
Derek Bell University of Queensland


                                                                                                                           Hi Yield [ID 3100]
Lung lobes: one having lingula, lobe numbers
Lingula is on Left.
The lingula is like an atrophied lobe, so the left lung must have 2 quot;otherquot; lobes, and therefore right lung has 3 lobes.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Pulmonary
Teresa Myers Student, UNC


                                                                                                                                     [ID 201]
Nasal cavity components
quot;Never Call Me Needle Nose!quot;:
Nares [external]
Conchae
Meatuses
Nares [internal]
Nasopharynx
  Note mnemonic sentence is nasally-related.
Knowledge Level 5, System: Pulmonary
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                           Hi Yield [ID 123]
Pleura surface markings
quot;All the even ribs, in order: 2,4,6,8,10,12 show its routequot;:
Rib2: sharp angle inferiorly
Rib4: the left pleura does a lateral shift to accommodate heart
Rib6: both diverge laterally
Rib8: midclavicular line
Rib10: midaxillary line
Rib12: the back
  See diagram.
Knowledge Level 2, System: Pulmonary
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                     [ID 39]
Tonsils: The three types
quot;PPL (people) have tonsilsquot;:
Pharyngeal
Palatine
Lingual
Knowledge Level 3, System: Pulmonary
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                    [ID 117]
Voicebox: names of parts in sagittal cross-section
quot;There's 3 V's in your Voiceboxquot;:
Vestibular fold
Ventricle
Vocal fold
  Note: Vestibular and Vocal cord also known as false and true cords respectively.
Knowledge Level 5, System: Pulmonary
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin



                                                                                                     [ID 62]
Anteflexed vs. anteverted: what bodypart each describes
quot;Anteflexed and Anteverted both bend toward Anteriorquot;.
  The quot;Vquot; words go together: Verted is for the cerVix (therefore flexed must be uterus).
Knowledge Level 4, System: Reproductive
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin


                                                                                                   [ID 2995]
Broad ligament: contents
BROAD:
Bundle (ovarian neurovascular bundle)
Round ligament
Ovarian ligament
Artefacts (vestigial structures)
Duct (oviduct)
Knowledge Level 1, System: Reproductive
David Colbert UWA Medicine


                                                                                                    [ID 666]
Scrotum layers
quot;S ome Damn Englishman Called It The Testisquot;:
   From superficial to deep:
S kin
Dartos
External spermatic fascia
Cremaster
Internal spermatic fascia
Tunica vaginalis
Testis
Knowledge Level 2, System: Reproductive
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                        [ID 319]
Sperm pathway through male reproductive tract
SEVEN UP:
S eminiferous tubules
Epididymis
Vas deferens
Ejaculatory duct
Nothing
Urethra
Penis
Knowledge Level 2, System: Reproductive
Ken Evans Saskatchewan Health, Acute and Emergency Services


                                                                       [ID 2424]
Sperm: path through male reproductive system
quot;My boyfriend's name is STEVEquot;:
S eminiferous Tubules
Epididymis
Vas deferens
Ejaculatory duct
Knowledge Level 1, System: Reproductive
Amy Harrington MCP Hahnemann


                                                                        [ID 926]
Spermatic cord contents
quot;Piles Don't Contribute To A Good S ex Lifequot;:
Pampiniform plexus
Ductus deferens
Cremasteric artery
Testicular artery
Artery of the ductus deferens
Genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve
S ympathetic nerve fibers
Lymphatic vessels
Knowledge Level 2, System: Reproductive
TR Columbia PandS


                                                              Hi Yield [ID 2797]
Arm fractures: nerves affected by humerus fracture location
ARM fracture:
  From superior to inferior:
Axillary: head of humerus
Radial: mid shaft
Median: supracondular
Knowledge Level 1, System: Skeletal
Ritesh Patel M.D.


                                                                        [ID 552]
Carpal bones
quot;S top Letting Those People Touch The Cadaver's Handquot;:
   Proximal row, lateral-to-medial:
S caphoid
Lunate
Triquetrum
Pisiform
   Distal row, lateral-to-medial:
Trapezium
Trapezoid
Capitate
Hamate
Knowledge Level 1, System: Skeletal
Edward Tanner University of Alabama SOM


                                                                                                        [ID 4]
Carpal bones: trapezium vs. trapezoid location
  Since there's two T's in carpal bone mnemonic sentences, need to know which T is where:
TrapeziUM is by the thUMB, TrapeziOID is inSIDE.
  Alternatively, TrapeziUM is by the thUMB, TrapezOID is by its SIDE.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Skeletal
Tom Ball Imperial College, UK


                                                                                            Hi Yield [ID 2291]
Carpel bones
quot;S o Long To Pinky, Here Comes The Thumbquot;:
   Proximal row, lateral-to-medial, then distal row, medial-to-medial:
S caphoid
Lunate
Triquetrium
Pisiform
Hamate
Capate
Trapezoid
Trapezium
Knowledge Level 1, System: Skeletal
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                      [ID 834]
Cartilage derivatives of 1st pharyngeal arch (mandibular)
quot;I'M A S uper S exy Guyquot; (or Girl):
Incus
Malleus
Anterior ligament of malleus
S pine of sphenoid
S phenomandibular ligament
Genial tubercle of mandible
Knowledge Level 7, System: Skeletal
Ron Norman AECC


                                                                                                      [ID 171]
Cranial bones
quot;PEST OF 6quot;:
Parietal
Ethmoid
S phenoid
Temporal
Occipital
Frontal
   The 6 just reminds that there's 6 of them to remember.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Skeletal
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                     [ID 1743]
Foramen ovale contents
OVALE:
Otic ganglion (just inferior)
V3 cranial nerve
Accessory meningeal artery
Lesser petrosal nerve
Emissary veins
Knowledge Level 6, System: Skeletal
Syukree UKM


                                                                                                                           Hi Yield [ID 2187]
Genu valgum vs. genu vargum
Genu valGUM (knock-knee): knees are GUMmed together.
  Varum (bowleg) is the other by default, or Far rhymes with Var, so knees are far apart.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Skeletal
Andrew J. Vasil UMD School of Medicine, Duluth, MN


                                                                                                                           Hi Yield [ID 2771]
Hand fractures: Colle's vs. Smith's
Colle's fracture: arm in fall position makes a 'C' shape.
S mith's fracture: arm in fall position makes a 'S ' shape.
  See diagram.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Skeletal
Soichiro Fushimi Okayama University Medical School, Japan




                                                                                                                                      [ID 271]
Joints in the midline
quot;SCquot;:
In medial line, below S econd Cervical, joints are S econdary Cartilaginous and usually have a diSC.
   Notes: secondary cartilaginous is also known as symphysis. The one that doesn't have a disc is xiphi-sternal.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Skeletal
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                                      [ID 395]
Lordosis vs. kyphosis
Lordosis: Lumbar.
KYphosis is HY up on the spine.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Skeletal
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                                        [ID 7]
Medial malleolus: order of tendons, artery, nerve behind it
quot;Tom, Dick, And Nervous Harryquot;:
  From anterior to posterior:
Tibialis
Digitorum
Artery
Nerve
Hallicus
  Full names for these are: Tibialis Posterior, Flexor Digitorum Longus, Posterior Tibial Artery, Posterior Tibial Nerve, Flexor Hallicus
Longus.
  Alternatively: quot;Tom, Dick ANd Harryquot;.
  Alternatively: quot;Tom, Dick And Not Harryquot;.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Skeletal
Deepa S. and LCK Medical student and University of Ottawa


                                                                                                                                       [ID 30]
Navicular contacts 3 of 5 cuneiform bones
quot;Navicular is like the Navigator logoquot;:
There are 3 things coming off each.
  See diagram.
Therefore, cuboid has to contact 2 of the 5.
Knowledge Level 6, System: Skeletal
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin




                                                                                                                                     [ID 1689]
Ossification ages
quot;Every Potential Anatomist S hould Know Whenquot;
   When they ossify, in order of increasing year:
Elbow: 16 years
Pelvis, Ankle: 17 years
S houlder, Knee: 18 years
Wrist: 19 years
Knowledge Level 4, System: Skeletal
Saurabh Sikka


                                                                                                                       [ID 17]
Rib costal groove: order of intercostal blood vessels and nerve
VAN:
  From superior to inferior:
Vein
Artery
Nerve
Knowledge Level 2, System: Skeletal
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                       [ID 42]
Superior orbital fissure: structures passing through
quot;Lazy French Tarts Lie Naked In Anticipation Of S exquot;:
Lacrimal nerve
Frontal nerve
Trochlear nerve
Lateral nerve
Nasociliary nerve
Internal nerve
Abducens nerve
Ophthalmic veins
S ympathetic nerves
Knowledge Level 4, System: Skeletal
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                     [ID 2095]
Tibia: muscles of pes anserinus (the muscles attached to tibia's medial side)
quot;A Girl between Two Sargeantsquot;:
Gracilus is between
S artorius and
S emitendonosus
Knowledge Level 4, System: Skeletal
Beenish Dow Medical College


                                                                                                                       [ID 80]
Vertebrae: recognizing a thoracic from lumbar
Examine vertebral body shape:
Thoracic is heart-shaped body since your heart is in your thorax.
Lumbar is kidney-bean shaped since kidneys are in lumbar area.
  See diagram.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Skeletal
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin




                                                                                                                       [ID 81]
Wrist: radial side vs. ulnar side
Make a fist with your thumb up in the air and say quot;Rad!quot;.
Your thumb is now pointing to your Radius.
  Note: 'Rad!' was a late 80's catchphrase, short for 'Radical'. Things that were good were called 'Rad'.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Skeletal
Patrick Esperanzate University College Dublin




ANESTHESIOLOGY

                                                                                                            Hi Yield [ID 1404]
Xylocaine: where not to use with epinephrine
quot;Nose, Hose, Fingers and Toesquot;
   Vasoconstrictive effects of xylocaine with epinephrine are helpful in providing hemostasis while suturing. However, may cause local
ischemic necrosis in distal structures such as the digits, tip of nose, penis, ears.
Knowledge Level 5, System: Integumental
Robert Lueken Eastern Virginia Medical School


                                                                                                                                    [ID 131]
Spinal anesthesia agents
quot;Little Boys Prefer Toysquot;:
Lidocaine
Bupivicaine
Procaine
Tetracaine
Knowledge Level 3, System: Nervous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                                  [ID 2253]
Anesthesia machine/room check
MS MAID:
Monitors (EKG, SpO2, EtCO2, etc)
S uction
Machine check (according to ASA guidelines)
Airway equipment (ETT, laryngoscope, oral/nasal airway)
IV equipment
Drugs (emergency, inductions, NMBs, etc)
Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                                  [ID 1875]
General anaesthesia: equipment check prior to inducing
MALES:
Masks
Airways
Laryngoscopes
Endotracheal tubes
S uction/ S tylette, bougie
Knowledge Level 2, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Steve Gust HMO, Gove District Hospital, NT Australia


                                                                                                                         Hi Yield [ID 1899]
Endotracheal intubation: diagnosis of poor bilateral breath sounds after intubation
DOPE:
Displaced (usually right mainstem, pyreform fossa, etc.)
Obstruction (kinked or bitten tube, mucuous plug, etc.)
Pneumothorax (collapsed lung)
Esophagus
Knowledge Level 5, System: Pulmonary
Marc Colbeck


BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCE / PSYCHOLOGY

                                                                                                                          Hi Yield [ID 697]
Cluster personality disorders
Cluster A Disorder = Atypical. Unusual and eccentric.
Cluster B Disorder = Beast. Uncontrolled wildness.
Cluster C Disorder = Coward [avoidant type], Compulsive [obsessive-compulsive type], or Clingy [dependent type].
Knowledge Level 1, System: Nervous
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin


                                                                                                                          Hi Yield [ID 767]
Depression: major episode characteristics
SPACE DIGS:
S leep disruption
Psychomotor retardation
Appetite change
Concentration loss
Energy loss
Depressed mood
Interest wanes
Guilt
S uicidal tendencies
Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin


                                                                            Hi Yield [ID 766]
Gain: primary vs. secondary vs. tertiary
Primary: Patient's Psyche improved.
S econdary: S ymptom S ympathy for patient.
Tertiary: Therapist's gain.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Nervous
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin


                                                                                    [ID 1990]
Middle adolescence (14-17 years): characteristics
HERO:
Heterosexual crushes/ Homosexual Experience
Education regarding short term benefits
Risk taking
Omnipotence
  And there is interest in being a Hero (popular).
Knowledge Level 5, System: Nervous
Dr. Atif Farooq Khawaja Rawalpindi Medical College, Pakistan, Gujranwala


                                                                           Hi Yield [ID 2044]
Narcolepsy: symptoms, epidemiology
CHAP:
Cataplexy
Hallucinations
Attacks of sleep
Paralysis on waking
  Usual presentation is a young male, hence quot;chapquot;.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Nervous
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin


                                                                           Hi Yield [ID 1204]
Sleep stages: features
DElta waves during DEepest sleep (stages 3 & 4, slow-wave).
dREaM during REM sleep.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Nervous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                    [ID 1692]
Keober-Ross dying process: stages
quot;Death Always Brings Great Acceptancequot;:
Denial
Anger
Bargaining
Grieving
Acceptance
Knowledge Level 3, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Sung H. Kim and Samuel Atom Baek-Kim Tuckahoe, NY


                                                                                    [ID 1088]
Impotence causes
PLANE:
Psychogenic: performance anxiety
Libido: decreased with androgen deficiency, drugs
Autonomic neuropathy: impede blood flow redirection
Nitric oxide deficiency: impaired synthesis, decreased blood pressure
Erectile reserve: can't maintain an erection
Knowledge Level 3, System: Reproductive
Ben Beckwith University of Queensland, Australia


                                                                                        [ID 1969]
Male erectile dysfunction (MED): biological causes
MED:
Medicines(propranalol, methyldopa, SSRI, etc.)
Ethanol
Diabetes mellitus
Knowledge Level 4, System: Reproductive
Dr. Atif Farooq Khawaja Rawalpindi Medical College, Pakistan, Gujranwala


                                                                                        [ID 2037]
Premature ejaculation: treatment
2 S's:
S SRIs [eg: fluoxitime]
S queezing technique [glans pressure before climax]
   More detail with 2 more S's:
S ensate-focus excercises [relieves anxiety]
S top and start method [5-6 rehearsals of stopping stimulation before climax]
Knowledge Level 7, System: Reproductive
Dr. Atif Farooq Khawaja Rawalpindi Medical College, Pakistan, Gujranwala


BIOCHEMISTRY

                                                                                Hi Yield [ID 399]
B vitamin names
quot;The Rhythm Nearly Proved Contagiousquot;:
  In increasing order:
Thiamine (B1)
Riboflavin (B2)
Niacin (B3)
Pyridoxine (B6)
Cobalamin (B12)
Knowledge Level 2, System: Alimentary
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                Hi Yield [ID 442]
Essential amino acids
quot;PVT. TIM HALL always argues, never tiresquot;:
Phe
Val
Thr
Trp
Ile
Met
His
Arg
Lue
Lys
   Always argues: the A is for Arg, not Asp.
   'Never tires': T is not Tyr, but is both Thr and Trp.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Alimentary
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                         [ID 784]
Fasting state: branched-chain amino acids used by skeletal muscles
quot;Muscles LIVe fastquot;:
Leucine
Isoleucine
Valine
Knowledge Level 2, System: Alimentary
Daniel Marcano Medical school graduate


                                                                                                [ID 1410]
Folate deficiency: causes
A FOLIC DROP:
Alcoholism
Folic acid antagonists
Oral contraceptives
Low dietary intake
Infection with Giardia
Celiac sprue
Dilatin
Relative folate deficiency
Old
Pregnant
Knowledge Level 5, System: Alimentary
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin


                                                                                       Hi Yield [ID 2248]
Glycogen storage: Anderson's (IV) vs. Cori's (III) enzyme defect
ABCD:
Anderson's=Branching enzyme.
Cori's=Debranching enzyme.
  Otherwise, can't really distinguish clinically.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Alimentary
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                       Hi Yield [ID 2638]
Glycogen storage: names of types I through VI
quot;Viagra Pills Cause A Major Hardonquot;:
Von Gierke's
Pompe's
Cori's
Anderson's
McArdle's
Her's
Knowledge Level 1, System: Alimentary
Chris Reed Medical College of Wisconsin


                                                                                        Hi Yield [ID 317]
Glycolysis steps
quot;Goodness Gracious, Father Franklin Did Go By Picking Pumpkins (to) Prepare Piesquot;:
Glucose
Glucose-6-P
Fructose-6-P
Fructose-1,6-diP
Dihydroxyacetone-P
Glyceraldehyde-P
1,3-Biphosphoglycerate
3-Phosphoglycerate
2-Phosphoglycerate (to)
Phosphoenolpyruvate [PEP]
Pyruvate
   'Did', 'By' and 'Pies' tell you the first part of those three: di-, bi-, and py-.
   'PrEPare' tells location of PEP in the process.
Knowledge Level 4, System: Alimentary
Ken Evans Saskatchewan Health, Acute and Emergency Services


                                                                                        Hi Yield [ID 755]
Hypervitaminosis A: signs and symptoms
quot;Increased Vitamin A makes you HARDquot;:
Headache/ Hepatomegaly
Anorexia/ Alopecia
Really painful bones
Dry skin/ Drowsiness
Knowledge Level 1, System: Alimentary
Usman Ahmad KMC


                                                                                                  Hi Yield [ID 754]
Infantile Beriberi symptoms
Restlessness
Sleeplessness
Breathlessness
Soundlessness (aphonia)
Eatlessness (anorexia)
Great heartedness (dilated heart)
  Alternatively: Get 5 of 'em with BERI: Breathless/ Big hearted, Eatless, Restless, Insomnia.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Alimentary
Usman Ahmad KMC


                                                                                                           [ID 138]
Phosphorylation cascade: action during low glucose
quot;In the Phasted State, Phosphorylatequot;:
The phosphorylation cascade becomes active when blood glucose is low.
Knowledge Level 5, System: Alimentary
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                  Hi Yield [ID 562]
Type 1 glycogen storage disease
Type 1 = one (Von), ie Von Giereke's disease
Knowledge Level 3, System: Alimentary
Dr. Waqas H. Sheikh BVI Co.


                                                                                                  Hi Yield [ID 559]
Van den Bergh reaction (Jaundice test)
quot;Indirect reacting bilirubin = Unconjugated bilirubinquot;:
Both start with vowels, so they go together: Indirect & Unconjugated.
Knowledge Level 2, System: Alimentary
Dr. Waqas H. Sheikh BVI Co.


                                                                                                 Hi Yield [ID 2234]
Vitamin B3 (niacin, nicotinic acid) deficiency: pellagra
The 3 D's of pellagra:
Dermatitis
Diarrhea
Dementia
  Note vitamin B3 is the 3 D's.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Alimentary
Andrew J. Vasil UMD School of Medicine, Duluth, MN


                                                                                                  Hi Yield [ID 149]
Vitamins: which are fat soluble
KADE:
Vitamin K
Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Knowledge Level 2, System: Alimentary
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                 Hi Yield [ID 3014]
Coagulation common pathway: factors in order
10 + 5 - 2 = 13
Coagulation common pathway:
Factor X to Factor V to Factor II to Factor XIII
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
John Chung University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of Medicine


                                                                                                  Hi Yield [ID 574]
Fabry's disease
FABRY'S:
Foam cells found in glomeruli and tubules/ Febrile episodes
Alpha galactosidase A deficiency/ Angiokeratomas
Burning pain in extremities/ BUN increased in serum/ Boys
Renal failure
YX genotype (male, X linked recessive)
S phingolipidoses
Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular
Rinku Uberoi UNIBE


                                                                                          Hi Yield [ID 2561]
Hemoglobin binding curve: causes of shift to right
quot;CADET, face right!quot;:
CO2
Acid
2,3-DPG (aka 2,3 BPG)
Exercise
Temperature
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                          Hi Yield [ID 2062]
Porphyrias: acute intermittent porphyria symptoms
5 P's:
Pain in abdomen
Polyneuropathy
Psychologial abnormalities
Pink urine
Precipitated by drugs (eg barbiturates, oral contraceptives, sulpha drugs)
Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular
Anuradha


                                                                                                    [ID 745]
Sickle cell disease pathophysiology
SICKle cell disease is due to a S ubstitution of the SICKsth amino acid of the B chain.
Knowledge Level 4, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                          Hi Yield [ID 3143]
Vitamin K dependent cofactors
quot;Several Tend To Nicely S top Clotsquot;:
Factor Seven, Ten, Two, Nine.
Protein S , Protein C.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Medical Student Class 2004 University of Western Ontario


                                                                                                    [ID 654]
Adrenaline mechanism
quot;ABC of Adrenalinequot;:
Adrenaline--> activates Beta receptors--> increases Cyclic AMP
Knowledge Level 1, System: Endocrine
Usman Ahmad


                                                                                           Hi Yield [ID 172]
Insulin: function
INsulIN stimulates 2 things to go
IN 2 cells: Potassium and Glucose.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Endocrine
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                          Hi Yield [ID 2159]
BUN:creatinine elevation: causes
ABCD:
Azotremia (pre-renal)
Bleeding (GI)
Catabolic status
Diet (high protein parenteral nutrition)
Knowledge Level 3, System: Kidney/Urine
Anthony Chan


                                                                                          Hi Yield [ID 2208]
G6PD: oxidant drugs inducing hemolytic anemia
AAA:
Antibiotic (eg: sufamethoxazole)
Antimalarial (eg: primaquine)
Antipyretics (eg: acetanilid, but not aspirin or acetaminophen)
Knowledge Level 3, System: Lymphoid
Andrew J. Vasil UMD School of Medicine, Duluth, MN


                                                                                                                              [ID 639]
Carbon monoxide: electron transport chain target
quot;CO blocks COquot;:
Carbon monoxide (CO) blocks Cytochrome Oxidase (CO)
Knowledge Level 3, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                    Hi Yield [ID 656]
Citric acid cycle compounds
quot;Can I Keep S elling S ex For Money, Officer?quot;:
Citrate
Isocitrate
alpha Ketogluterate
S uccinyl CoA
S uccinate
Fumerate
Malate
Oxaloacetate
Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Ramon Ter-Oganesyan and Rebecca University of California Irvine


                                                                                                                             [ID 1008]
DNA bond strength (nucleotides)
quot;Crazy Gluequot;:
Strongest bonds are between Cytosine and Guanine, strong like Crazy Glue (3 H-bonds), whereas the A=T only have 2 H-bonds.
   This is relevant to DNA replication, as the weaker A=T will be the site where RNA primer makes the initial break.
Knowledge Level 4, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Lior Greenberg Technion Faculty of Medicine, Haifa, Israel


                                                                                                                    Hi Yield [ID 649]
Electron transport chain: Rotenone's site of action
Rotenone is a site specific inhibitor of complex one.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                  Hi Yield [ID 2696]
Enzyme kinetics: competitive vs. non-competitive inhibition
With Kompetitive inhibition: Km increases; no change in Vmax.
With Non-kompetitive inhibition: No change in Km; Vmax decreases.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Patricia Sanchez INTEC University, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic


                                                                                                                  Hi Yield [ID 2054]
Enzymes: classification
quot;Over The HILLquot;:
Oxidoreductases
Transferases
Hydrolases
Isomerases
Ligases
Lyases
   Enzymes get reaction over the hill. See diagram.
Knowledge Level 2, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Kenny Livingstone St. Andrews medical student


                                                                                                                    Hi Yield [ID 563]
Enzymes: competitive inhibitors
quot;Competition is hard because we have to travel more kilometers (Km) with the same velocityquot;:
With competitive inhibitors, velocity remains same but Km increases
Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Dr. Waqas H. Sheikh BVI Co.


                                                                                                                             [ID 1395]
G protein type for respective receptors
quot;KISS and KICK till you're SICK of SEXquot; (QISS and QIQ till you're SIQ of SQS):
   This gives the G-protein type (Gq, Gi, or Gs) for all the receptors. Receptors are in alphabetical order:
alpha1=Q
alpha2=I
beta1=S
beta3=S
M1=Q
M2=I
M3=Q
D1=S
D2=I
H1=Q
H2=S
V1=Q
V2=S
Knowledge Level 4, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Khawaja Atif Farooq and Julien Pham Rawalpindi Medical College, Horizon Medical Institute, Pakistan and University of Washington


                                                                                                                                   [ID 612]
Metabolism sites
quot;Use both arms to HUGquot;:
Heme synthesis
Urea cycle
Gluconeogenesis
  These reactions occur in both cytoplasm and mitochondria.
Knowledge Level 4, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Rinku Uberoi


Na/K pump: concentrations of Na vs. K on inside/outside of cell, pump action, number of molecules
                                                                                                                         Hi Yield [ID 160]
moved
HIKIN':
There is a HIgh K concentration INside the cell.
From this can deduce that the Na/K pump pumps K into cell and Na out of cell.
Alternatively: When I was learning this pump (circa 1992), a band that was quot;inquot; was Kris Kross, and a band that was quot;outquot; was quot;Sha Na
Na Naquot;:
So pump moves K K (2 K) in and Na Na Na (3 Na) out.
  Sadly, as infectious as their debut album was, Kris Kross can really no longer be classed as quot;inquot;.
Knowledge Level 2, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                       Hi Yield [ID 2529]
Na+/K+ pump: movement of ions and quantity
K+ and in each consist of 2 characters, so so 2 K+ are pumped in.
Na+ and out each consist of 3 characters, so 3 Na+ are pumped out.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                         Hi Yield [ID 915]
Phenylketonuria: which enzyme is deficient
PHenylketonuria is caused by a deficiency of:
Phenylalanine
Hydroxylase
Knowledge Level 3, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                         Hi Yield [ID 824]
Pompe's disease: type
quot;Police = Po + lysquot;:
Pompe's disease is a lysosomal storage disease (alpha 1,4 glucosidase).
Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Lior Greenberg Technion Faculty of Medicine, Haifa, Israel


                                                                                                                       Hi Yield [ID 1133]
Pyruvate: products of complete oxidation
quot;4 Naked Fun 3 Coeds + 1 Guyquot;:
  Complete oxidation of pyruvate yields:
4 NADH
FADH2
3 CO2
1 GTP
Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Anonymous Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons


                                                                                                                        [ID 2249]
Tangier's disease: hallmark
quot;Tangierene tonsilsquot;:
Hallmark is large orange tonsils.
  Important clinical note: there is no increased risk of atherosclerosis, just like eating tangerenes.
Knowledge Level 4, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Anonymous Contributor


CARDIOLOGY

                                                                                                                        [ID 3074]
Aortic regurgitation: causes
CREAM:
Congenital
Rheumatic damage
Endocarditis
Aortic dissection/ Aortic root dilatation
Marfan’s
Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular
Jamal Khan Birmingham University Medical Student


                                                                                                                Hi Yield [ID 197]
Aortic stenosis characteristics
SAD:
S yncope
Angina
Dyspnoea
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                                        [ID 1582]
Apex beat: abnormalities found on palpation, causes of impalpable
HILT:
Heaving
Impalpable
Laterally displaced
Thrusting/ Tapping
  If it is impalpable, causes are COPD:
COPD
Obesity
Pleural, Pericardial effusion
Dextrocardia
Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular
Sushant Varma Medical student, University of Sheffield, UK


                                                                                                                        [ID 2798]
Apex beat: differential for impalpable apex beat
DOPES:
Dextrocardia
Obesity
Pericarditis/ Pericardial tamponade/ Pneumothorax
Emphysema
S inus inversus/ S tudent incompetence/ S coliosis/ S keletal abnormalities (eg pectus excavatum)
Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular
Fiona Hayes and Moses Lee Tong Chsia and Dalton Boyo UWCM, Cardiff, UK and Not Specified and Medical Student


                                                                                                               Hi Yield [ID 1092]
Atrial fibrillation: causes
A S#!T:
Alcohol
S tenosis (mitral valve)
Hypertension
Infarction/ Ischaemia
Thyrotoxicosis
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                           [ID 2468]
Atrial fibrillation: causes
PIRATES:
Pulmonary: PE, COPD
Iatrogenic
Rheumatic heart: mirtral regurgitation
Atherosclerotic: MI, CAD
Thyroid: hyperthyroid
Endocarditis
S ick sinus syndrome
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                  Hi Yield [ID 2469]
Atrial fibrillation: management
ABCD:
Anti-coagulate
Beta-block to control rate
Cardiovert
Digoxin
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                   Hi Yield [ID 660]
Beck's triad (cardiac tamponade)
3 D's:
Distant heart sounds
Distended jugular veins
Decreased arterial pressure
Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                  Hi Yield [ID 1537]
Betablockers: cardioselective betablockers
quot;Betablockers Acting Exclusively At Myocardiumquot;
  Cardioselective betablockers are:
Betaxolol
Acebutelol
Esmolol
Atenolol
Metoprolol
Knowledge Level 5, System: Cardiovascular
Diljot Singh Bedi GMCH Chandigarh, India


                                                   Hi Yield [ID 919]
CHF: causes of exacerbation
FAILURE:
Forgot medication
Arrhythmia/ Anaemia
Ischemia/ Infarction/ Infection
Lifestyle: taken too much salt
Upregulation of CO: pregnancy, hyperthyroidism
Renal failure
Embolism: pulmonary
Knowledge Level 6, System: Cardiovascular
Lau Yue Young Geoffrey


                                                  Hi Yield [ID 1607]
Coronary artery bypass graft: indications
DUST:
Depressed ventricular function
Unstable angina
S tenosis of the left main stem
Triple vessel disease
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Sushant Varma Medical student, University of Sheffield, UK


                                                                          Hi Yield [ID 2067]
Coronary artery bypass graft: indications
DUST:
Depressed ventricular function
Unstable angina
S tenosis of the left main stem
Triple vessel disease
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Sushant Varma University of Sheffield, UK


                                                                          Hi Yield [ID 1167]
Depressed ST-segment: causes
DEPRESSED ST:
Drooping valve (MVP)
Enlargement of LV with strain
Potassium loss (hypokalemia)
Reciprocal ST- depression (in I/W AMI)
Embolism in lungs (pulmonary embolism)
S ubendocardial ischemia
S ubendocardial infarct
Encephalon haemorrhage (intracranial haemorrhage)
Dilated cardiomyopathy
S hock
Toxicity of digitalis, quinidine
Knowledge Level 8, System: Cardiovascular
Dr. Sonali V.


                                                                                    [ID 218]
ECG: left vs. right bundle block
quot;WiLLiaM MaRRoWquot;:
W pattern in V1-V2 and M pattern in V3-V6 is Left bundle block.
M pattern in V1-V2 and W in V3-V6 is Right bundle block.
  Note: consider bundle branch blocks when QRS complex is wide.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                   [ID 2068]
Exercise ramp ECG: contraindications
RAMP:
Recent MI
Aortic stenosis
MI in the last 7 days
Pulmonary hypertension
Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular
Sushant Varma University of Sheffield, UK


                                                                                    [ID 433]
Heart compensatory mechanisms that 'save' organ blood flow during shock
quot;Heart SAVERquot;:
S ymphatoadrenal system
Atrial natriuretic factor
Vasopressin
Endogenous digitalis-like factor
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
   In all 5, system is activated/factor is released
Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                          Hi Yield [ID 2022]
JVP: wave form
ASK ME:
Atrial contraction
S ystole (ventricular contraction)
Klosure (closure) of tricusps, so atrial filling
Maximal atrial filling
Emptying of atrium
   See diagram.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular
Hafizur Rahman Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manc Medical School


                                                                           [ID 207]
MI: basic management
BOOMAR:
Bed rest
Oxygen
Opiate
Monitor
Anticoagulate
Reduce clot size
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                  Hi Yield [ID 413]
MI: signs and symptoms
PULSE:
Persistent chest pains
Upset stomach
Lightheadedness
S hortness of breath
Excessive sweating
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Sara Nemetz


                                                                  Hi Yield [ID 981]
MI: therapeutic treatment
quot;O BATMAN!quot;:
Oxygen
Beta blocker
ASA
Thrombolytics (eg heparin)
Morphine
Ace prn
Nitroglycerin
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Kristy Thomas, PA-C Mesquite Medical Associates, Mesquite, NV


                                                                 Hi Yield [ID 1137]
MI: therapeutic treatment
MONAH:
Morphine
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Aspirin
Heparin
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                 Hi Yield [ID 1588]
MI: treatment of acute MI
COAG:
Cyclomorph
Oxygen
Aspirin
Glycerol trinitrate
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Alan Desmond Cork University Hospital


                                                                           [ID 996]
Mitral stenosis (MS) vs. regurgitation (MR): epidemiology
MS is a female title (Ms.) and it is female predominant.
MR is a male title (Mr.) and it is male predominant.
Knowledge Level 4, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                    [ID 1437]
Murmur attributes
quot;IL PQRSTquot; (person has ill PQRST heart waves):
Intensity
Location
Pitch
Quality
Radiation
S hape
Timing
Knowledge Level 6, System: Cardiovascular
Ghassan Abu Said 4th year Medical Student


                                                           Hi Yield [ID 1243]
Murmurs: innocent murmur features
8 S's:
S oft
S ystolic
S hort
S ounds (S1 & S2) normal
S ymptomless
S pecial tests normal (X-ray, EKG)
S tanding/ S itting (vary with position)
S ternal depression
Knowledge Level 4, System: Cardiovascular
Ziad Jaradat Jordan University School of Medicine


                                                           Hi Yield [ID 3061]
Murmurs: louder with inspiration vs expiration
LEft sided murmurs louder with Expiration
RIght sided murmurs louder with Inspiration.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                    [ID 3073]
Murmurs: questions to ask
SCRIPT:
S ite
Character (eg harsh, soft, blowing)
Radiation
Intensity
Pitch
Timing
Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular
Jamal Khan Birmingham University Medical Student


                                                                     [ID 475]
Murmurs: right vs. left loudness
quot;RILEquot;:
Right sided heart murmurs are louder on Inspiration.
Left sided heart murmurs are loudest on Expiration.
Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                            Hi Yield [ID 967]
Murmurs: systolic vs. diastolic
PASS: Pulmonic & Aortic S tenosis=S ystolic.
PAID: Pulmonic & Aortic Insufficiency=Diastolic.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
W. Ciulla, RN, PA-C New Life Medical Clinic


                                                           Hi Yield [ID 2181]
Myocardial infarctions: treatment
INFARCTIONS:
IV access
Narcotic analgesics (eg morphine, pethidine)
Facilities for defibrillation (DF)
Aspirin/ Anticoagulant (heparin)
Rest
Converting enzyme inhibitor
Thrombolysis
IV beta blocker
Oxygen 60%
Nitrates
S tool Softeners
Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                           [ID 245]
Pericarditis: causes
CARDIAC RIND:
Collagen vascular disease
Aortic aneurysm
Radiation
Drugs (such as hydralazine)
Infections
Acute renal failure
Cardiac infarction
Rheumatic fever
Injury
Neoplasms
Dressler's syndrome
Knowledge Level 5, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                 Hi Yield [ID 1067]
Pericarditis: EKG
quot;PericarditiS quot;:
PR depression in precordial leads.
S T elevation.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                 Hi Yield [ID 1615]
Peripheral vascular insufficiency: inspection criteria
SICVD:
S ymmetry of leg musculature
Integrity of skin
Color of toenails
Varicose veins
Distribution of hair
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Jeffrey Turner Memorial University, Canada


                                                                 Hi Yield [ID 1869]
Pulseless electrical activity: causes
PATCH MED:
Pulmonary embolus
Acidosis
Tension pneumothorax
Cardiac tamponade
Hypokalemia/ Hyperkalemia/ Hypoxia/ Hypothermia/ Hypovolemia
Myocardial infarction
Electrolyte derangements
Drugs
Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular
Will Anderson University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada


                                                                 Hi Yield [ID 1648]
Rheumatic fever: Revised Jones' criteria
JONES crITERIA:
   Major criteria:
Joint (arthritis)
Obvious (Cardiac)
Nodule (Rheumatic)
Erythema marginatum
S ydenham chorea
   Minor criteria:
Inflammatory cells (leukocytosis)
Temperature (fever)
ESR/CRP elevated
Raised PR interval
Itself (previous Hx of Rheumatic fever)
Arthralgia
Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular
Anthony Chan Chinese University of Hong Kong


                                                               Hi Yield [ID 516]
ST elevation causes in ECG
ELEVATION:
Electrolytes
LBBB
Early repolarization
Ventricular hypertrophy
Aneurysm
Treatment (eg pericardiocentesis)
Injury (AMI, contusion)
Osborne waves (hypothermia)
Non-occlusive vasospasm
Knowledge Level 4, System: Cardiovascular
Ken Evans Saskatchewan Health, Acute and Emergency Services


                                                              Hi Yield [ID 1737]
Supraventricular tachycardia: treatment
ABCDE:
Adenosine
Beta-blocker
Calcium channel antagonist
Digoxin
Excitation (vagal stimulation)
Knowledge Level 5, System: Cardiovascular
Richard Thompson Queens University, Belfast, NI


                                                              Hi Yield [ID 1739]
Ventricular tachycardia: treatment
LAMB:
Lidocaine
Amiodarone
Mexiltene/ Magnesium
Beta-blocker
Knowledge Level 5, System: Cardiovascular
Richard Thompson Queens University, Belfast, NI


CHEMISTRY

                                                                        [ID 522]
Benzene ring: order of substituents
quot;Benzene likes to ROMPquot;:
  From R group moving around the ring:
R group
Ortho
Meta
Para
Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Sabra and Josh Kunken Undergrad, Univ. of Calif, Berkeley


                                                                        [ID 322]
Cation vs. anion: positive vs. negative
The t in cation looks like a plus sign: quot;ca+ionquot;.
Cation is positive, anion is negative.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Ken Evans Saskatchewan Health, Acute and Emergency Services


                                                                                 [ID 297]
Cis/trans (geometric) isomer nomenclature
quot;Zame Zide. Epposite.quot;:
Z is the 2 functional groups on the same side of double bond.
E is for opposite sides.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                       Hi Yield [ID 2440]
Cis/trans (geometric) isomers: arrangement of functional groups
Cis starts with a C and the functional groups form a C.
Trans, therefore is the other one by default.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Spencer Oates




                                                                                 [ID 383]
Gibb's free energy formula
quot;Good Honey Tastes S weetquot;:
(delta)G = H - T(delta)S
Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Ken Evans Saskatchewan Health, Acute and Emergency Services


                                                                                 [ID 340]
Oxidation vs. reduction: electrochemical cell and electron gain/loss
AN OIL RIG CAT:
At the ANode, Oxidation Involves Loss of electrons.
Reduction Involves Gaining electrons at the CAThode.
Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Susan Monash (Peninsula) Undergrad


DERMATOLOGY

                                                                       Hi Yield [ID 1047]
Clubbing: causes
CLUBBING:
Cyanotic heart disease
Lung disease (hypoxia, lung cancer, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis)
UC/Crohn's disease
Biliary cirrhosis
Birth defect (harmless)
Infective endocarditis
Neoplasm (esp. Hodgkins)
GI malabsorption
Knowledge Level 2, System: Integumental
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                       Hi Yield [ID 1390]
White patch of skin: differential
quot;Vitiligo PATCHquot;:
Vitiligo
Pityriasis alba/ Post-inflammatory hypopigmentation
Age related hypopigmentation
Tinea versicolor/ Tuberous sclerosis (ashleaf macule)
Congenital birthmark
Hansen's (leprosy)
Knowledge Level 5, System: Integumental
Dr. Chetan Wasekar Set G.S. Medical College, KEM Hospital, Bombay


                                                                                [ID 1387]
Wound healing: factors delaying
DID NOT HEAL:
Drugs
Infection/ Icterus/ Ischemia
Diabetes
Nutrition
Oxygen (hypoxia)
Toxins
Hypothermia/ Hyperthermia
EtOH
Acidosis
Local anesthetics
Knowledge Level 4, System: Integumental
Mohamed Azim Assistant lecturer of Pediatric Surgery, Alexandria University, Egypt


EMBRYROLOGY

                                                                                       Hi Yield [ID 187]
Branchial arch giving rise to aorta
quot;Aor- from Fourquot;:
Aorta is from fourth arch.
Knowledge Level 4, System: Cardiovascular
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin


                                                                                       Hi Yield [ID 527]
Tetrology of Fallot
quot;Don't DROP the babyquot;:
Defect (VSD)
Right ventricular hypertrophy
Overriding aorta
Pulmonary stenosis
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
K. Ennix University of Tennessee at Memphis


                                                                                      Hi Yield [ID 1658]
Potter syndrome: features
POTTER:
Pulmonary hypoplasia
Oligohydrominios
Twisted skin (wrinkly skin)
Twisted face (Potter facies)
Extremities defects
Renal agenesis (bilateral)
Knowledge Level 6, System: Kidney/Urine
Dr. Atif Farooq Khawaja Rawalpindi Medical College, Islamabad, Gujranwala, Pakistan


                                                                                       Hi Yield [ID 508]
Cranial and spinal neural crest: major derivatives
GAMES:
Glial cells (of peripheral ganglia)
Arachnoid (and pia)
Melanocytes
Enteric ganglia
S chwann cells
Knowledge Level 3, System: Nervous
Ron Norman AECC


                                                                                               [ID 1800]
Neuroectoderm derivatives
Neuroectoderm gives rise to:
Neurons
Neuroglia
Neurohypophysis
piNeurol (pineal) gland
Knowledge Level 6, System: Nervous
Payam Mehranpour


                                                                                      Hi Yield [ID 1686]
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS): features
FAS:
Facial hypoplasia/ Forebrain malformation
Attention defecit disorder/ Altered joints
S hort stature/ S eptal defects/ S mall I.Q
Knowledge Level 5, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Dr. Atif Farooq Khawaja Rawalpindi Medical College, Pakistan/Gujranwala


                                                                                     Hi Yield [ID 606]
Mesoderm components
MESODERM:
Mesothelium (peritoneal, pleural, pericardial)/ Muscle (striated, smooth, cardiac)
Embryologic
S pleen/ S oft tissue/ S erous linings/ S arcoma/ S omite
Osseous tissue/ Outer layer of suprarenal gland (cortex)/ Ovaries
Dura/ Ducts of genitalia
Endothelium
Renal
Microglia/ Mesenchyme/ Male gonad
Knowledge Level 5, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Rinku Uberoi UNIBE


                                                                                     Hi Yield [ID 861]
Teratogenesis: when it occurs
TEratogenesis is most likely during organogenesis--between the:
Third and
Eighth weeks of gestation.
Knowledge Level 3, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Rinku Uberoi


                                                                                     Hi Yield [ID 173]
Weeks 2, 3, 4 of development: an event for each
Week Two: Bilaminar germ disc.
Week Three: Trilaminar germ disc.
Week Four: Four limbs appear.
Knowledge Level 2, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Robert O'Connor University College Dublin


                                                                                              [ID 498]
Placenta-crossing substances
quot;WANT My Hot Dogquot;:
Wastes
Antibodies
Nutrients
Teratogens
Microorganisms
Hormones/ HIV
Drugs
Knowledge Level 4, System: Reproductive
Anonymous Contributor


EMERGENCY MEDICINE

                                                                                             [ID 1753]
Ipecac: contraindications
4 C's:
Comatose
Convulsing
Corrosive
hydroCarbon
Knowledge Level 6, System: Alimentary
Vince Yamashiroya


                                                                                     Hi Yield [ID 525]
Acute LVF management
LMNOP:
Lasex (frusemide)
Morphine (diamorphine)
Nitrates
Oxygen (sit patient up)
Pulmonary ventilation (if doing badly)
Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular
Graeme Little University College London


                                                                          Hi Yield [ID 1732]
Atrial fibrillation: causes of new onset
THE ATRIAL FIBS:
Thyroid
Hypothermia
Embolism (P.E.)
Alcohol
Trauma (cardiac contusion)
Recent surgery (post CABG)
Ischemia
Atrial enlargement
Lone or idiopathic
Fever, anemia, high-output states
Infarct
Bad valves (mitral stenosis)
S timulants (cocaine, theo, amphet, caffeine)
Knowledge Level 9, System: Cardiovascular
Sam LaCapra, M.D., F.A.C.E.P. Emergency Physician


                                                                          Hi Yield [ID 2795]
JVP: raised JVP differential
PQRST (EKG waves):
Pericardial effusion
Quantity of fluid raised (fluid over load)
Right heart failure
S uperior vena caval obstruction
Tricuspid stenosis/ Tricuspid regurgitation/ Tamponade (cardiac)
Knowledge Level 5, System: Cardiovascular
Dr. Mohsin Maqbool Bahawal-Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur


                                                                          Hi Yield [ID 1944]
MI: immediate treatment
DOGASH:
Diamorphine
Oxygen
GTN spray
Asprin 300mg
S treptokinase
Heparin
Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular
Ken Hodson Medical Student, University of Bristol


                                                                          Hi Yield [ID 2505]
PEA/Asystole (ACLS): etiology
ITCHPAD:
Infarction
Tension pneumothorax
Cardiac tamponade
Hypovolemia/ Hypothermia/ Hypo-, Hyperkalemia/ Hypomagnesmia/ Hypoxemia
Pulmonary embolism
Acidosis
Drug overdose
Knowledge Level 4, System: Cardiovascular
Carl Roberts A.S.EMS, CCEMT-P, CFP US Army Special Forces


                                                                                    [ID 391]
Shock: signs and symptoms
TV SPARC CUBE:
Thirst
Vomiting
S weating
Pulse weak
Anxious
Respirations shallow/rapid
Cool
Cyanotic
Unconscious
BP low
Eyes blank
Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                       [ID 542]
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes
BATS:
Berry aneurysm
Arteriovenous malformation/ Adult polycystic kidney disease
Trauma (eg being struck with baseball bat)
S troke
Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular
Cusano and Mamta SGUSOM


                                                                                             Hi Yield [ID 1719]
Syncope causes, by system
HEAD HEART VESSELS:
   CNS causes include HEAD:
Hypoxia/ Hypoglycemia
Epilepsy
Anxiety
Dysfunctional brain stem (basivertebral TIA)
   Cardiac causes are HEART:
Heart attack
Embolism (PE)
Aortic obstruction (IHSS, AS or myxoma)
Rhythm disturbance, ventricular
Tachycardia
   Vascular causes are VESSELS:
Vasovagal
Ectopic (reminds one of hypovolemia)
S ituational
S ubclavian steal
ENT (glossopharyngeal neuralgia)
Low systemic vascular resistance (Addison's, diabetic vascular neuropathy)
S ensitive carotid sinus
Knowledge Level 6, System: Cardiovascular
Bill Young MD University of Kentucky Dept of Emergency Medicine


                                                                                              Hi Yield [ID 598]
Ventricular fibrillation: treatment
quot;Shock, Shock, Shock, Everybody Shock, Little Shock, Big Shock, Momma Shock, Poppa Shockquot;:
Shock= Defibrillate
Everybody= Epinephine
Little= Lidocaine
Big= Bretylium
Momma= MgSO4
Poppa= Pocainamide
Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                       [ID 306]
Vfib/Vtach drugs used according to ACLS
quot;Every Little Boy Must Prayquot;:
Epinephrine
Lidocaine
Bretylium
Magsulfate
Procainamide
Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular
Midnight Medic Paramedic in Texas


                                                                          Hi Yield [ID 470]
Diabetic ketoacidosis management
F*¢KING:
Fluids (crytalloids)
Urea (check it)
Creatinine (check it)/ Catheterize
K+ (potassium)
Insulin (5u/hour. Note: sliding scale no longer recommended in the UK)
Nasogastic tube (if patient comatose)
Glucose (once serum levels drop to 12)
Knowledge Level 4, System: Endocrine
Graeme Little University College London


                                                                                   [ID 349]
Coma causes checklist
AEIOU TIPS:
Acidosis/ Alcohol
Epilepsy
Infection
Overdosed
Uremia
Trauma to head
Insulin: too little or or too much
Pyschosis episode
S troke occurred
Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous
Midnight Medic Paramedic in Texas


                                                                         Hi Yield [ID 1735]
Meningicoccal meningitis: complications
SAD REP:
S epsis/ S hock/ S ubdural effusion
Ataxia/ Abscess (brain)
DIC/ Deafness
Retardation
Epilepsy
Paralysis
Knowledge Level 5, System: Nervous
Richard Thompson Queens University, Belfast, NI


                                                                         Hi Yield [ID 1734]
Miosis: causes of pin-point pupils
CPR ON SLIME:
Clonidine
Phenothiazines
Resting (deep sleep)
Opiates
Narcotics
S troke (pontine hemorrhage)
Lomotil (diphenoxylate)
Insecticides
Mushrooms/ Muscarinic (inocybe, clitocybe)
Eye drops
Knowledge Level 7, System: Nervous
Sam LaCapra, M.D., F.A.C.E.P. Emergency Physician


                                                                                  [ID 1733]
Neurological focal deficits
10 S's:
S ugar (hypo, hyper)
S troke
S eizure (Todd's paralysis)
S ubdural hematoma
S ubarachnoid hemorrhage
S pace occupying lesion (tumor, avm, aneurysm, abscess)
S pinal cord syndromes
S omatoform (conversion reaction)
S clerosis (MS)
S ome migraines
Knowledge Level 9, System: Nervous
Sam LaCapra, M.D., F.A.C.E.P. Emergency Physician


                                                                                                    Hi Yield [ID 2607]
Unconciousness: differential
FISH SHAPED:
Fainted
Illness/ Infantile febrile convulsions
S hock
Head injuries
S troke (CVE)
Heart problems
Asphxia
Poisons
Epilepsy
Diabetes
Knowledge Level 1, System: Nervous
B Sylvester Surrey Ambulance Service (UK)


                                                                                                    Hi Yield [ID 1874]
Coma and signicantly reduced conscious state causes: causes
COMA:
CO2 and CO excess
Overdose: TCAs, Benzos, EtOH, insulin, paracetamol, etc.
Metabolic: BSL, Na+, K+, Mg2+, urea, ammonia, etc.
Apoplexy: stroke, SAH, extradural, subdural, Ca, meningitis, encephalitis, cerebral abscess, etc.
Knowledge Level 4, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Steve Gust HMO, Gove District Hospital, NT Australia


                                                                                                              [ID 221]
Malignant hyperthermia treatment
quot;S ome Hot Dude Better Give Iced Fluids Fast!quot; (Hot dude = hypothermia):
S top triggering agents
Hyperventilate/ Hundred percent oxygen
Dantrolene (2.5mg/kg)
Bicarbonate
Glucose and insulin
IV Fluids and cooling blanket
Fluid output monitoring/ Furosemide/ Fast heart [tachycardia]
Knowledge Level 3, System: Other/Miscellaneous
Anonymous Contributor


                                                                                                     Hi Yield [ID 933]
RLQ pain: differential
APPENDICITIS:
Appendicitis/ Abscess
PID/ Period
Pancreatitis
Ectopic/ Endometriosis
Neoplasia
Diverticulitis
Intussusception
Crohns Disease/ Cyst (ovarian)
IBD
Torsion (ovary)
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
S tones
Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous
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Medicalmnemonics

  • 1. ANATOMY [ID 189] Bowel components quot;Dow Jones Industrial Average Closing S tock Reportquot;: From proximal to distal: Duodenum Jejunum Ileum Appendix Colon S igmoid Rectum Alternatively: to include the cecum, quot;Dow Jones Industrial Climbing Average Closing S tock Reportquot;. Knowledge Level 1, System: Alimentary Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 3225] Diaphragm apertures: spinal levels Aortic hiatus = 12 letters = T12 Oesophagus = 10 letters = T10 Vena cava = 8 letters = T8 Knowledge Level 1, System: Alimentary Oriade Adeoye Dept. of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, OAU, Ile-Ife [ID 58] Duodenum: lengths of parts quot;Counting 1 to 4 but staggeredquot;: 1st part: 2 inches 2nd part: 3 inches 3rd part: 4 inches 4th part: 1 inch Knowledge Level 5, System: Alimentary Anonymous Contributor [ID 114] Liver inferior markings showing right/left lobe vs. vascular divisions There's a Hepatic quot;Hquot; on inferior of liver. One vertical stick of the H is the dividing line for anatomical right/left lobe and the other vertical stick is the divider for vascular halves. Stick that divides the liver into vascular halves is the one with vena cava impression (since vena cava carries blood, it's fortunate that it's the divider for blood halves). Knowledge Level 5, System: Alimentary Robert O'Connor University College Dublin Hi Yield [ID 72] Meckel's diverticulum details 2 inches long. 2 feet from end of ileum. 2 times more common in men. 2% occurrence in population. 2 types of tissues may be present. Note: quot;di-quot; means quot;twoquot;, so diverticulum is the thing with all the twos. Knowledge Level 2, System: Alimentary Robert O'Connor University College Dublin Hi Yield [ID 2516] Aorta vs. vena cava: right vs. left Aorta and right each have 5 letters, so aorta is on the right. Vena and cava and left each have 4 letters, so vena cava is on the left. Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Robert O'Connor University College Dublin [ID 29] Aortic arch: major branch order
  • 2. quot;Know your ABC'Squot;: Aortic arch gives rise to: Brachiocephalic trunk left Common Carotid left S ubclavian Beware though trick question of 'What is first branch of aorta?' Technically, it's the coronary arteries. Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 2681] Atrioventricular valves quot;LAB RATquot;: Left Atrium: Bicuspid Right Atrium: Tricuspid Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Amir A. Ghaferi Johns Hopkins School of Medicine [ID 1208] Axillary artery branches quot;S crew The Lawyer S ave A Patientquot;: S uperior thoracic Thoracoacromiol Lateral thoracic S ubscapular Anterior circumflex humeral Posterior circumflex humeral Alternatively: quot;S ome Times Life S eems A Painquot;. Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous contributor and Joe Azzopardi Not specified and Xarabank [ID 608] Brachial artery: recurrent and collateral branches quot;I Am Pretty S exyquot; Inferior ulnar collateral artery goes with Anterior ulnar recurrent artery. Posterior ulnar recurrent artery goes with S uperior ulnar collateral artery. Alternatively: quot;I Am Pretty S martquot;. Knowledge Level 5, System: Cardiovascular Paul's Boutique Western University College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific [ID 669] Carotid sheath contents quot;I See 10 CC's in the IVquot;: I See (I.C.) = Internal Carotid artery 10 = CN 10 (Vagus nerve) CC = Common Carotid artery IV = Internal Jugular Vein Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 1094] Cavernous sinus contents O TOM CAT: O TOM are lateral wall components, in order from superior to inferior. CA are the components within the sinus, from medial to lateral. CA ends at the level of T from O TOM. See diagram. Occulomotor nerve (III) Trochlear nerve (IV) Ophthalmic nerve (V1) Maxillary nerve (V2) Carotid artery Abducent nerve (VI) T: When written, connects to the T of OTOM. Knowledge Level 4, System: Cardiovascular Jonathan Vafai New York University School of Medicine Hi Yield [ID 1833] Coelic trunk: branches
  • 3. Left Hand S ide (LHS): Left gastric artery Hepatic artery S plenic artery Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Dr. Harsh Sharma [ID 613] Descending abdominal aorta branches from diaphragm to iliacs quot;Prostitutes Cause S agging S wollen Red Testicles [in men] Living In S inquot;: Phrenic [inferior] Celiac S uperior mesenteric S uprarenal [middle] Renal Testicular [quot;in menquot; only] Lumbars Inferior mesenteric S acral Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular Josser Mt. Sinai Medical School [ID 291] External carotid artery branches quot;S ome Anatomists Like F*#king, Others Prefer S & Mquot;: S uperior thyroid Ascending pharyngeal Lingual Facial Occipital Posterior auricular S uperficial temporal Maxillary Alternatively: As S he Lay Flat, Oscar's Passion S lowly Mountedquot;. Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 10] Femoral triangle: arrangement of contents NAVEL: From lateral hip towards medial navel: Nerve (directly behind sheath) Artery (within sheath) Vein (within sheath) Empty space (between vein and lymph) Lymphatics (with deep inguinal node) Nerve/Artery/Vein are all called Femoral. Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Andrew J. Vasil UMD School of Medicine, Duluth, MN [ID 1938] Heart valve sequence quot;Try Pulling My Aortaquot;: Tricuspid Pulmonary Mitral Aorta Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Michael Franco Melbourne University, Australia [ID 1091] Inferior vena cava tributaries
  • 4. quot;I Like To Rise S o Highquot;: Illiacs Lumbar Testicular Renal S uprarenal Hepatic vein. Think of the IVC wanting to rise high up to the heart. Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular Usman Ahmad KMC [ID 1169] Internal iliac artery: anterior branches What Bill admitted to Hilary: quot;I Milked Our Insatiable Intern's Udders Under the Deskquot;: Inferior gluteal Middle rectal Obturator Inferior vesical artery Internal pudendal artery Umbilical U/D=Uterine artery (female)/ Deferential artery (male) Knowledge Level 4, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor [ID 502] Internal jugular vein: tributaries quot;Medical S chools Let Confident People Inquot;: From inferior to superior: Middle thyroid S uperior thyroid Lingual Common facial Pharyngeal Inferior petrosal sinus Knowledge Level 6, System: Cardiovascular LaShawn A. Weaver Medical University of South Carolina [ID 270] Liver: side with ligamentum venosum/ caudate lobe vs. side with quadrate lobe/ ligamentum teres quot;VC goes with VCquot;: The Venosum and Caudate is on same side as Vena Cava [posterior]. Therefore, quadrate and teres must be on anterior by default. See inferior-view diagram. Knowledge Level 4, System: Cardiovascular Robert O'Connor University College Dublin Hi Yield [ID 79] Lung lobe numbers: right vs. left Tricuspid heart valve and tri-lobed lung both on the right side. Bicuspid and bi-lobed lung both on the left side. Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Robert O'Connor University College Dublin [ID 935] Maxillary artery branches quot;DAM I AM Piss Drunk But S tupid Drunk I Prefer, Must Phone Alcoholics Anonymousquot;: Deep auricular Anterior tympanic Middle meningeal Inferior alveolar Accessory meningeal Masseteric Pterygoid Deep temporal Buccal S phenopalatine Descending palatine
  • 5. Infraorbital Posterior superior alveolar Middle superior alveolar Pharyngeal Anterior superior alveolar Artery of the pterygoid canal Knowledge Level 7, System: Cardiovascular Imani Walker and Fareeda Hamid New York College of Osteopathic Medicine [ID 511] Portal-systemic anastomoses: main 2 places that retroperitoneals connect into systemic RetroPeritoneals hook up with Renal and Paravertebral veins. Knowledge Level 6, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor [ID 278] Saphenous veins: path of great vs. small at malleolus quot;MAGdelaine has varicose veinsquot; [The saphenous veins are important for varicose veins]: Medial maleolus, Anterior to maleolus, and Great saphenous go together. Then the opposites of these go together: Small saphenous is posterior to the lateral maleolus. Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular Robert O'Connor University College Dublin [ID 324] Thoracic cage: relations to the important venous structures Behind the sternoclavicular joints: the brachiocephalic veins begin. Behind the 1st costal cartilage on the right the superior vena cava begins. Behind the 2nd costal cartilage on the right the azygos vein ends. Behind the 3rd costal cartilage on the right the superior vena cava ends. Knowledge Level 6, System: Cardiovascular Fred Reid Undergrad at St-Andrews, UK [ID 1207] Thoracoacromial artery branches ABCD: Acromial Breast (pectoral) Clavicular Deltoid Knowledge Level 6, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous contributor UCLA School of Medicine [ID 258] Scalp layers SCALP: From superficial to deep: S kin Connective tissue Aponeurosis Loose areolar tissue Pericranium Knowledge Level 1, System: Integumental Anonymous Contributor [ID 56] Ureter to ovarian/testicular artery relation quot;Water under the bridgequot;: The ureters (which carry water), are posterior to the ovarian/testicular artery. Clinically important, since a common surgical error is to cut ureter instead of ovarian artery when removing uterus. Knowledge Level 2, System: Kidney/Urine Anonymous Contributor [ID 54] Spleen: dimensions, weight, surface anatomy quot;1,3,5,7,9,11quot;: Spleen dimensions are 1 inch x 3 inches x 5 inches. Weight is 7 ounces. It underlies ribs 9 through 11. Knowledge Level 5, System: Lymphoid Anonymous Contributor
  • 6. [ID 26] Thoracic duct: relation to azygous vein and esophagus quot;The duck between 2 goosesquot;: Thoracic duct (duck) is between 2 gooses, azygous and esophagus. Knowledge Level 5, System: Lymphoid Anonymous Contributor [ID 162] Abdominal muscles quot;Spare TIRE around their abdomenquot;: Transversus abdominis Internal abdominal oblique Rectus abdominis External abdominal oblique Knowledge Level 1, System: Muscle Anonymous Contributor [ID 1117] Anterior forearm muscles: superficial group quot;Pimps F*ck Prostitutes For Funquot;: Pronator teres Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longous Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexor digitorum superficialis Knowledge Level 3, System: Muscle Rob [ID 27] Bicipital groove: attachments of muscles near it quot;The lady between two majorsquot;: Teres major attaches to medial lip of groove. Pectoralis major to lateral lip of groove. Latissimus (Lady) is on floor of groove, between the 2 majors. Knowledge Level 3, System: Muscle Sandeep [ID 92] Brachioradialis: function, innervation, one relation, one attachment BrachioRadialis: Function: Its the Beer Raising muscle, flexes elbow, strongest when wrist is oriented like holding a beer. Innervation: Breaks Rule: it’s a flexor muscle, But Radial. (Radial nerve usually is for extensors: Recall BEST rule: B was for brachioradialis). Important relation: Behind it is the Radial nerve in the cubital fossa. Attachment: Attaches to Bottom of Radius. Knowledge Level 4, System: Muscle Robert O'Connor University College Dublin [ID 94] Elbow: muscles that flex it Three B's Bend the elBow: Brachialis Biceps Brachioradialis Knowledge Level 2, System: Muscle Anonymous Contributor [ID 6] Elbow: which side has common flexor origin FM (as in FM Radio): Flexor Medial, so Common Flexor Origin is on the medial side. Knowledge Level 2, System: Muscle Anonymous Contributor [ID 661] Erector spinae muscles
  • 7. quot;I Love S exquot;: From lateral to medial: Iliocostalis Longissimus S pinalis Alternatively: quot;I Long for S pinachquot; quot;Sexquot; helps you think of quot;Erectorquot;, but quot;Longquot; and quot;Spinachquot; help you remember the muscles' names. Knowledge Level 7, System: Muscle Michael A. Chaplin SUNY-HSCB Downstate College of Medicine [ID 1416] Eye rotation by oblique muscles quot;I Love S &Mquot;: Inferior oblique: Lateral eye rotation. S uperior oblique: Medial eye rotation. Knowledge Level 1, System: Muscle CS Eddleman Medical Student, Texas Tech SOM [ID 293] Interossei muscles: actions of dorsal vs. palmar in hand quot;PAd and DAbquot;: The Palmar Adduct and the Dorsal Abduct. Use your hand to dab with a pad. Knowledge Level 5, System: Muscle Dr. Atif Farooq and Anonymous Contributor Rawalpindi Medical College, Pakistan and Not Specified [ID 646] Intrinsic muscles of hand (palmar surface) quot;A OF A OF Aquot;: Thenar, lateral to medial: Abductor pollicis longus Opponens pollicis Flexor pollicis brevis Adductor pollicis. Hypothenar, lateral to medial: Opponens digiti minimi Flexor digiti minimi Abductor digiti minimi Knowledge Level 4, System: Muscle Anonymous Contributor [ID 102] Inversion vs. eversion muscles in leg Second letter rule for inversion/eversion: Eversion muscles: pErineus longus pErineus brevis pErineus terius Inversion muscles: tIbialis anterior tIbialis posterior Knowledge Level 6, System: Muscle Robert O'Connor University College Dublin [ID 5] Lumbricals action Lumbrical action is to hold a pea, that is to flex the metacarpophalangeal joint and extend the interphalangeal joints. When look at hand in this position, can see this makes an quot;Lquot; shape, since L is for Lumbrical. Knowledge Level 4, System: Muscle Robert O'Connor University College Dublin [ID 1291] Muscles: potentially absent ones
  • 8. Muscles which may be absent but may be important: 5 P's: Palmaris longus [upper limb] Plantaris [lower limb] Peroneus tertius [lower limb] Pyramidalis [anterior abdominal wall] Psoas minor [posterior abdominal wall] Knowledge Level 3, System: Muscle Shebrain Cairo University [ID 57] Oblique muscles: direction of externals vs. internals quot;Hands in your pocketsquot;: When put hands in your pockets, fingers now lie on top of external obliques and fingers point their direction of fibers: down and towards midline. Note: quot;obliquequot; tells that must be going at an angle. Internal obliques are at right angles to external. Knowledge Level 1, System: Muscle Anonymous Contributor [ID 202] Plantarflexion vs. dorsiflexion Plantar flexion occurs when you squish a Plant with your foot. Knowledge Level 1, System: Muscle Anonymous Contributor [ID 9] Popliteal fossa: muscles arrangement The two Semi's go together, Semimembranosus and Semitendonosus. The Membranosus is Medial and since the two semis go together, Semitendonosus is also medial. Therefore, Biceps Femoris has to be lateral. Of the semi's, to remember which one is superficial: the Tendonosus is on Top. Knowledge Level 3, System: Muscle Anonymous Contributor [ID 70] Pterygoid muscles: function of lateral vs. medial quot;Look at how your jaw ends up when saying first syllable of 'Lateral' or 'Medial' quot;: quot;Laquot;: your jaw is now open, so Lateral opens mouth. quot;Mequot;: your jaw is still closed, so medial closes the mandible. Knowledge Level 4, System: Muscle Robert O'Connor University College Dublin Hi Yield [ID 35] Rotator cuff muscles quot;The SITS musclesquot;: Clockwise from top: S upraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor S ubscapularis A pro baseball pitcher has injured his rotator cuff muscles. As a result, he SITS out for the rest of the game, and then gets sent to the minor leagues. Knowledge Level 2, System: Muscle Anne Conlin and Robert O'Connor University of Western Ontario Medical School, London, Canada and University College Dublin [ID 547] Serratus anterior: innervation SALT: S erratus Anterior = Long Thoracic. Knowledge Level 2, System: Muscle Erin B. Dominiak Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine Hi Yield [ID 25] Serratus anterior: innervation and action quot;C5-6-7 raise your arms up to heavenquot;: Long thoracic nerve roots (567) innervate Serratus anterior. Test C567 roots clinically by ability to raise arm past 90 degrees. Knowledge Level 2, System: Muscle Anonymous Contributor
  • 9. [ID 101] Soleus vs. gastrocnemius muscle function quot;Stand on your Soles. Explosive gasquot;: You stand on soles of your shoes, so Soleus is for posture. Gasoline is explosive, so Gastrocnemius is for explosive movement. Knowledge Level 3, System: Muscle Robert O'Connor University College Dublin [ID 2346] Supination vs. pronation quot;SOUPinationquot;: Supination is to turn your arm palm up, as if you are holding a bowl of soup. quot;POUR-nationquot;: Pronation is to turn your arm with the palm down, as if you are pouring out whatever is your bowl. Alternatively, Pronation donation: Pronation is palm facing downward, as if making a donation. Knowledge Level 1, System: Muscle LCK and Anonymous Contributor University of Ottawa and Not Specified Hi Yield [ID 1943] Bell's palsy: symptoms BELL'S Palsy: Blink reflex abnormal Earache Lacrimation [deficient, excess] Loss of taste S udden onset Palsy of VII nerve muscles All symptoms are unilateral. Knowledge Level 4, System: Nervous Robert O'Connor University College Dublin Hi Yield [ID 135] Brachial plexus branches quot;My Aunt Raped My Unclequot;: From lateral to medial: Musculocutaneous Axillary Radial Median Ulnar Knowledge Level 1, System: Nervous Anonymous Contributor [ID 18] Brachial plexus subunits quot;Randy Travis Drinks Cold Beerquot;: Roots Trunks Divisions Cords Branches Alternatively: quot;Read The Damn Cadaver Book!quot; Alternatively: quot;Real Texans Drink Coors Beerquot;. Knowledge Level 1, System: Nervous Karl and Anonymous Contributor Boston U. School of Medicine and Not Specified [ID 465] Brachial plexus: branches of posterior cord STAR: S ubscapular [upper and lower] Thoracodorsal Axillary Radial Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous Zaineb Vakil Gulf Medical College Ajman Hi Yield [ID 14] Buttock quadrant safest for needle insertion quot;Shut up and butt outquot;: The Upper Outer quadrant of the Buttock safely avoids hitting sciatic nerve. Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous Anonymous Contributor
  • 10. Hi Yield [ID 126] Carpal tunnel syndrome causes MEDIAN TRAP: Myxoedema Edema premenstrually Diabetes Idiopathic Agromegaly Neoplasm Trauma Rheumatoid arthritis Amyloidosis Pregnancy Mnemonic fits nicely since median nerve is trapped. Knowledge Level 4, System: Nervous Anonymous Contributor [ID 268] Cervical plexus: arrangement of the important nerves quot;GLASTquot;: 4 compass points: clockwise from north on the right side of neck: Great auricular Lesser occipital Accessory nerve pops out between L and S S upraclavicular Transverse cervical See diagram. Knowledge Level 3, System: Nervous Robert O'Connor University College Dublin Hi Yield [ID 550] Deep tendon reflexes: root supply God designed body reflexes according to a nursery rhyme: One, two-- buckle my shoe. Three, four-- kick the door. Five, six-- pick up sticks. Seven, eight-- shut the gate. S1,2 = ankle jerk L3,4 = knee jerk C5,6 = biceps and brachioradialis C7,8 = triceps Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous Bryan Traynor Massachussetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, USA Hi Yield [ID 23] Diaphragm innervation quot;3, 4, 5 keeps the diaphragm alivequot;: Diaphragm innervation is cervical roots 3, 4, and 5. Knowledge Level 1, System: Nervous Michael Nawfal Hi Yield [ID 572] Extraocular muscles cranial nerve innervation quot;LR6SO4 rest 3quot;: Lateral Rectus is 6th S uperior Oblique is 4th rest are all 3rd cranial nerve Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous Atul Singh Detroit Medical Center [ID 863] Facial nerve: branches after Stylomastoid foramen quot;Ten Zulus Buggered My Cat (Painfully)quot;: From superior to inferior: Temporal branch Zygomatic branch Buccal branch Mandibular branch Cervical branch (Posterior auricular nerve) Alternatively: quot;PAssing Through Zanzibar By Motor Carquot; (PA for Posterior Auricular). Knowledge Level 1, System: Nervous Stephan Sanders and Kris Downing Nottingham Medical School, UK and UCR/UCLA Biomedical Sciences Program, USA
  • 11. [ID 329] Lingual nerve course The Lingual nerve Took a curve Around the Hyoglossus. quot;Well I'll be f*#ked!quot; Said Wharton's Duct, quot;The bastard's gone and crossed us!quot; Knowledge Level 6, System: Nervous Sam Hinton University of California, San Diego [ID 643] Lumbar plexus quot;I, I Get Laid On Fridaysquot;: Iliohypogastric [L1] Ilioinguinal [L1] Genitofemoral [L1, L2] Lateral femoral cutaneous [L2, L3] Obtruator [L2, L3, L4] Femoral [L2, L3, L4] Alternatively: quot;I twice Get Laid On Fridaysquot;. Alternatively: quot;Interested In Getting Laid On Fridays?quot; Knowledge Level 3, System: Nervous Alfred Munoz MCP-Hahnemann School Of Medicine [ID 263] Lumbar plexus roots quot;2 from 1, 2 from 2, 2 from 3quot;: 2 nerves from 1 root: Ilioinguinal (L1), Iliohypogastric (L1). 2 nerves from 2 roots: Genitofemoral (L1,L2), Lateral Femoral (L2,L3). 2 nerves from 3 roots: Obturator (L2,L3,L4), Femoral (L2,L3,L4). Knowledge Level 4, System: Nervous Robert O'Connor University College Dublin [ID 36] Median nerve: hand muscles innervated quot;The LOAF musclesquot;: Lumbricals 1 and 2 Opponens pollicis Abductor pollicis brevis Flexor pollicis brevis Alternatively: LLOAF, with 2 L's, to recall there's 2 lumbricals. To remember that these are the Median nerve muscles, think quot;Meat LOAFquot;. Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous Samuel Atom Baek Kim [ID 86] Median nerve: recognizing it in an opened axilla The Median nerve is the Middle of a giant capital quot;Mquot; formed by the musculocutaneous and ulnar nerves. Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous Robert O'Connor University College Dublin [ID 127] Pectoral nerves: path of lateral vs. medial quot;Lateral Less, Medial Morequot;: Lateral pectoral nerve only goes through Pectoralis major, but Medial pectoral nerve goes though both Pectoralis major and minor. Knowledge Level 5, System: Nervous Anonymous Contributor [ID 33] Pelvis: sacral innervation
  • 12. quot;S2,3,4 keeps the 3 P's off the floor (Penis, Poo, and Pee). S2,3,4 innervates the anal sphincter, urethral sphicter, and causes erection. Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous Anonymous Contributor National University of Ireland, Galway and University of Sydney, Australia [ID 28] Penis autonomic innervation actions quot;Parasympathetic Puts it up. S ympathetic S purts it outquot;. Alternatively: quot;Point and S hootquot;: Parasympathetic Points it, S ympathetic S hoots out the semen. Erection and Ejaculation (Emission). Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous Andrew J. Vasil and John Nguyen University of Minnesota School of Medicine and University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston [ID 1184] Radial nerve: muscles innervated quot;Try A Big Chocolate Chip S undae, Double Dip Cherries And Peanuts Preferably Includedquot;: In order of their innervation, proximal to distal: Triceps Anconeus Brachioradialis ext. Carpi radialis longus ext. Carpi radialis brevis S upinator ext. Digitorum ext.Digiti minimi ext. Carpi ulnaris Abductor poll. longus ext. Poll. brevis ext. P poll. longus ext. Indicis For the neighboring words that start with the same letter (eg: chocolate and chip), notice that the longer word in the mnemonic, corresponds to the longer of the two muscle names (ex: ext. carpi radialis longus and ext. carpi radialis brevis) Knowledge Level 6, System: Nervous Anonymous Contributor Medical College of Ohio [ID 16] Radial nerve: muscles supplied (simplified) quot;BEST musclesquot;: Brachioradialis Extensors S upinator Triceps Knowledge Level 1, System: Nervous Anonymous Contributor [ID 2046] Scalp: nerve supply GLASS: Greater occipital/ Greater auricular Lesser occipital Auriculotemporal S upratrochlear S upraorbital Knowledge Level 5, System: Nervous Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 1040] Spinal cord: length in vertebral column SCULL: S pinal Cord Until L2 (LL). Knowledge Level 3, System: Nervous Lior Greenberg Technion Faculty of Medicine, Haifa, Israel Hi Yield [ID 2382] Thigh: innervation by compartment
  • 13. quot;MAP OF Sciaticquot;: Medial compartment: Obturator Anterior compartment: Femoral Posterior compartment: Sciatic So all the thigh muscles in that compartment get innervated by that nerve. Knowledge Level 1, System: Nervous Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 38] Trigeminal nerve: where branches exit skull quot;S tanding Room Onlyquot;: S uperior orbital fissure is V1 foramen Rotundum is V2 foramen Ovale is V3 Knowledge Level 1, System: Nervous Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 304] V3 innervated muscles (branchial arch 1 derivatives) quot;M.D. My TVquot;: Mastication [masseter, temporalis, pterygoids] Digastric [anterior belly] Mylohyoid tensor Tympani tensor Veli palatini Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous Christian Erickson Duke University [ID 1024] V3: sensory branches quot;Buccaneers Are Inferior Linguistsquot;: Buccal Auriculotemporal Inferior alveolar Lingual Knowledge Level 5, System: Nervous Jennifer Chuang University of Vermont School of Medicine [ID 449] Vagus nerve: path into thorax quot;I Left my Aunt in Vegasquot;: Left Vagus nerve goes Anterior descending into the thorax. Knowledge Level 4, System: Nervous Anonymous Contributor [ID 262] Anatomical planes: coronal, horizontal, sagittal Coronal: A classic painting/stained glass window of a saint/angel has a corona radiating around the person's head. The plane of the glass/page is cutting their head in the coronal plane. Horizontal: Someone coming over the horizon has their abdomen cut in the horizontal plane. Sagittal: the remaining one by default. Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous Robert O'Connor University College Dublin [ID 1271] Cubital fossa contents quot;Really Need Booze To Be At My Nicestquot;: From lateral to medial: Radial Nerve Biceps Tendon Brachial Artery Median Nerve Knowledge Level 2, System: Other/Miscellaneous Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 3262] Hand: nerve lesions
  • 14. DR CUMA: Drop=Radial nerve Claw=Ulnar nerve Median nerve=Ape hand (or Apostol [preacher] hand) Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 2010] Inguinal canal: walls quot;MALT: 2M, 2A, 2L, 2Tquot;: Starting from superior, moving around in order to posterior: Superior wall (roof): 2 Muscles: internal oblique Muscle transverse abdominus Muscle Anterior wall: 2 Aponeuroses: Aponeurosis of external oblique Aponeurosis of internal oblique Lower wall (floor): 2 Ligaments: inguinal Ligament lacunar Ligament Posterior wall: 2Ts: Transversalis fascia conjoint Tendon Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous Miruna Segarceanu UMF Carol Davila, Bucharest, Romania [ID 2355] Mediastinums: posterior mediastinum structures There are 4 birds: The esophaGOOSE (esophagus) The vaGOOSE nerve The azyGOOSE vein The thoracic DUCK (duct) Knowledge Level 2, System: Other/Miscellaneous Aron Flagg Finch University of Health Sciences / The Chicago Medical School [ID 166] Perineal vs. peroneal Perineal is in between the legs. Peroneal is on the leg. Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 510] Retroperitoneal structures list SAD PUCKER: S uprarenal glands Aorta & IVC Duodenum (half) Pancreas Ureters Colon (ascending & descending) Kidneys Esophagus (anterior & left covered) Rectum Knowledge Level 2, System: Other/Miscellaneous Ron Norman AECC [ID 1123] Superior mediastinum contents
  • 15. quot;BATS & TENTquot;: Brachiocephalic veins Arch of aorta Thymus S uperior vena cava Trachea Esophagus Nerves (vagus & phrenic) Thoracic duct Knowledge Level 2, System: Other/Miscellaneous Sumeet Verma East Carolina University SOM Hi Yield [ID 1986] Superior mediastinum: contents PVT Left BATTLE: Phrenic nerve Vagus nerve Thoracic duct Left recurrent laryngeal nerve (not the right) Brachiocephalic veins Aortic arch (and its 3 branches) Thymus Trachea Lymph nodes Esophagus Knowledge Level 2, System: Other/Miscellaneous Anonymous Contributor University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine [ID 392] Supine vs. prone body position quot;Supine is on your spine. Therefore, prone's the quot;otherquot; one. Also, prone to suffocate in prone position. Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous Carol Kasper and Sandy Honeycutt MacMurray College, Jacksonville, IL, USA and Nursing student Hi Yield [ID 832] Bronchi: which is more vertical quot;Right on Redquot;: Many places allow making a right hand turn at a red light, if you first come to a complete stop. A child swallowing a red penny is more likely to get it stopped down the right bronchus, since it is more vertical. Knowledge Level 4, System: Pulmonary Lior Greenberg Technion Faculty of Medicine, Haifa, Israel [ID 1049] Bronchopulmonary segments of right lung quot;A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palmquot;: In order from superior to inferior: Apical Posterior Anterior Lateral Medial S uperior Medial basal Anterior basal Lateral basal Posterior basal Knowledge Level 7, System: Pulmonary Derek Bell University of Queensland Hi Yield [ID 3100] Lung lobes: one having lingula, lobe numbers Lingula is on Left. The lingula is like an atrophied lobe, so the left lung must have 2 quot;otherquot; lobes, and therefore right lung has 3 lobes. Knowledge Level 1, System: Pulmonary Teresa Myers Student, UNC [ID 201] Nasal cavity components
  • 16. quot;Never Call Me Needle Nose!quot;: Nares [external] Conchae Meatuses Nares [internal] Nasopharynx Note mnemonic sentence is nasally-related. Knowledge Level 5, System: Pulmonary Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 123] Pleura surface markings quot;All the even ribs, in order: 2,4,6,8,10,12 show its routequot;: Rib2: sharp angle inferiorly Rib4: the left pleura does a lateral shift to accommodate heart Rib6: both diverge laterally Rib8: midclavicular line Rib10: midaxillary line Rib12: the back See diagram. Knowledge Level 2, System: Pulmonary Anonymous Contributor [ID 39] Tonsils: The three types quot;PPL (people) have tonsilsquot;: Pharyngeal Palatine Lingual Knowledge Level 3, System: Pulmonary Anonymous Contributor [ID 117] Voicebox: names of parts in sagittal cross-section quot;There's 3 V's in your Voiceboxquot;: Vestibular fold Ventricle Vocal fold Note: Vestibular and Vocal cord also known as false and true cords respectively. Knowledge Level 5, System: Pulmonary Robert O'Connor University College Dublin [ID 62] Anteflexed vs. anteverted: what bodypart each describes quot;Anteflexed and Anteverted both bend toward Anteriorquot;. The quot;Vquot; words go together: Verted is for the cerVix (therefore flexed must be uterus). Knowledge Level 4, System: Reproductive Robert O'Connor University College Dublin [ID 2995] Broad ligament: contents BROAD: Bundle (ovarian neurovascular bundle) Round ligament Ovarian ligament Artefacts (vestigial structures) Duct (oviduct) Knowledge Level 1, System: Reproductive David Colbert UWA Medicine [ID 666] Scrotum layers
  • 17. quot;S ome Damn Englishman Called It The Testisquot;: From superficial to deep: S kin Dartos External spermatic fascia Cremaster Internal spermatic fascia Tunica vaginalis Testis Knowledge Level 2, System: Reproductive Anonymous Contributor [ID 319] Sperm pathway through male reproductive tract SEVEN UP: S eminiferous tubules Epididymis Vas deferens Ejaculatory duct Nothing Urethra Penis Knowledge Level 2, System: Reproductive Ken Evans Saskatchewan Health, Acute and Emergency Services [ID 2424] Sperm: path through male reproductive system quot;My boyfriend's name is STEVEquot;: S eminiferous Tubules Epididymis Vas deferens Ejaculatory duct Knowledge Level 1, System: Reproductive Amy Harrington MCP Hahnemann [ID 926] Spermatic cord contents quot;Piles Don't Contribute To A Good S ex Lifequot;: Pampiniform plexus Ductus deferens Cremasteric artery Testicular artery Artery of the ductus deferens Genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve S ympathetic nerve fibers Lymphatic vessels Knowledge Level 2, System: Reproductive TR Columbia PandS Hi Yield [ID 2797] Arm fractures: nerves affected by humerus fracture location ARM fracture: From superior to inferior: Axillary: head of humerus Radial: mid shaft Median: supracondular Knowledge Level 1, System: Skeletal Ritesh Patel M.D. [ID 552] Carpal bones
  • 18. quot;S top Letting Those People Touch The Cadaver's Handquot;: Proximal row, lateral-to-medial: S caphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform Distal row, lateral-to-medial: Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate Knowledge Level 1, System: Skeletal Edward Tanner University of Alabama SOM [ID 4] Carpal bones: trapezium vs. trapezoid location Since there's two T's in carpal bone mnemonic sentences, need to know which T is where: TrapeziUM is by the thUMB, TrapeziOID is inSIDE. Alternatively, TrapeziUM is by the thUMB, TrapezOID is by its SIDE. Knowledge Level 1, System: Skeletal Tom Ball Imperial College, UK Hi Yield [ID 2291] Carpel bones quot;S o Long To Pinky, Here Comes The Thumbquot;: Proximal row, lateral-to-medial, then distal row, medial-to-medial: S caphoid Lunate Triquetrium Pisiform Hamate Capate Trapezoid Trapezium Knowledge Level 1, System: Skeletal Anonymous Contributor [ID 834] Cartilage derivatives of 1st pharyngeal arch (mandibular) quot;I'M A S uper S exy Guyquot; (or Girl): Incus Malleus Anterior ligament of malleus S pine of sphenoid S phenomandibular ligament Genial tubercle of mandible Knowledge Level 7, System: Skeletal Ron Norman AECC [ID 171] Cranial bones quot;PEST OF 6quot;: Parietal Ethmoid S phenoid Temporal Occipital Frontal The 6 just reminds that there's 6 of them to remember. Knowledge Level 1, System: Skeletal Anonymous Contributor [ID 1743] Foramen ovale contents
  • 19. OVALE: Otic ganglion (just inferior) V3 cranial nerve Accessory meningeal artery Lesser petrosal nerve Emissary veins Knowledge Level 6, System: Skeletal Syukree UKM Hi Yield [ID 2187] Genu valgum vs. genu vargum Genu valGUM (knock-knee): knees are GUMmed together. Varum (bowleg) is the other by default, or Far rhymes with Var, so knees are far apart. Knowledge Level 1, System: Skeletal Andrew J. Vasil UMD School of Medicine, Duluth, MN Hi Yield [ID 2771] Hand fractures: Colle's vs. Smith's Colle's fracture: arm in fall position makes a 'C' shape. S mith's fracture: arm in fall position makes a 'S ' shape. See diagram. Knowledge Level 1, System: Skeletal Soichiro Fushimi Okayama University Medical School, Japan [ID 271] Joints in the midline quot;SCquot;: In medial line, below S econd Cervical, joints are S econdary Cartilaginous and usually have a diSC. Notes: secondary cartilaginous is also known as symphysis. The one that doesn't have a disc is xiphi-sternal. Knowledge Level 1, System: Skeletal Anonymous Contributor [ID 395] Lordosis vs. kyphosis Lordosis: Lumbar. KYphosis is HY up on the spine. Knowledge Level 3, System: Skeletal Anonymous Contributor [ID 7] Medial malleolus: order of tendons, artery, nerve behind it quot;Tom, Dick, And Nervous Harryquot;: From anterior to posterior: Tibialis Digitorum Artery Nerve Hallicus Full names for these are: Tibialis Posterior, Flexor Digitorum Longus, Posterior Tibial Artery, Posterior Tibial Nerve, Flexor Hallicus Longus. Alternatively: quot;Tom, Dick ANd Harryquot;. Alternatively: quot;Tom, Dick And Not Harryquot;. Knowledge Level 3, System: Skeletal Deepa S. and LCK Medical student and University of Ottawa [ID 30] Navicular contacts 3 of 5 cuneiform bones quot;Navicular is like the Navigator logoquot;: There are 3 things coming off each. See diagram. Therefore, cuboid has to contact 2 of the 5. Knowledge Level 6, System: Skeletal Robert O'Connor University College Dublin [ID 1689] Ossification ages
  • 20. quot;Every Potential Anatomist S hould Know Whenquot; When they ossify, in order of increasing year: Elbow: 16 years Pelvis, Ankle: 17 years S houlder, Knee: 18 years Wrist: 19 years Knowledge Level 4, System: Skeletal Saurabh Sikka [ID 17] Rib costal groove: order of intercostal blood vessels and nerve VAN: From superior to inferior: Vein Artery Nerve Knowledge Level 2, System: Skeletal Anonymous Contributor [ID 42] Superior orbital fissure: structures passing through quot;Lazy French Tarts Lie Naked In Anticipation Of S exquot;: Lacrimal nerve Frontal nerve Trochlear nerve Lateral nerve Nasociliary nerve Internal nerve Abducens nerve Ophthalmic veins S ympathetic nerves Knowledge Level 4, System: Skeletal Anonymous Contributor [ID 2095] Tibia: muscles of pes anserinus (the muscles attached to tibia's medial side) quot;A Girl between Two Sargeantsquot;: Gracilus is between S artorius and S emitendonosus Knowledge Level 4, System: Skeletal Beenish Dow Medical College [ID 80] Vertebrae: recognizing a thoracic from lumbar Examine vertebral body shape: Thoracic is heart-shaped body since your heart is in your thorax. Lumbar is kidney-bean shaped since kidneys are in lumbar area. See diagram. Knowledge Level 3, System: Skeletal Robert O'Connor University College Dublin [ID 81] Wrist: radial side vs. ulnar side Make a fist with your thumb up in the air and say quot;Rad!quot;. Your thumb is now pointing to your Radius. Note: 'Rad!' was a late 80's catchphrase, short for 'Radical'. Things that were good were called 'Rad'. Knowledge Level 1, System: Skeletal Patrick Esperanzate University College Dublin ANESTHESIOLOGY Hi Yield [ID 1404] Xylocaine: where not to use with epinephrine
  • 21. quot;Nose, Hose, Fingers and Toesquot; Vasoconstrictive effects of xylocaine with epinephrine are helpful in providing hemostasis while suturing. However, may cause local ischemic necrosis in distal structures such as the digits, tip of nose, penis, ears. Knowledge Level 5, System: Integumental Robert Lueken Eastern Virginia Medical School [ID 131] Spinal anesthesia agents quot;Little Boys Prefer Toysquot;: Lidocaine Bupivicaine Procaine Tetracaine Knowledge Level 3, System: Nervous Anonymous Contributor [ID 2253] Anesthesia machine/room check MS MAID: Monitors (EKG, SpO2, EtCO2, etc) S uction Machine check (according to ASA guidelines) Airway equipment (ETT, laryngoscope, oral/nasal airway) IV equipment Drugs (emergency, inductions, NMBs, etc) Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous Anonymous Contributor [ID 1875] General anaesthesia: equipment check prior to inducing MALES: Masks Airways Laryngoscopes Endotracheal tubes S uction/ S tylette, bougie Knowledge Level 2, System: Other/Miscellaneous Steve Gust HMO, Gove District Hospital, NT Australia Hi Yield [ID 1899] Endotracheal intubation: diagnosis of poor bilateral breath sounds after intubation DOPE: Displaced (usually right mainstem, pyreform fossa, etc.) Obstruction (kinked or bitten tube, mucuous plug, etc.) Pneumothorax (collapsed lung) Esophagus Knowledge Level 5, System: Pulmonary Marc Colbeck BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCE / PSYCHOLOGY Hi Yield [ID 697] Cluster personality disorders Cluster A Disorder = Atypical. Unusual and eccentric. Cluster B Disorder = Beast. Uncontrolled wildness. Cluster C Disorder = Coward [avoidant type], Compulsive [obsessive-compulsive type], or Clingy [dependent type]. Knowledge Level 1, System: Nervous Robert O'Connor University College Dublin Hi Yield [ID 767] Depression: major episode characteristics
  • 22. SPACE DIGS: S leep disruption Psychomotor retardation Appetite change Concentration loss Energy loss Depressed mood Interest wanes Guilt S uicidal tendencies Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous Robert O'Connor University College Dublin Hi Yield [ID 766] Gain: primary vs. secondary vs. tertiary Primary: Patient's Psyche improved. S econdary: S ymptom S ympathy for patient. Tertiary: Therapist's gain. Knowledge Level 3, System: Nervous Robert O'Connor University College Dublin [ID 1990] Middle adolescence (14-17 years): characteristics HERO: Heterosexual crushes/ Homosexual Experience Education regarding short term benefits Risk taking Omnipotence And there is interest in being a Hero (popular). Knowledge Level 5, System: Nervous Dr. Atif Farooq Khawaja Rawalpindi Medical College, Pakistan, Gujranwala Hi Yield [ID 2044] Narcolepsy: symptoms, epidemiology CHAP: Cataplexy Hallucinations Attacks of sleep Paralysis on waking Usual presentation is a young male, hence quot;chapquot;. Knowledge Level 3, System: Nervous Robert O'Connor University College Dublin Hi Yield [ID 1204] Sleep stages: features DElta waves during DEepest sleep (stages 3 & 4, slow-wave). dREaM during REM sleep. Knowledge Level 3, System: Nervous Anonymous Contributor [ID 1692] Keober-Ross dying process: stages quot;Death Always Brings Great Acceptancequot;: Denial Anger Bargaining Grieving Acceptance Knowledge Level 3, System: Other/Miscellaneous Sung H. Kim and Samuel Atom Baek-Kim Tuckahoe, NY [ID 1088] Impotence causes
  • 23. PLANE: Psychogenic: performance anxiety Libido: decreased with androgen deficiency, drugs Autonomic neuropathy: impede blood flow redirection Nitric oxide deficiency: impaired synthesis, decreased blood pressure Erectile reserve: can't maintain an erection Knowledge Level 3, System: Reproductive Ben Beckwith University of Queensland, Australia [ID 1969] Male erectile dysfunction (MED): biological causes MED: Medicines(propranalol, methyldopa, SSRI, etc.) Ethanol Diabetes mellitus Knowledge Level 4, System: Reproductive Dr. Atif Farooq Khawaja Rawalpindi Medical College, Pakistan, Gujranwala [ID 2037] Premature ejaculation: treatment 2 S's: S SRIs [eg: fluoxitime] S queezing technique [glans pressure before climax] More detail with 2 more S's: S ensate-focus excercises [relieves anxiety] S top and start method [5-6 rehearsals of stopping stimulation before climax] Knowledge Level 7, System: Reproductive Dr. Atif Farooq Khawaja Rawalpindi Medical College, Pakistan, Gujranwala BIOCHEMISTRY Hi Yield [ID 399] B vitamin names quot;The Rhythm Nearly Proved Contagiousquot;: In increasing order: Thiamine (B1) Riboflavin (B2) Niacin (B3) Pyridoxine (B6) Cobalamin (B12) Knowledge Level 2, System: Alimentary Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 442] Essential amino acids quot;PVT. TIM HALL always argues, never tiresquot;: Phe Val Thr Trp Ile Met His Arg Lue Lys Always argues: the A is for Arg, not Asp. 'Never tires': T is not Tyr, but is both Thr and Trp. Knowledge Level 3, System: Alimentary Anonymous Contributor [ID 784] Fasting state: branched-chain amino acids used by skeletal muscles
  • 24. quot;Muscles LIVe fastquot;: Leucine Isoleucine Valine Knowledge Level 2, System: Alimentary Daniel Marcano Medical school graduate [ID 1410] Folate deficiency: causes A FOLIC DROP: Alcoholism Folic acid antagonists Oral contraceptives Low dietary intake Infection with Giardia Celiac sprue Dilatin Relative folate deficiency Old Pregnant Knowledge Level 5, System: Alimentary Robert O'Connor University College Dublin Hi Yield [ID 2248] Glycogen storage: Anderson's (IV) vs. Cori's (III) enzyme defect ABCD: Anderson's=Branching enzyme. Cori's=Debranching enzyme. Otherwise, can't really distinguish clinically. Knowledge Level 3, System: Alimentary Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 2638] Glycogen storage: names of types I through VI quot;Viagra Pills Cause A Major Hardonquot;: Von Gierke's Pompe's Cori's Anderson's McArdle's Her's Knowledge Level 1, System: Alimentary Chris Reed Medical College of Wisconsin Hi Yield [ID 317] Glycolysis steps quot;Goodness Gracious, Father Franklin Did Go By Picking Pumpkins (to) Prepare Piesquot;: Glucose Glucose-6-P Fructose-6-P Fructose-1,6-diP Dihydroxyacetone-P Glyceraldehyde-P 1,3-Biphosphoglycerate 3-Phosphoglycerate 2-Phosphoglycerate (to) Phosphoenolpyruvate [PEP] Pyruvate 'Did', 'By' and 'Pies' tell you the first part of those three: di-, bi-, and py-. 'PrEPare' tells location of PEP in the process. Knowledge Level 4, System: Alimentary Ken Evans Saskatchewan Health, Acute and Emergency Services Hi Yield [ID 755] Hypervitaminosis A: signs and symptoms
  • 25. quot;Increased Vitamin A makes you HARDquot;: Headache/ Hepatomegaly Anorexia/ Alopecia Really painful bones Dry skin/ Drowsiness Knowledge Level 1, System: Alimentary Usman Ahmad KMC Hi Yield [ID 754] Infantile Beriberi symptoms Restlessness Sleeplessness Breathlessness Soundlessness (aphonia) Eatlessness (anorexia) Great heartedness (dilated heart) Alternatively: Get 5 of 'em with BERI: Breathless/ Big hearted, Eatless, Restless, Insomnia. Knowledge Level 3, System: Alimentary Usman Ahmad KMC [ID 138] Phosphorylation cascade: action during low glucose quot;In the Phasted State, Phosphorylatequot;: The phosphorylation cascade becomes active when blood glucose is low. Knowledge Level 5, System: Alimentary Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 562] Type 1 glycogen storage disease Type 1 = one (Von), ie Von Giereke's disease Knowledge Level 3, System: Alimentary Dr. Waqas H. Sheikh BVI Co. Hi Yield [ID 559] Van den Bergh reaction (Jaundice test) quot;Indirect reacting bilirubin = Unconjugated bilirubinquot;: Both start with vowels, so they go together: Indirect & Unconjugated. Knowledge Level 2, System: Alimentary Dr. Waqas H. Sheikh BVI Co. Hi Yield [ID 2234] Vitamin B3 (niacin, nicotinic acid) deficiency: pellagra The 3 D's of pellagra: Dermatitis Diarrhea Dementia Note vitamin B3 is the 3 D's. Knowledge Level 3, System: Alimentary Andrew J. Vasil UMD School of Medicine, Duluth, MN Hi Yield [ID 149] Vitamins: which are fat soluble KADE: Vitamin K Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Knowledge Level 2, System: Alimentary Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 3014] Coagulation common pathway: factors in order 10 + 5 - 2 = 13 Coagulation common pathway: Factor X to Factor V to Factor II to Factor XIII Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular John Chung University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of Medicine Hi Yield [ID 574] Fabry's disease
  • 26. FABRY'S: Foam cells found in glomeruli and tubules/ Febrile episodes Alpha galactosidase A deficiency/ Angiokeratomas Burning pain in extremities/ BUN increased in serum/ Boys Renal failure YX genotype (male, X linked recessive) S phingolipidoses Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular Rinku Uberoi UNIBE Hi Yield [ID 2561] Hemoglobin binding curve: causes of shift to right quot;CADET, face right!quot;: CO2 Acid 2,3-DPG (aka 2,3 BPG) Exercise Temperature Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 2062] Porphyrias: acute intermittent porphyria symptoms 5 P's: Pain in abdomen Polyneuropathy Psychologial abnormalities Pink urine Precipitated by drugs (eg barbiturates, oral contraceptives, sulpha drugs) Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular Anuradha [ID 745] Sickle cell disease pathophysiology SICKle cell disease is due to a S ubstitution of the SICKsth amino acid of the B chain. Knowledge Level 4, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 3143] Vitamin K dependent cofactors quot;Several Tend To Nicely S top Clotsquot;: Factor Seven, Ten, Two, Nine. Protein S , Protein C. Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Medical Student Class 2004 University of Western Ontario [ID 654] Adrenaline mechanism quot;ABC of Adrenalinequot;: Adrenaline--> activates Beta receptors--> increases Cyclic AMP Knowledge Level 1, System: Endocrine Usman Ahmad Hi Yield [ID 172] Insulin: function INsulIN stimulates 2 things to go IN 2 cells: Potassium and Glucose. Knowledge Level 1, System: Endocrine Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 2159] BUN:creatinine elevation: causes ABCD: Azotremia (pre-renal) Bleeding (GI) Catabolic status Diet (high protein parenteral nutrition) Knowledge Level 3, System: Kidney/Urine Anthony Chan Hi Yield [ID 2208] G6PD: oxidant drugs inducing hemolytic anemia
  • 27. AAA: Antibiotic (eg: sufamethoxazole) Antimalarial (eg: primaquine) Antipyretics (eg: acetanilid, but not aspirin or acetaminophen) Knowledge Level 3, System: Lymphoid Andrew J. Vasil UMD School of Medicine, Duluth, MN [ID 639] Carbon monoxide: electron transport chain target quot;CO blocks COquot;: Carbon monoxide (CO) blocks Cytochrome Oxidase (CO) Knowledge Level 3, System: Other/Miscellaneous Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 656] Citric acid cycle compounds quot;Can I Keep S elling S ex For Money, Officer?quot;: Citrate Isocitrate alpha Ketogluterate S uccinyl CoA S uccinate Fumerate Malate Oxaloacetate Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous Ramon Ter-Oganesyan and Rebecca University of California Irvine [ID 1008] DNA bond strength (nucleotides) quot;Crazy Gluequot;: Strongest bonds are between Cytosine and Guanine, strong like Crazy Glue (3 H-bonds), whereas the A=T only have 2 H-bonds. This is relevant to DNA replication, as the weaker A=T will be the site where RNA primer makes the initial break. Knowledge Level 4, System: Other/Miscellaneous Lior Greenberg Technion Faculty of Medicine, Haifa, Israel Hi Yield [ID 649] Electron transport chain: Rotenone's site of action Rotenone is a site specific inhibitor of complex one. Knowledge Level 3, System: Other/Miscellaneous Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 2696] Enzyme kinetics: competitive vs. non-competitive inhibition With Kompetitive inhibition: Km increases; no change in Vmax. With Non-kompetitive inhibition: No change in Km; Vmax decreases. Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous Patricia Sanchez INTEC University, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Hi Yield [ID 2054] Enzymes: classification quot;Over The HILLquot;: Oxidoreductases Transferases Hydrolases Isomerases Ligases Lyases Enzymes get reaction over the hill. See diagram. Knowledge Level 2, System: Other/Miscellaneous Kenny Livingstone St. Andrews medical student Hi Yield [ID 563] Enzymes: competitive inhibitors quot;Competition is hard because we have to travel more kilometers (Km) with the same velocityquot;: With competitive inhibitors, velocity remains same but Km increases Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous Dr. Waqas H. Sheikh BVI Co. [ID 1395] G protein type for respective receptors
  • 28. quot;KISS and KICK till you're SICK of SEXquot; (QISS and QIQ till you're SIQ of SQS): This gives the G-protein type (Gq, Gi, or Gs) for all the receptors. Receptors are in alphabetical order: alpha1=Q alpha2=I beta1=S beta3=S M1=Q M2=I M3=Q D1=S D2=I H1=Q H2=S V1=Q V2=S Knowledge Level 4, System: Other/Miscellaneous Khawaja Atif Farooq and Julien Pham Rawalpindi Medical College, Horizon Medical Institute, Pakistan and University of Washington [ID 612] Metabolism sites quot;Use both arms to HUGquot;: Heme synthesis Urea cycle Gluconeogenesis These reactions occur in both cytoplasm and mitochondria. Knowledge Level 4, System: Other/Miscellaneous Rinku Uberoi Na/K pump: concentrations of Na vs. K on inside/outside of cell, pump action, number of molecules Hi Yield [ID 160] moved HIKIN': There is a HIgh K concentration INside the cell. From this can deduce that the Na/K pump pumps K into cell and Na out of cell. Alternatively: When I was learning this pump (circa 1992), a band that was quot;inquot; was Kris Kross, and a band that was quot;outquot; was quot;Sha Na Na Naquot;: So pump moves K K (2 K) in and Na Na Na (3 Na) out. Sadly, as infectious as their debut album was, Kris Kross can really no longer be classed as quot;inquot;. Knowledge Level 2, System: Other/Miscellaneous Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 2529] Na+/K+ pump: movement of ions and quantity K+ and in each consist of 2 characters, so so 2 K+ are pumped in. Na+ and out each consist of 3 characters, so 3 Na+ are pumped out. Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 915] Phenylketonuria: which enzyme is deficient PHenylketonuria is caused by a deficiency of: Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Knowledge Level 3, System: Other/Miscellaneous Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 824] Pompe's disease: type quot;Police = Po + lysquot;: Pompe's disease is a lysosomal storage disease (alpha 1,4 glucosidase). Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous Lior Greenberg Technion Faculty of Medicine, Haifa, Israel Hi Yield [ID 1133] Pyruvate: products of complete oxidation
  • 29. quot;4 Naked Fun 3 Coeds + 1 Guyquot;: Complete oxidation of pyruvate yields: 4 NADH FADH2 3 CO2 1 GTP Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous Anonymous Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons [ID 2249] Tangier's disease: hallmark quot;Tangierene tonsilsquot;: Hallmark is large orange tonsils. Important clinical note: there is no increased risk of atherosclerosis, just like eating tangerenes. Knowledge Level 4, System: Other/Miscellaneous Anonymous Contributor CARDIOLOGY [ID 3074] Aortic regurgitation: causes CREAM: Congenital Rheumatic damage Endocarditis Aortic dissection/ Aortic root dilatation Marfan’s Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular Jamal Khan Birmingham University Medical Student Hi Yield [ID 197] Aortic stenosis characteristics SAD: S yncope Angina Dyspnoea Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor [ID 1582] Apex beat: abnormalities found on palpation, causes of impalpable HILT: Heaving Impalpable Laterally displaced Thrusting/ Tapping If it is impalpable, causes are COPD: COPD Obesity Pleural, Pericardial effusion Dextrocardia Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular Sushant Varma Medical student, University of Sheffield, UK [ID 2798] Apex beat: differential for impalpable apex beat DOPES: Dextrocardia Obesity Pericarditis/ Pericardial tamponade/ Pneumothorax Emphysema S inus inversus/ S tudent incompetence/ S coliosis/ S keletal abnormalities (eg pectus excavatum) Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular Fiona Hayes and Moses Lee Tong Chsia and Dalton Boyo UWCM, Cardiff, UK and Not Specified and Medical Student Hi Yield [ID 1092] Atrial fibrillation: causes
  • 30. A S#!T: Alcohol S tenosis (mitral valve) Hypertension Infarction/ Ischaemia Thyrotoxicosis Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor [ID 2468] Atrial fibrillation: causes PIRATES: Pulmonary: PE, COPD Iatrogenic Rheumatic heart: mirtral regurgitation Atherosclerotic: MI, CAD Thyroid: hyperthyroid Endocarditis S ick sinus syndrome Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 2469] Atrial fibrillation: management ABCD: Anti-coagulate Beta-block to control rate Cardiovert Digoxin Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 660] Beck's triad (cardiac tamponade) 3 D's: Distant heart sounds Distended jugular veins Decreased arterial pressure Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 1537] Betablockers: cardioselective betablockers quot;Betablockers Acting Exclusively At Myocardiumquot; Cardioselective betablockers are: Betaxolol Acebutelol Esmolol Atenolol Metoprolol Knowledge Level 5, System: Cardiovascular Diljot Singh Bedi GMCH Chandigarh, India Hi Yield [ID 919] CHF: causes of exacerbation FAILURE: Forgot medication Arrhythmia/ Anaemia Ischemia/ Infarction/ Infection Lifestyle: taken too much salt Upregulation of CO: pregnancy, hyperthyroidism Renal failure Embolism: pulmonary Knowledge Level 6, System: Cardiovascular Lau Yue Young Geoffrey Hi Yield [ID 1607] Coronary artery bypass graft: indications
  • 31. DUST: Depressed ventricular function Unstable angina S tenosis of the left main stem Triple vessel disease Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Sushant Varma Medical student, University of Sheffield, UK Hi Yield [ID 2067] Coronary artery bypass graft: indications DUST: Depressed ventricular function Unstable angina S tenosis of the left main stem Triple vessel disease Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Sushant Varma University of Sheffield, UK Hi Yield [ID 1167] Depressed ST-segment: causes DEPRESSED ST: Drooping valve (MVP) Enlargement of LV with strain Potassium loss (hypokalemia) Reciprocal ST- depression (in I/W AMI) Embolism in lungs (pulmonary embolism) S ubendocardial ischemia S ubendocardial infarct Encephalon haemorrhage (intracranial haemorrhage) Dilated cardiomyopathy S hock Toxicity of digitalis, quinidine Knowledge Level 8, System: Cardiovascular Dr. Sonali V. [ID 218] ECG: left vs. right bundle block quot;WiLLiaM MaRRoWquot;: W pattern in V1-V2 and M pattern in V3-V6 is Left bundle block. M pattern in V1-V2 and W in V3-V6 is Right bundle block. Note: consider bundle branch blocks when QRS complex is wide. Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor [ID 2068] Exercise ramp ECG: contraindications RAMP: Recent MI Aortic stenosis MI in the last 7 days Pulmonary hypertension Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular Sushant Varma University of Sheffield, UK [ID 433] Heart compensatory mechanisms that 'save' organ blood flow during shock quot;Heart SAVERquot;: S ymphatoadrenal system Atrial natriuretic factor Vasopressin Endogenous digitalis-like factor Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system In all 5, system is activated/factor is released Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 2022] JVP: wave form
  • 32. ASK ME: Atrial contraction S ystole (ventricular contraction) Klosure (closure) of tricusps, so atrial filling Maximal atrial filling Emptying of atrium See diagram. Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular Hafizur Rahman Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manc Medical School [ID 207] MI: basic management BOOMAR: Bed rest Oxygen Opiate Monitor Anticoagulate Reduce clot size Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 413] MI: signs and symptoms PULSE: Persistent chest pains Upset stomach Lightheadedness S hortness of breath Excessive sweating Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Sara Nemetz Hi Yield [ID 981] MI: therapeutic treatment quot;O BATMAN!quot;: Oxygen Beta blocker ASA Thrombolytics (eg heparin) Morphine Ace prn Nitroglycerin Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Kristy Thomas, PA-C Mesquite Medical Associates, Mesquite, NV Hi Yield [ID 1137] MI: therapeutic treatment MONAH: Morphine Oxygen Nitrogen Aspirin Heparin Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 1588] MI: treatment of acute MI COAG: Cyclomorph Oxygen Aspirin Glycerol trinitrate Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Alan Desmond Cork University Hospital [ID 996] Mitral stenosis (MS) vs. regurgitation (MR): epidemiology
  • 33. MS is a female title (Ms.) and it is female predominant. MR is a male title (Mr.) and it is male predominant. Knowledge Level 4, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor [ID 1437] Murmur attributes quot;IL PQRSTquot; (person has ill PQRST heart waves): Intensity Location Pitch Quality Radiation S hape Timing Knowledge Level 6, System: Cardiovascular Ghassan Abu Said 4th year Medical Student Hi Yield [ID 1243] Murmurs: innocent murmur features 8 S's: S oft S ystolic S hort S ounds (S1 & S2) normal S ymptomless S pecial tests normal (X-ray, EKG) S tanding/ S itting (vary with position) S ternal depression Knowledge Level 4, System: Cardiovascular Ziad Jaradat Jordan University School of Medicine Hi Yield [ID 3061] Murmurs: louder with inspiration vs expiration LEft sided murmurs louder with Expiration RIght sided murmurs louder with Inspiration. Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor [ID 3073] Murmurs: questions to ask SCRIPT: S ite Character (eg harsh, soft, blowing) Radiation Intensity Pitch Timing Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular Jamal Khan Birmingham University Medical Student [ID 475] Murmurs: right vs. left loudness quot;RILEquot;: Right sided heart murmurs are louder on Inspiration. Left sided heart murmurs are loudest on Expiration. Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 967] Murmurs: systolic vs. diastolic PASS: Pulmonic & Aortic S tenosis=S ystolic. PAID: Pulmonic & Aortic Insufficiency=Diastolic. Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular W. Ciulla, RN, PA-C New Life Medical Clinic Hi Yield [ID 2181] Myocardial infarctions: treatment
  • 34. INFARCTIONS: IV access Narcotic analgesics (eg morphine, pethidine) Facilities for defibrillation (DF) Aspirin/ Anticoagulant (heparin) Rest Converting enzyme inhibitor Thrombolysis IV beta blocker Oxygen 60% Nitrates S tool Softeners Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor [ID 245] Pericarditis: causes CARDIAC RIND: Collagen vascular disease Aortic aneurysm Radiation Drugs (such as hydralazine) Infections Acute renal failure Cardiac infarction Rheumatic fever Injury Neoplasms Dressler's syndrome Knowledge Level 5, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 1067] Pericarditis: EKG quot;PericarditiS quot;: PR depression in precordial leads. S T elevation. Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 1615] Peripheral vascular insufficiency: inspection criteria SICVD: S ymmetry of leg musculature Integrity of skin Color of toenails Varicose veins Distribution of hair Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Jeffrey Turner Memorial University, Canada Hi Yield [ID 1869] Pulseless electrical activity: causes PATCH MED: Pulmonary embolus Acidosis Tension pneumothorax Cardiac tamponade Hypokalemia/ Hyperkalemia/ Hypoxia/ Hypothermia/ Hypovolemia Myocardial infarction Electrolyte derangements Drugs Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular Will Anderson University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Hi Yield [ID 1648] Rheumatic fever: Revised Jones' criteria
  • 35. JONES crITERIA: Major criteria: Joint (arthritis) Obvious (Cardiac) Nodule (Rheumatic) Erythema marginatum S ydenham chorea Minor criteria: Inflammatory cells (leukocytosis) Temperature (fever) ESR/CRP elevated Raised PR interval Itself (previous Hx of Rheumatic fever) Arthralgia Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular Anthony Chan Chinese University of Hong Kong Hi Yield [ID 516] ST elevation causes in ECG ELEVATION: Electrolytes LBBB Early repolarization Ventricular hypertrophy Aneurysm Treatment (eg pericardiocentesis) Injury (AMI, contusion) Osborne waves (hypothermia) Non-occlusive vasospasm Knowledge Level 4, System: Cardiovascular Ken Evans Saskatchewan Health, Acute and Emergency Services Hi Yield [ID 1737] Supraventricular tachycardia: treatment ABCDE: Adenosine Beta-blocker Calcium channel antagonist Digoxin Excitation (vagal stimulation) Knowledge Level 5, System: Cardiovascular Richard Thompson Queens University, Belfast, NI Hi Yield [ID 1739] Ventricular tachycardia: treatment LAMB: Lidocaine Amiodarone Mexiltene/ Magnesium Beta-blocker Knowledge Level 5, System: Cardiovascular Richard Thompson Queens University, Belfast, NI CHEMISTRY [ID 522] Benzene ring: order of substituents quot;Benzene likes to ROMPquot;: From R group moving around the ring: R group Ortho Meta Para Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous Sabra and Josh Kunken Undergrad, Univ. of Calif, Berkeley [ID 322] Cation vs. anion: positive vs. negative
  • 36. The t in cation looks like a plus sign: quot;ca+ionquot;. Cation is positive, anion is negative. Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous Ken Evans Saskatchewan Health, Acute and Emergency Services [ID 297] Cis/trans (geometric) isomer nomenclature quot;Zame Zide. Epposite.quot;: Z is the 2 functional groups on the same side of double bond. E is for opposite sides. Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 2440] Cis/trans (geometric) isomers: arrangement of functional groups Cis starts with a C and the functional groups form a C. Trans, therefore is the other one by default. Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous Spencer Oates [ID 383] Gibb's free energy formula quot;Good Honey Tastes S weetquot;: (delta)G = H - T(delta)S Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous Ken Evans Saskatchewan Health, Acute and Emergency Services [ID 340] Oxidation vs. reduction: electrochemical cell and electron gain/loss AN OIL RIG CAT: At the ANode, Oxidation Involves Loss of electrons. Reduction Involves Gaining electrons at the CAThode. Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous Susan Monash (Peninsula) Undergrad DERMATOLOGY Hi Yield [ID 1047] Clubbing: causes CLUBBING: Cyanotic heart disease Lung disease (hypoxia, lung cancer, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis) UC/Crohn's disease Biliary cirrhosis Birth defect (harmless) Infective endocarditis Neoplasm (esp. Hodgkins) GI malabsorption Knowledge Level 2, System: Integumental Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 1390] White patch of skin: differential quot;Vitiligo PATCHquot;: Vitiligo Pityriasis alba/ Post-inflammatory hypopigmentation Age related hypopigmentation Tinea versicolor/ Tuberous sclerosis (ashleaf macule) Congenital birthmark Hansen's (leprosy) Knowledge Level 5, System: Integumental Dr. Chetan Wasekar Set G.S. Medical College, KEM Hospital, Bombay [ID 1387] Wound healing: factors delaying
  • 37. DID NOT HEAL: Drugs Infection/ Icterus/ Ischemia Diabetes Nutrition Oxygen (hypoxia) Toxins Hypothermia/ Hyperthermia EtOH Acidosis Local anesthetics Knowledge Level 4, System: Integumental Mohamed Azim Assistant lecturer of Pediatric Surgery, Alexandria University, Egypt EMBRYROLOGY Hi Yield [ID 187] Branchial arch giving rise to aorta quot;Aor- from Fourquot;: Aorta is from fourth arch. Knowledge Level 4, System: Cardiovascular Robert O'Connor University College Dublin Hi Yield [ID 527] Tetrology of Fallot quot;Don't DROP the babyquot;: Defect (VSD) Right ventricular hypertrophy Overriding aorta Pulmonary stenosis Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular K. Ennix University of Tennessee at Memphis Hi Yield [ID 1658] Potter syndrome: features POTTER: Pulmonary hypoplasia Oligohydrominios Twisted skin (wrinkly skin) Twisted face (Potter facies) Extremities defects Renal agenesis (bilateral) Knowledge Level 6, System: Kidney/Urine Dr. Atif Farooq Khawaja Rawalpindi Medical College, Islamabad, Gujranwala, Pakistan Hi Yield [ID 508] Cranial and spinal neural crest: major derivatives GAMES: Glial cells (of peripheral ganglia) Arachnoid (and pia) Melanocytes Enteric ganglia S chwann cells Knowledge Level 3, System: Nervous Ron Norman AECC [ID 1800] Neuroectoderm derivatives Neuroectoderm gives rise to: Neurons Neuroglia Neurohypophysis piNeurol (pineal) gland Knowledge Level 6, System: Nervous Payam Mehranpour Hi Yield [ID 1686] Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS): features
  • 38. FAS: Facial hypoplasia/ Forebrain malformation Attention defecit disorder/ Altered joints S hort stature/ S eptal defects/ S mall I.Q Knowledge Level 5, System: Other/Miscellaneous Dr. Atif Farooq Khawaja Rawalpindi Medical College, Pakistan/Gujranwala Hi Yield [ID 606] Mesoderm components MESODERM: Mesothelium (peritoneal, pleural, pericardial)/ Muscle (striated, smooth, cardiac) Embryologic S pleen/ S oft tissue/ S erous linings/ S arcoma/ S omite Osseous tissue/ Outer layer of suprarenal gland (cortex)/ Ovaries Dura/ Ducts of genitalia Endothelium Renal Microglia/ Mesenchyme/ Male gonad Knowledge Level 5, System: Other/Miscellaneous Rinku Uberoi UNIBE Hi Yield [ID 861] Teratogenesis: when it occurs TEratogenesis is most likely during organogenesis--between the: Third and Eighth weeks of gestation. Knowledge Level 3, System: Other/Miscellaneous Rinku Uberoi Hi Yield [ID 173] Weeks 2, 3, 4 of development: an event for each Week Two: Bilaminar germ disc. Week Three: Trilaminar germ disc. Week Four: Four limbs appear. Knowledge Level 2, System: Other/Miscellaneous Robert O'Connor University College Dublin [ID 498] Placenta-crossing substances quot;WANT My Hot Dogquot;: Wastes Antibodies Nutrients Teratogens Microorganisms Hormones/ HIV Drugs Knowledge Level 4, System: Reproductive Anonymous Contributor EMERGENCY MEDICINE [ID 1753] Ipecac: contraindications 4 C's: Comatose Convulsing Corrosive hydroCarbon Knowledge Level 6, System: Alimentary Vince Yamashiroya Hi Yield [ID 525] Acute LVF management
  • 39. LMNOP: Lasex (frusemide) Morphine (diamorphine) Nitrates Oxygen (sit patient up) Pulmonary ventilation (if doing badly) Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular Graeme Little University College London Hi Yield [ID 1732] Atrial fibrillation: causes of new onset THE ATRIAL FIBS: Thyroid Hypothermia Embolism (P.E.) Alcohol Trauma (cardiac contusion) Recent surgery (post CABG) Ischemia Atrial enlargement Lone or idiopathic Fever, anemia, high-output states Infarct Bad valves (mitral stenosis) S timulants (cocaine, theo, amphet, caffeine) Knowledge Level 9, System: Cardiovascular Sam LaCapra, M.D., F.A.C.E.P. Emergency Physician Hi Yield [ID 2795] JVP: raised JVP differential PQRST (EKG waves): Pericardial effusion Quantity of fluid raised (fluid over load) Right heart failure S uperior vena caval obstruction Tricuspid stenosis/ Tricuspid regurgitation/ Tamponade (cardiac) Knowledge Level 5, System: Cardiovascular Dr. Mohsin Maqbool Bahawal-Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur Hi Yield [ID 1944] MI: immediate treatment DOGASH: Diamorphine Oxygen GTN spray Asprin 300mg S treptokinase Heparin Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular Ken Hodson Medical Student, University of Bristol Hi Yield [ID 2505] PEA/Asystole (ACLS): etiology ITCHPAD: Infarction Tension pneumothorax Cardiac tamponade Hypovolemia/ Hypothermia/ Hypo-, Hyperkalemia/ Hypomagnesmia/ Hypoxemia Pulmonary embolism Acidosis Drug overdose Knowledge Level 4, System: Cardiovascular Carl Roberts A.S.EMS, CCEMT-P, CFP US Army Special Forces [ID 391] Shock: signs and symptoms
  • 40. TV SPARC CUBE: Thirst Vomiting S weating Pulse weak Anxious Respirations shallow/rapid Cool Cyanotic Unconscious BP low Eyes blank Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor [ID 542] Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes BATS: Berry aneurysm Arteriovenous malformation/ Adult polycystic kidney disease Trauma (eg being struck with baseball bat) S troke Knowledge Level 3, System: Cardiovascular Cusano and Mamta SGUSOM Hi Yield [ID 1719] Syncope causes, by system HEAD HEART VESSELS: CNS causes include HEAD: Hypoxia/ Hypoglycemia Epilepsy Anxiety Dysfunctional brain stem (basivertebral TIA) Cardiac causes are HEART: Heart attack Embolism (PE) Aortic obstruction (IHSS, AS or myxoma) Rhythm disturbance, ventricular Tachycardia Vascular causes are VESSELS: Vasovagal Ectopic (reminds one of hypovolemia) S ituational S ubclavian steal ENT (glossopharyngeal neuralgia) Low systemic vascular resistance (Addison's, diabetic vascular neuropathy) S ensitive carotid sinus Knowledge Level 6, System: Cardiovascular Bill Young MD University of Kentucky Dept of Emergency Medicine Hi Yield [ID 598] Ventricular fibrillation: treatment quot;Shock, Shock, Shock, Everybody Shock, Little Shock, Big Shock, Momma Shock, Poppa Shockquot;: Shock= Defibrillate Everybody= Epinephine Little= Lidocaine Big= Bretylium Momma= MgSO4 Poppa= Pocainamide Knowledge Level 1, System: Cardiovascular Anonymous Contributor [ID 306] Vfib/Vtach drugs used according to ACLS
  • 41. quot;Every Little Boy Must Prayquot;: Epinephrine Lidocaine Bretylium Magsulfate Procainamide Knowledge Level 2, System: Cardiovascular Midnight Medic Paramedic in Texas Hi Yield [ID 470] Diabetic ketoacidosis management F*¢KING: Fluids (crytalloids) Urea (check it) Creatinine (check it)/ Catheterize K+ (potassium) Insulin (5u/hour. Note: sliding scale no longer recommended in the UK) Nasogastic tube (if patient comatose) Glucose (once serum levels drop to 12) Knowledge Level 4, System: Endocrine Graeme Little University College London [ID 349] Coma causes checklist AEIOU TIPS: Acidosis/ Alcohol Epilepsy Infection Overdosed Uremia Trauma to head Insulin: too little or or too much Pyschosis episode S troke occurred Knowledge Level 2, System: Nervous Midnight Medic Paramedic in Texas Hi Yield [ID 1735] Meningicoccal meningitis: complications SAD REP: S epsis/ S hock/ S ubdural effusion Ataxia/ Abscess (brain) DIC/ Deafness Retardation Epilepsy Paralysis Knowledge Level 5, System: Nervous Richard Thompson Queens University, Belfast, NI Hi Yield [ID 1734] Miosis: causes of pin-point pupils CPR ON SLIME: Clonidine Phenothiazines Resting (deep sleep) Opiates Narcotics S troke (pontine hemorrhage) Lomotil (diphenoxylate) Insecticides Mushrooms/ Muscarinic (inocybe, clitocybe) Eye drops Knowledge Level 7, System: Nervous Sam LaCapra, M.D., F.A.C.E.P. Emergency Physician [ID 1733] Neurological focal deficits
  • 42. 10 S's: S ugar (hypo, hyper) S troke S eizure (Todd's paralysis) S ubdural hematoma S ubarachnoid hemorrhage S pace occupying lesion (tumor, avm, aneurysm, abscess) S pinal cord syndromes S omatoform (conversion reaction) S clerosis (MS) S ome migraines Knowledge Level 9, System: Nervous Sam LaCapra, M.D., F.A.C.E.P. Emergency Physician Hi Yield [ID 2607] Unconciousness: differential FISH SHAPED: Fainted Illness/ Infantile febrile convulsions S hock Head injuries S troke (CVE) Heart problems Asphxia Poisons Epilepsy Diabetes Knowledge Level 1, System: Nervous B Sylvester Surrey Ambulance Service (UK) Hi Yield [ID 1874] Coma and signicantly reduced conscious state causes: causes COMA: CO2 and CO excess Overdose: TCAs, Benzos, EtOH, insulin, paracetamol, etc. Metabolic: BSL, Na+, K+, Mg2+, urea, ammonia, etc. Apoplexy: stroke, SAH, extradural, subdural, Ca, meningitis, encephalitis, cerebral abscess, etc. Knowledge Level 4, System: Other/Miscellaneous Steve Gust HMO, Gove District Hospital, NT Australia [ID 221] Malignant hyperthermia treatment quot;S ome Hot Dude Better Give Iced Fluids Fast!quot; (Hot dude = hypothermia): S top triggering agents Hyperventilate/ Hundred percent oxygen Dantrolene (2.5mg/kg) Bicarbonate Glucose and insulin IV Fluids and cooling blanket Fluid output monitoring/ Furosemide/ Fast heart [tachycardia] Knowledge Level 3, System: Other/Miscellaneous Anonymous Contributor Hi Yield [ID 933] RLQ pain: differential APPENDICITIS: Appendicitis/ Abscess PID/ Period Pancreatitis Ectopic/ Endometriosis Neoplasia Diverticulitis Intussusception Crohns Disease/ Cyst (ovarian) IBD Torsion (ovary) Irritable Bowel Syndrome S tones Knowledge Level 1, System: Other/Miscellaneous