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Prepared by,
Marazana Houqe Mitu (191601)
Ashik Mondal (191609)
1
Outline
Introduction
What is mass media and types
Images of women in mass media
Theory about representation of women in mass
media
Inequalities of women in mass media
Sexual oppression of women in mass media
Positive Representation of women in mass media
Representation of women in mass media Bangladesh
perspective
Conclusion 2
Introduction
The representation of women in media has been a contentious issue for many years. Women have
historically been underrepresented, misrepresented, or even completely absent from various forms of
media, including film, television, advertising, and news media. This has had a significant impact on the
way women are perceived in society and on their opportunities for success.
Representation of women in media can take many forms, ranging from the way women are depicted in
movies and TV shows to the language used to describe them in news stories. It can also include the
way women are marketed to in advertising and the roles they are given in video games and other forms
of entertainment.
The representation of women in media is a complex and multifaceted issue that has far-reaching
implications for women's rights and gender equality. It is an issue that requires ongoing attention and
advocacy from individuals, organizations, and governments alike. Nowadays media also represent
image of women empowerment.
3
 Mass media refers to a diverse array of media that
reach a large audience via mass communication
 Mass media, modes (or, less commonly, a single
mode) of mass communication whereby
information,
opinion, advocacy, propaganda, advertising,
artwork, entertainment, and other forms of
expression are conveyed to a very large audience.
In this the most general sense of the term, mass
media have included print, radio, television, film,
video, audio recording, and the Internet in
particular, the World Wide Web and Internet-
based social media.
Description about mass media
4
Images of women in mass media
In radio
In television
In social media
In film industry
In advertising
In newspaper and
magazines
5
Theory about Representation of Women in Mass
Media
Objectification theory
(Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) proposed objectification
theory)
This theory suggests that women are often portrayed in
the media as objects to be admired or desired, rather than
as full human beings with their own thoughts, feelings,
and experiences. This can lead to a range of negative
consequences, such as increased body dissatisfaction,
decreased self-esteem, and a greater likelihood of
experiencing sexual objectification.
6
Theory about Representation of Women in Mass
Media
Cultivation theory
(This theory developed by George Gerbner in 1960)
This theory suggests that the more people are exposed to
media messages, the more they come to believe that those
messages reflect reality. In the context of women and the
media, this could mean that repeated exposure to images of
thin, conventionally attractive women could lead to the
belief that this is the only acceptable standard of beauty.
7
Theory about Representation of Women in Mass
Media
Feminist media theory:
This theory critiques the way that women are
represented in the media and argues for greater
representation and participation of women in the media
industry. It argues that women have been historically
marginalized and underrepresented in the media and that
their representation needs to be more diverse, realistic
and respectful.
8
Theory about Representation of Women in Mass
Media
Male Gaze theory
This theory developed by the filmmaker and academic Laura Mulvey in the
1970s.
 This theory suggests that much of the media is created with a male audience
in mind, and that women are often depicted in ways that are intended to be
visually pleasing to men. This can result in women being objectified and
sexualized in the media.
 Mulvey argues that this is due to the predominance of male filmmakers and
a patriarchal society that values men's desires over women's autonomy.
 Mulvey also argues that the male gaze is harmful because it reinforces
gender roles and reinforces the idea that women exist for male pleasure.
9
Theory about Representation of Women in Mass
Media
The Beauty Myth
Developed by Naomi Wolf
In 1990 Naomi Wolf published a book called ’The Beauty
Myth’. Where she shows how the images of beauty are use
against women.
She criticized the fact that beauty and fashion industries
unfairly exploit women as well as she suggested that they
should be able to make their own choice based on their own
opinions of physical appearance.
10
Inequalities of Women in Mass
Media
Inequalities in participation
Racial discrimination in
modeling
Inequalities in playing
characters
Gender stereotyping
Inequalities in representation
Sexual harassment
11
Inequalities of Women in Mass Media
Women are underrepresented or misrepresented in media in terms of quantity, quality, and diversity and we
must acknowledge that media has always been a patriarchal field since its inception.
Generally, Women are more frequently shown in commercials for beauty products and household products,
whereas advertisements for men are more likely to focus on cars, business products, or investments.
Women are often portrayed in stereotypical roles, such as being overly emotional or being portrayed as
sexual objects that lead to gender stereotypes, bias, and inequality
 Only 31% of speaking characters in films are female.
 Women make up only 25% of the protagonists in films.
 Women hold only 27% of behind-the-scenes jobs in film and television.
 Women are only 20% of newspaper op-ed writers.
12
Sexual oppression of women in mass media
Objectification
Lack of diversity
Double standards
Violence against women
Pay and representation
disparities
Hyper-sexualization:
13
Positive representation of women in mass media
Strong, complex female characters: Female characters should be portrayed as
complex, multi-dimensional individuals with their own agency, goals, and
emotions. They should not be reduced to stereotypes or one-dimensional
caricatures.
Diverse representation: Women come from different backgrounds, cultures, and
experiences, and media should reflect this diversity. This means including women
of all ages, races, religions, abilities, sexual orientations, and body types.
Representation behind the scenes: Women should also be represented behind the
scenes in media, as writers, directors, producers, and executives. This can help
ensure that women's stories are told from their own perspective, and that media
reflects the diversity of the real world.
Representing women in leadership roles: Women in leadership roles, such as
politicians, business leaders, and community organizers, should be given visibility
and recognition in the media. This can inspire other women to pursue leadership
positions.
14
Representation of women in mass
media: Bangladesh perspective
N
E
G
A
T
I
V
E
Gender Stereotyping
Promotes Unrealistic Beauty
Standards
Perpetuates Sexualization of
Women
15
Representation of women in mass media:
Bangladesh perspective
P
O
S
I
T
I
V
E
Encourage in Education
Raise Awareness
Positive representation
Promotes Women's
Empowerment
Promote equal opportunities 15
Conclusion
In conclusion, the media has both a positive and negative impact on women . While it plays an
essential role in raising awareness about women's issues and promoting women's empowerment, it
can also reinforce negative stereotypes and unrealistic beauty standards, leading to self-esteem
problems and perpetuating gender inequality. Negative representation of women in media not only
distorts the reality of women's lives and experiences but it also reinforces gender stereotypes and
contributes to gender inequality. Therefore, it is essential for media to promote a positive portrayal
of women, that highlights their strengths, achievements, and diverse experiences. By doing so, we
can create a more equal and equitable society that empowers and celebrates women.
16
References
1. What is media? definition and meaning http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/media.html Archived 7 May
2017 at the Wayback Machine
2.What is Communication Media? – Definition from
Techopedia http://www.techopedia.com/definition/14462/communication-media
3.World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development Global Report 2017/2018 (PDF). UNESCO. 2018.
p. 202.
4.Rattan, Aneeta (6 June 2019). "Tackling the Underrepresentation of Women in Media". Harvard Business Review.
pp. 1–2. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
5.The United Nations Plan of Action on the Safety of Journalists and Issues of Impunity,
2012, https://en.unesco.org/sites/default/files/un-plan-on-safety-journalists_en.pdf
6. World Trends Report in Freedom of Expression and Media Development Global Report 2017/2018 (PDF).
UNESCO. 2018.
7. "Safety of Women Journalists". UNESCO.org.
8. Lanza, Edison. 2017. Silenced Zones: Highly Dangerous Areas for the Exercise of Freedom of Expression. Office
for the Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights.
Available at http://www.oas.org/en/iachr/expression/docs/publications/ZONAS_SILENCIADAS_ENG.pdf.
17
Thank you
Have any Question?
18

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Media Representation of Women- Gender Studies.pptx

  • 1. Prepared by, Marazana Houqe Mitu (191601) Ashik Mondal (191609) 1
  • 2. Outline Introduction What is mass media and types Images of women in mass media Theory about representation of women in mass media Inequalities of women in mass media Sexual oppression of women in mass media Positive Representation of women in mass media Representation of women in mass media Bangladesh perspective Conclusion 2
  • 3. Introduction The representation of women in media has been a contentious issue for many years. Women have historically been underrepresented, misrepresented, or even completely absent from various forms of media, including film, television, advertising, and news media. This has had a significant impact on the way women are perceived in society and on their opportunities for success. Representation of women in media can take many forms, ranging from the way women are depicted in movies and TV shows to the language used to describe them in news stories. It can also include the way women are marketed to in advertising and the roles they are given in video games and other forms of entertainment. The representation of women in media is a complex and multifaceted issue that has far-reaching implications for women's rights and gender equality. It is an issue that requires ongoing attention and advocacy from individuals, organizations, and governments alike. Nowadays media also represent image of women empowerment. 3
  • 4.  Mass media refers to a diverse array of media that reach a large audience via mass communication  Mass media, modes (or, less commonly, a single mode) of mass communication whereby information, opinion, advocacy, propaganda, advertising, artwork, entertainment, and other forms of expression are conveyed to a very large audience. In this the most general sense of the term, mass media have included print, radio, television, film, video, audio recording, and the Internet in particular, the World Wide Web and Internet- based social media. Description about mass media 4
  • 5. Images of women in mass media In radio In television In social media In film industry In advertising In newspaper and magazines 5
  • 6. Theory about Representation of Women in Mass Media Objectification theory (Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) proposed objectification theory) This theory suggests that women are often portrayed in the media as objects to be admired or desired, rather than as full human beings with their own thoughts, feelings, and experiences. This can lead to a range of negative consequences, such as increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem, and a greater likelihood of experiencing sexual objectification. 6
  • 7. Theory about Representation of Women in Mass Media Cultivation theory (This theory developed by George Gerbner in 1960) This theory suggests that the more people are exposed to media messages, the more they come to believe that those messages reflect reality. In the context of women and the media, this could mean that repeated exposure to images of thin, conventionally attractive women could lead to the belief that this is the only acceptable standard of beauty. 7
  • 8. Theory about Representation of Women in Mass Media Feminist media theory: This theory critiques the way that women are represented in the media and argues for greater representation and participation of women in the media industry. It argues that women have been historically marginalized and underrepresented in the media and that their representation needs to be more diverse, realistic and respectful. 8
  • 9. Theory about Representation of Women in Mass Media Male Gaze theory This theory developed by the filmmaker and academic Laura Mulvey in the 1970s.  This theory suggests that much of the media is created with a male audience in mind, and that women are often depicted in ways that are intended to be visually pleasing to men. This can result in women being objectified and sexualized in the media.  Mulvey argues that this is due to the predominance of male filmmakers and a patriarchal society that values men's desires over women's autonomy.  Mulvey also argues that the male gaze is harmful because it reinforces gender roles and reinforces the idea that women exist for male pleasure. 9
  • 10. Theory about Representation of Women in Mass Media The Beauty Myth Developed by Naomi Wolf In 1990 Naomi Wolf published a book called ’The Beauty Myth’. Where she shows how the images of beauty are use against women. She criticized the fact that beauty and fashion industries unfairly exploit women as well as she suggested that they should be able to make their own choice based on their own opinions of physical appearance. 10
  • 11. Inequalities of Women in Mass Media Inequalities in participation Racial discrimination in modeling Inequalities in playing characters Gender stereotyping Inequalities in representation Sexual harassment 11
  • 12. Inequalities of Women in Mass Media Women are underrepresented or misrepresented in media in terms of quantity, quality, and diversity and we must acknowledge that media has always been a patriarchal field since its inception. Generally, Women are more frequently shown in commercials for beauty products and household products, whereas advertisements for men are more likely to focus on cars, business products, or investments. Women are often portrayed in stereotypical roles, such as being overly emotional or being portrayed as sexual objects that lead to gender stereotypes, bias, and inequality  Only 31% of speaking characters in films are female.  Women make up only 25% of the protagonists in films.  Women hold only 27% of behind-the-scenes jobs in film and television.  Women are only 20% of newspaper op-ed writers. 12
  • 13. Sexual oppression of women in mass media Objectification Lack of diversity Double standards Violence against women Pay and representation disparities Hyper-sexualization: 13
  • 14. Positive representation of women in mass media Strong, complex female characters: Female characters should be portrayed as complex, multi-dimensional individuals with their own agency, goals, and emotions. They should not be reduced to stereotypes or one-dimensional caricatures. Diverse representation: Women come from different backgrounds, cultures, and experiences, and media should reflect this diversity. This means including women of all ages, races, religions, abilities, sexual orientations, and body types. Representation behind the scenes: Women should also be represented behind the scenes in media, as writers, directors, producers, and executives. This can help ensure that women's stories are told from their own perspective, and that media reflects the diversity of the real world. Representing women in leadership roles: Women in leadership roles, such as politicians, business leaders, and community organizers, should be given visibility and recognition in the media. This can inspire other women to pursue leadership positions. 14
  • 15. Representation of women in mass media: Bangladesh perspective N E G A T I V E Gender Stereotyping Promotes Unrealistic Beauty Standards Perpetuates Sexualization of Women 15
  • 16. Representation of women in mass media: Bangladesh perspective P O S I T I V E Encourage in Education Raise Awareness Positive representation Promotes Women's Empowerment Promote equal opportunities 15
  • 17. Conclusion In conclusion, the media has both a positive and negative impact on women . While it plays an essential role in raising awareness about women's issues and promoting women's empowerment, it can also reinforce negative stereotypes and unrealistic beauty standards, leading to self-esteem problems and perpetuating gender inequality. Negative representation of women in media not only distorts the reality of women's lives and experiences but it also reinforces gender stereotypes and contributes to gender inequality. Therefore, it is essential for media to promote a positive portrayal of women, that highlights their strengths, achievements, and diverse experiences. By doing so, we can create a more equal and equitable society that empowers and celebrates women. 16
  • 18. References 1. What is media? definition and meaning http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/media.html Archived 7 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine 2.What is Communication Media? – Definition from Techopedia http://www.techopedia.com/definition/14462/communication-media 3.World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development Global Report 2017/2018 (PDF). UNESCO. 2018. p. 202. 4.Rattan, Aneeta (6 June 2019). "Tackling the Underrepresentation of Women in Media". Harvard Business Review. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 6 June 2019. 5.The United Nations Plan of Action on the Safety of Journalists and Issues of Impunity, 2012, https://en.unesco.org/sites/default/files/un-plan-on-safety-journalists_en.pdf 6. World Trends Report in Freedom of Expression and Media Development Global Report 2017/2018 (PDF). UNESCO. 2018. 7. "Safety of Women Journalists". UNESCO.org. 8. Lanza, Edison. 2017. Silenced Zones: Highly Dangerous Areas for the Exercise of Freedom of Expression. Office for the Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. Available at http://www.oas.org/en/iachr/expression/docs/publications/ZONAS_SILENCIADAS_ENG.pdf. 17
  • 19. Thank you Have any Question? 18