SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-1
Ninth
Edition
Chapter Learning Goals
1. To learn to use the research on
cultural dimensions as tools to
understand how to motivate
people in different cultural
contexts
2. To become familiar with the global
leader’s role and environment and
what makes a successful global
leader
11-2 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter Learning Goals
3. To discuss the research on
leadership and how leadership styles
and practices vary around the world
11-3 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Cross-Cultural Research on Motivation
Are there any differences in the societal factors that
elicit and maintain behaviors leading to high employee
productivity and job satisfaction?
High Uncertainty
Avoidance
• Suggests need for job
security, low
uncertainty
avoidance suggests
motivation by risky
opportunities
High Power Distance
• Suggests motivators in
boss-subordinate
relationship, low power
distance suggests
motivation by teamwork
and peers
11-4 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Cross-Cultural Research on Motivation
Individualism
• Suggests
motivation from
opportunities for
individual
advancement and
autonomy,
collectivism
suggests appeals
to group goals and
support
Masculinity
• Suggests people
are more
comfortable with
traditional division
of work,
femininity
suggests looser
boundaries,
flexible roles
11-5 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Meaning of Work (MOW)
 Studies on the meaning of work in eight countries
were carried out by George England and a group of
researchers who are called the Meaning of Work
(MOW) International Research Team. Their research
sought to determine a person’s idea of the relative
importance of work compared to that of leisure,
community, religion, and family. They called this
concept of work work centrality, defined as “the
degree of general importance that working has in the
life of an individual at any given point in time.
 The results showed, for example, that the Japanese
hold work to be very important in their lives; the
Brits, on the other hand (in this author’s birth
6
The Meaning of Work (MOW)
Factors
Most Valued
About Work
• A needed income
• Interest and Satisfaction
• Contacts with others
• A way to serve society
• A means of keeping
occupied
• Status and prestige
11-7
George England and the MOW International
Research Team, 1987
The Islamic Work Ethic
 Laziness is a vice
 Dedication to work is a virtue
 Good work benefits one’s self and others
 Justice and generosity in the workplace are
necessary for society’s welfare
 Life has no meaning without work
 More leisure time is good for society
 Human relations in organizations should be
emphasized and encouraged
 One should constantly work hard to meet
responsibility
11-8 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Needs Hierarchy in the
International Context
 Managers around the world have
similar needs, but derive different
levels of need satisfaction from their
jobs
 Japanese conferring recognition
with plaques, applause
 Variables other than culture may be
at play
 e.g., China:
Focus on the needs of society
11-9 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
publishing as Prentice Hall
10
The Needs Hierarchy in the
International Context
Self-
actualization
in the service
of society
Physiological
needs
Safety
Belonging
11-11 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
A Proposed Chinese
Hierarchy… Individual
needs are
intermeshed with the
needs of society
Workers are
accountable to their
group
Comparative Management in Focus:
Motivation in Mexico
Paternalistic
and
hierarchical
traditions
The
country’s
economic
context
influences
motivation
Fringe
benefits
are
important
11-12 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conflicting Motivational Techniques in
Western-Russian Joint Ventures
11-13 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Western Managers to
Russian Employees
Russian Managers to
Russian Employees
Be independent; have initiative Stick to the rules and
procedures
Learn from mistakes and
move on
Mistakes are not allowed and
should be punished
Take the long-term
perspective
Focus on the present
Be a team member Stick to your own job and
business
 In 2015, the business and economic climate in
Russia was under considerable pressure because of
falling oil prices and Western sanctions following the
conflict in the Ukraine. However, for foreign
managers, there are considerable differences and
challenges in how best to adapt their styles to
motivate and lead employees as well as the
company.
 Research shows that little conclusive information is
available to answer a manager’s direct question of
exactly how to motivate in any particular culture. One
reason is that motivational theories are not fully
universal, but another is that the entire motivational
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
publishing as Prentice Hall
14
Conflicting Motivational Techniques
in Western-Russian Joint Ventures
For example, Western firms entering markets in
Eastern Europe find highly structured work systems
and responsibilities are more motivational than they are
for Western workers. Results from a study by
Michailova are shown in this exhibit, and they illustrate
that Russian workers are still used to the management
style that prevailed in a centrally planned economic
system. This context resulted in vertically managed
hierarchies, one-man authority, and anti-individualism.
Employees in the study were more motivated by the
authoritarianism of their Russian managers than they
were by attempts at empowerment by Western
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
publishing as Prentice Hall
15
Conflicting Motivational Techniques
in Western-Russian Joint Ventures
Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-16
Under the Lens: Managing in Russia
Motivation and Challenges
 Russians are motivated by powerful,
charismatic leaders
 Russian employees expect foreign managers
to be more competent than local managers
 Motivation can be achieved by gradually
creating an empowered organization
 Security of employment is important
Environmental Variables Affecting
Management Functions
3-17 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Role of Culture in Job Motivation
11-18 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Role of Culture in Job
Motivation
An employee’s needs are determined largely by the
cultural context of values and attitudes—along with
the national variables—in which he or she lives and
works. Those needs then determine the meaning of
work for that employee.
The manager’s understanding of what work means in
that employee’s life can then lead to the design of a
culturally appropriate job context and reward
system to guide individual and group employee job
behavior to meet mutual goals. Incentives and
rewards are an integral part of motivation in a
corporation. Recognizing and understanding different
19
Reward Systems
United
States
Focus on
financial,
social
status, job
content,
career, and
professional
Japan
Focus on
seniority,
bonuses,
and
permanent
workers;
competition
discouraged
China
Focus on
social
benefits,
shift to pay-
for-
performance
and equity-
based
rewards
11-20 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Global Leader’s Role and
Environment
Intellectual capital: global
business and organizational
savvy
Psychological capital:
openness to differences,
capacity to change
Social capital: the ability to
build trusting relationships
11-21 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
 Global leaders must develop a flexible model of
leadership that can be applied anywhere.
 Global business savvy is the ability to recognize
global market opportunities for a company and
having a vision for doing business worldwide
 This savvy can be developed through travel,
teamwork, training, and transfers. Developing global
leaders is particularly important because of the
influence they have. The leader’s interactions
strongly affect the motivation and behavior of
employees, and ultimately, the entire climate of the
organization
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
publishing as Prentice Hall
22
Maximizing Leadership Effectiveness
Leaders on international assignments often find
themselves juggling multiple and potentially conflicting
roles e.g.
1. Representative of the parent firm
2. Manager of the local firm
3. Resident of the local community
4. Citizen of the host country
5. Member of a profession
6. Family member
As such, the leader’s role comprises the interaction of both the content and
context of leadership. Content comprises the attributes of the leader and the
decisions made. Context comprises the variables related to a particular situation.
Cross-Cultural Research in Leadership
p.g 407-411
 Effective leadership varies
across cultures
 People have accepted images of
what a leader should be.
11-24 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
 Research supports the notion of cultural
contingency in leadership. That is, what is
expected of leaders, what influence they have,
and what kind of status they are given vary from
nation to nation. This slide shows a sample of the
information presented in Exhibit 11-8 and is
based on research by the Global Leadership and
Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE)
research program. The scores presented for each
country are based on a scale from 1 (the opinion
that those leadership behaviors would not be
regarded favorably) to 7 (that those behaviors
would substantially facilitate effective leadership).
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
publishing as Prentice Hall
25
Culturally Contingent Beliefs
Regarding Effective Leadership Style:
the GLOBE project
The GLOBE culture-leadership
dimensions
 The Charismatic leader is someone who is visionary,
an inspiration to subordinates, and performance-oriented
 A team-oriented leader is someone who exhibits
diplomatic, integrative, and collaborative behaviors
toward the team.
 The self-protective dimension describes a leader who
is self-centered, conflictual, and status conscious.
 The participative leader is one who delegates decision
making and encourages subordinates to take
responsibility.
 Humane leaders are those who are compassionate to
their employees.
 An autonomous leader is, as expected, an
26
Culturally Contingent Beliefs
Regarding Effective Leadership Style
Country
Charism
a
Team
Self-
Protecti
e
Partici-
pative
Humane
Autono-
mous
Brazil 6.01 6.17 3.50 6.06 4.84 2.27
China 5.57 5.57 3.80 5.05 5.18 4.07
Denmark 6.01 5.70 2.82 5.80 4.23 3.79
India 5.85 5.72 3.78 4.99 5.26 3.85
Mexico 5.66 5.75 3.86 4.64 4.71 3.86
United
States
6.12 5.80 3.16 5.93 5.21 3.75
Nigeria 5.77 5.65 3.90 5.19 5.48 3.62
11-27
Leadership Status and Influence
differences Across Cultures
The Dutch are skeptical about the value of leadership
Arabs worship their leaders—as long as they are in
power
Malaysians expect their leaders to be humble, modest,
and dignified
The French expect leaders to be “cultivated” //Top
business schools such as HEC Paris, INSEAD etc groom
corporate leaders
11-28 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Universal Facilitators of
Leadership Effectiveness
Trustworthiness
Visionary
Inspirational and
motivating
Communicative
11-31 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Universal Impediments to
Leadership Effectiveness
Being a
loner and
asocial
Non-
cooperative
Dictatorial
11-30 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Culturally Contingent Endorsement of
Leader Attributes
Individualistic
Status-
Conscious
Risk-Taking
11-31 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-32
Leader in a Global Context
 Leadership is not just manager subordinate
relationship, running the whole company,
division or unit
 Vital to be able to adapt one’s leadership
style to the local context
 “National and cultural differences can both
bedevil and enliven business.”
 Listen hard and “How are you going to go
about meeting this goal?”
Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-33
 Motivation and leadership are factors in the
successful implementation of desired
strategy
 Content and process are culture-
contingent—reflecting individual’s needs,
value systems, and environmental context
 Concepts such as achievement or esteem
may have different meanings in other
countries
 Studies on the meaning of work indicate
considerable cross-cultural differences
Conclusions
Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
11-34
Conclusions
 Hofstede’s power distance, uncertainty
avoidance, individualism, and masculinity
explain the cultural contexts of motviation
 Incentives/rewards are contingent on culture
as is leadership style
 The challenge is to decide what is effective
leadership in different international or
mixed-culture situations.
 JVs are complex situations for cross-cultural
leadership

More Related Content

Similar to MCS 358 UNIT 4 MOTIVATING.ppt

Ch13 1
Ch13 1Ch13 1
Ch13 1
Ch13 1Ch13 1
Essentials of Organizational BehaviorFourteenth EditionChapt.docx
Essentials of Organizational BehaviorFourteenth EditionChapt.docxEssentials of Organizational BehaviorFourteenth EditionChapt.docx
Essentials of Organizational BehaviorFourteenth EditionChapt.docx
debishakespeare
 
Essentials of Organizational BehaviorFourteenth EditionChapt.docx
Essentials of Organizational BehaviorFourteenth EditionChapt.docxEssentials of Organizational BehaviorFourteenth EditionChapt.docx
Essentials of Organizational BehaviorFourteenth EditionChapt.docx
bridgelandying
 
Expounding Motivational Consequence to Teachers Achievement
Expounding Motivational Consequence to Teachers AchievementExpounding Motivational Consequence to Teachers Achievement
Expounding Motivational Consequence to Teachers Achievement
ijtsrd
 
Leadership across cultures
Leadership across culturesLeadership across cultures
Leadership across cultures
Nits Kedia
 
ch-01-PPTaccessible.pptx
ch-01-PPTaccessible.pptxch-01-PPTaccessible.pptx
ch-01-PPTaccessible.pptx
Beamlak5
 
Comparing Individual-Related and StructuralCultural-Related Theor.docx
Comparing Individual-Related and StructuralCultural-Related Theor.docxComparing Individual-Related and StructuralCultural-Related Theor.docx
Comparing Individual-Related and StructuralCultural-Related Theor.docx
bartholomeocoombs
 
Comparing Individual-Related and StructuralCultural-Related Theor.docx
Comparing Individual-Related and StructuralCultural-Related Theor.docxComparing Individual-Related and StructuralCultural-Related Theor.docx
Comparing Individual-Related and StructuralCultural-Related Theor.docx
annette228280
 
Building Leaders for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): A Case Study
Building Leaders for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): A Case StudyBuilding Leaders for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): A Case Study
Building Leaders for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): A Case Study
paperpublications3
 
Introduction.pptx
Introduction.pptxIntroduction.pptx
Introduction.pptx
RandhawaSaab5
 
Organising and Managing Across Cultures.pptx
Organising and Managing Across Cultures.pptxOrganising and Managing Across Cultures.pptx
Organising and Managing Across Cultures.pptx
WVCJAYAMINI
 
Various aspects of organizational behavior
Various aspects of organizational behaviorVarious aspects of organizational behavior
Various aspects of organizational behavior
ShrikantSharma86
 
MBA Project - 000347987
MBA Project - 000347987MBA Project - 000347987
MBA Project - 000347987
Ivor Chan
 
Chapter 1 what is organizational behavior
Chapter 1 what is organizational behaviorChapter 1 what is organizational behavior
Chapter 1 what is organizational behavior
Muhammad Hanzla
 
An explorative treatment of idiosyncratic supposition of management values in...
An explorative treatment of idiosyncratic supposition of management values in...An explorative treatment of idiosyncratic supposition of management values in...
An explorative treatment of idiosyncratic supposition of management values in...
Alexander Decker
 
Trending in Organizational Behvaior
Trending in Organizational BehvaiorTrending in Organizational Behvaior
Trending in Organizational Behvaior
Anup Nirala
 
ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR ,O.B, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR ,O.B, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR ,O.B, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR ,O.B, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
DevadattaSai Cheedella
 
BA 205 Robbinsjudge ob18 inppt_16
BA 205 Robbinsjudge ob18 inppt_16BA 205 Robbinsjudge ob18 inppt_16
BA 205 Robbinsjudge ob18 inppt_16
BealCollegeOnline
 
Rmcgary__trendsinorganizationalculture_03122016
Rmcgary__trendsinorganizationalculture_03122016Rmcgary__trendsinorganizationalculture_03122016
Rmcgary__trendsinorganizationalculture_03122016
Ron McGary
 

Similar to MCS 358 UNIT 4 MOTIVATING.ppt (20)

Ch13 1
Ch13 1Ch13 1
Ch13 1
 
Ch13 1
Ch13 1Ch13 1
Ch13 1
 
Essentials of Organizational BehaviorFourteenth EditionChapt.docx
Essentials of Organizational BehaviorFourteenth EditionChapt.docxEssentials of Organizational BehaviorFourteenth EditionChapt.docx
Essentials of Organizational BehaviorFourteenth EditionChapt.docx
 
Essentials of Organizational BehaviorFourteenth EditionChapt.docx
Essentials of Organizational BehaviorFourteenth EditionChapt.docxEssentials of Organizational BehaviorFourteenth EditionChapt.docx
Essentials of Organizational BehaviorFourteenth EditionChapt.docx
 
Expounding Motivational Consequence to Teachers Achievement
Expounding Motivational Consequence to Teachers AchievementExpounding Motivational Consequence to Teachers Achievement
Expounding Motivational Consequence to Teachers Achievement
 
Leadership across cultures
Leadership across culturesLeadership across cultures
Leadership across cultures
 
ch-01-PPTaccessible.pptx
ch-01-PPTaccessible.pptxch-01-PPTaccessible.pptx
ch-01-PPTaccessible.pptx
 
Comparing Individual-Related and StructuralCultural-Related Theor.docx
Comparing Individual-Related and StructuralCultural-Related Theor.docxComparing Individual-Related and StructuralCultural-Related Theor.docx
Comparing Individual-Related and StructuralCultural-Related Theor.docx
 
Comparing Individual-Related and StructuralCultural-Related Theor.docx
Comparing Individual-Related and StructuralCultural-Related Theor.docxComparing Individual-Related and StructuralCultural-Related Theor.docx
Comparing Individual-Related and StructuralCultural-Related Theor.docx
 
Building Leaders for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): A Case Study
Building Leaders for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): A Case StudyBuilding Leaders for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): A Case Study
Building Leaders for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): A Case Study
 
Introduction.pptx
Introduction.pptxIntroduction.pptx
Introduction.pptx
 
Organising and Managing Across Cultures.pptx
Organising and Managing Across Cultures.pptxOrganising and Managing Across Cultures.pptx
Organising and Managing Across Cultures.pptx
 
Various aspects of organizational behavior
Various aspects of organizational behaviorVarious aspects of organizational behavior
Various aspects of organizational behavior
 
MBA Project - 000347987
MBA Project - 000347987MBA Project - 000347987
MBA Project - 000347987
 
Chapter 1 what is organizational behavior
Chapter 1 what is organizational behaviorChapter 1 what is organizational behavior
Chapter 1 what is organizational behavior
 
An explorative treatment of idiosyncratic supposition of management values in...
An explorative treatment of idiosyncratic supposition of management values in...An explorative treatment of idiosyncratic supposition of management values in...
An explorative treatment of idiosyncratic supposition of management values in...
 
Trending in Organizational Behvaior
Trending in Organizational BehvaiorTrending in Organizational Behvaior
Trending in Organizational Behvaior
 
ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR ,O.B, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR ,O.B, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR ,O.B, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR ,O.B, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
 
BA 205 Robbinsjudge ob18 inppt_16
BA 205 Robbinsjudge ob18 inppt_16BA 205 Robbinsjudge ob18 inppt_16
BA 205 Robbinsjudge ob18 inppt_16
 
Rmcgary__trendsinorganizationalculture_03122016
Rmcgary__trendsinorganizationalculture_03122016Rmcgary__trendsinorganizationalculture_03122016
Rmcgary__trendsinorganizationalculture_03122016
 

More from KwekuJnr

Sales Functions).pptx
Sales Functions).pptxSales Functions).pptx
Sales Functions).pptx
KwekuJnr
 
sales recruitment 9.pdf
sales recruitment 9.pdfsales recruitment 9.pdf
sales recruitment 9.pdf
KwekuJnr
 
Effective Communication in Sales Mgt.pdf
Effective Communication in Sales Mgt.pdfEffective Communication in Sales Mgt.pdf
Effective Communication in Sales Mgt.pdf
KwekuJnr
 
SALES FORCE MOTIVATION 8.pptx
SALES FORCE MOTIVATION 8.pptxSALES FORCE MOTIVATION 8.pptx
SALES FORCE MOTIVATION 8.pptx
KwekuJnr
 
policy-and-theory-of-international-trade.pdf
policy-and-theory-of-international-trade.pdfpolicy-and-theory-of-international-trade.pdf
policy-and-theory-of-international-trade.pdf
KwekuJnr
 
ITT 1.pptx
ITT 1.pptxITT 1.pptx
ITT 1.pptx
KwekuJnr
 
lecture 4.pptx
lecture 4.pptxlecture 4.pptx
lecture 4.pptx
KwekuJnr
 
LECTU 6.pptx
LECTU 6.pptxLECTU 6.pptx
LECTU 6.pptx
KwekuJnr
 
IBR 5.pptx
IBR 5.pptxIBR 5.pptx
IBR 5.pptx
KwekuJnr
 
IBR 2.pptx
IBR 2.pptxIBR 2.pptx
IBR 2.pptx
KwekuJnr
 
IBR 1.pptx
IBR 1.pptxIBR 1.pptx
IBR 1.pptx
KwekuJnr
 
MCS 358 UNIT 3.ppt
MCS 358 UNIT 3.pptMCS 358 UNIT 3.ppt
MCS 358 UNIT 3.ppt
KwekuJnr
 
MCS 358 INT CULT MGT.pptx
MCS 358 INT CULT MGT.pptxMCS 358 INT CULT MGT.pptx
MCS 358 INT CULT MGT.pptx
KwekuJnr
 
MCS 358 UNIT 4 MOTIVATING.ppt
MCS 358 UNIT 4 MOTIVATING.pptMCS 358 UNIT 4 MOTIVATING.ppt
MCS 358 UNIT 4 MOTIVATING.ppt
KwekuJnr
 
Module 3 Packaging.pptx
Module 3 Packaging.pptxModule 3 Packaging.pptx
Module 3 Packaging.pptx
KwekuJnr
 
Module 1 Overview of Logistics Managment.pptx
Module 1 Overview of Logistics  Managment.pptxModule 1 Overview of Logistics  Managment.pptx
Module 1 Overview of Logistics Managment.pptx
KwekuJnr
 
Lesson 2.pptx
Lesson 2.pptxLesson 2.pptx
Lesson 2.pptx
KwekuJnr
 
Introduction(0).pptx
Introduction(0).pptxIntroduction(0).pptx
Introduction(0).pptx
KwekuJnr
 
STRATEGIC MGT SLIDES.ppt
STRATEGIC MGT SLIDES.pptSTRATEGIC MGT SLIDES.ppt
STRATEGIC MGT SLIDES.ppt
KwekuJnr
 
Distribution Channel Design Management.ppt
Distribution Channel Design Management.pptDistribution Channel Design Management.ppt
Distribution Channel Design Management.ppt
KwekuJnr
 

More from KwekuJnr (20)

Sales Functions).pptx
Sales Functions).pptxSales Functions).pptx
Sales Functions).pptx
 
sales recruitment 9.pdf
sales recruitment 9.pdfsales recruitment 9.pdf
sales recruitment 9.pdf
 
Effective Communication in Sales Mgt.pdf
Effective Communication in Sales Mgt.pdfEffective Communication in Sales Mgt.pdf
Effective Communication in Sales Mgt.pdf
 
SALES FORCE MOTIVATION 8.pptx
SALES FORCE MOTIVATION 8.pptxSALES FORCE MOTIVATION 8.pptx
SALES FORCE MOTIVATION 8.pptx
 
policy-and-theory-of-international-trade.pdf
policy-and-theory-of-international-trade.pdfpolicy-and-theory-of-international-trade.pdf
policy-and-theory-of-international-trade.pdf
 
ITT 1.pptx
ITT 1.pptxITT 1.pptx
ITT 1.pptx
 
lecture 4.pptx
lecture 4.pptxlecture 4.pptx
lecture 4.pptx
 
LECTU 6.pptx
LECTU 6.pptxLECTU 6.pptx
LECTU 6.pptx
 
IBR 5.pptx
IBR 5.pptxIBR 5.pptx
IBR 5.pptx
 
IBR 2.pptx
IBR 2.pptxIBR 2.pptx
IBR 2.pptx
 
IBR 1.pptx
IBR 1.pptxIBR 1.pptx
IBR 1.pptx
 
MCS 358 UNIT 3.ppt
MCS 358 UNIT 3.pptMCS 358 UNIT 3.ppt
MCS 358 UNIT 3.ppt
 
MCS 358 INT CULT MGT.pptx
MCS 358 INT CULT MGT.pptxMCS 358 INT CULT MGT.pptx
MCS 358 INT CULT MGT.pptx
 
MCS 358 UNIT 4 MOTIVATING.ppt
MCS 358 UNIT 4 MOTIVATING.pptMCS 358 UNIT 4 MOTIVATING.ppt
MCS 358 UNIT 4 MOTIVATING.ppt
 
Module 3 Packaging.pptx
Module 3 Packaging.pptxModule 3 Packaging.pptx
Module 3 Packaging.pptx
 
Module 1 Overview of Logistics Managment.pptx
Module 1 Overview of Logistics  Managment.pptxModule 1 Overview of Logistics  Managment.pptx
Module 1 Overview of Logistics Managment.pptx
 
Lesson 2.pptx
Lesson 2.pptxLesson 2.pptx
Lesson 2.pptx
 
Introduction(0).pptx
Introduction(0).pptxIntroduction(0).pptx
Introduction(0).pptx
 
STRATEGIC MGT SLIDES.ppt
STRATEGIC MGT SLIDES.pptSTRATEGIC MGT SLIDES.ppt
STRATEGIC MGT SLIDES.ppt
 
Distribution Channel Design Management.ppt
Distribution Channel Design Management.pptDistribution Channel Design Management.ppt
Distribution Channel Design Management.ppt
 

Recently uploaded

Data Analytics and AI Strategy Toolkit, Playbook and Templates
Data Analytics and AI Strategy Toolkit, Playbook and TemplatesData Analytics and AI Strategy Toolkit, Playbook and Templates
Data Analytics and AI Strategy Toolkit, Playbook and Templates
Aurelien Domont, MBA
 
Why is Structural Engineering Critical in Disaster Preparedness and Resilienc...
Why is Structural Engineering Critical in Disaster Preparedness and Resilienc...Why is Structural Engineering Critical in Disaster Preparedness and Resilienc...
Why is Structural Engineering Critical in Disaster Preparedness and Resilienc...
grouphirani24
 
Top Digital Marketing Strategy in 2024.pdf
Top Digital Marketing Strategy in 2024.pdfTop Digital Marketing Strategy in 2024.pdf
Top Digital Marketing Strategy in 2024.pdf
Top IT Marketing
 
You Get Me! Leveraging Communication Styles in Virtual Trainingpptx
You Get Me! Leveraging Communication Styles in Virtual TrainingpptxYou Get Me! Leveraging Communication Styles in Virtual Trainingpptx
You Get Me! Leveraging Communication Styles in Virtual Trainingpptx
Cynthia Clay
 
Virtual Production Tool Set and Technologies Redefining Cinema.pdf
Virtual Production Tool Set and Technologies Redefining Cinema.pdfVirtual Production Tool Set and Technologies Redefining Cinema.pdf
Virtual Production Tool Set and Technologies Redefining Cinema.pdf
virtualproduction38
 
Retail Store Scavenger Hunt powerpoint slides
Retail Store Scavenger Hunt powerpoint slidesRetail Store Scavenger Hunt powerpoint slides
Retail Store Scavenger Hunt powerpoint slides
JairSemexant
 
Accounts.pdfjsjshwnsksowowkwmwmsmmsmsksk
Accounts.pdfjsjshwnsksowowkwmwmsmmsmskskAccounts.pdfjsjshwnsksowowkwmwmsmmsmsksk
Accounts.pdfjsjshwnsksowowkwmwmsmmsmsksk
gautamprateek97
 
Gym business MODEL .pdf .
Gym business MODEL .pdf                 .Gym business MODEL .pdf                 .
Gym business MODEL .pdf .
Divyanshu56740
 
New Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
New Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...New Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
New Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
44annissa
 
Corporate Governance for South African Mining Companies
Corporate Governance for South African Mining CompaniesCorporate Governance for South African Mining Companies
Corporate Governance for South African Mining Companies
James AH Campbell
 
A Complete Guide of Dubai Freelance Visa and Permit in 2024
A Complete Guide of Dubai Freelance Visa and Permit in 2024A Complete Guide of Dubai Freelance Visa and Permit in 2024
A Complete Guide of Dubai Freelance Visa and Permit in 2024
Dubiz
 
Growth Buyouts - The Dawn of the GBO (Slow Ventures)
Growth Buyouts - The  Dawn of the GBO (Slow Ventures)Growth Buyouts - The  Dawn of the GBO (Slow Ventures)
Growth Buyouts - The Dawn of the GBO (Slow Ventures)
Razin Mustafiz
 
The Power of Digital Marketing in the Modern Age.pdf
The Power of Digital Marketing in the Modern Age.pdfThe Power of Digital Marketing in the Modern Age.pdf
The Power of Digital Marketing in the Modern Age.pdf
David Thomson
 
10 Barriers to Effective Communications.
10 Barriers to Effective Communications.10 Barriers to Effective Communications.
10 Barriers to Effective Communications.
Cora335316
 
TALENT ACQUISITION AND MANAGEMENT LECTURE 2
TALENT ACQUISITION AND MANAGEMENT LECTURE 2TALENT ACQUISITION AND MANAGEMENT LECTURE 2
TALENT ACQUISITION AND MANAGEMENT LECTURE 2
projectseasy
 
Cracking the Customer Experience Code.pptx
Cracking the Customer Experience Code.pptxCracking the Customer Experience Code.pptx
Cracking the Customer Experience Code.pptx
Workforce Group
 
Girls Call Kharghar 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Kharghar 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Kharghar 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Kharghar 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
maigasapphire
 
How Do Flange Adapters Work and Why Are They Essential?
How Do Flange Adapters Work and Why Are They Essential?How Do Flange Adapters Work and Why Are They Essential?
How Do Flange Adapters Work and Why Are They Essential?
Texas Flange
 
21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf
21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf
21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf
emmanuelpulido003
 
ShotOniPhone campaign by Vancy macwan.pptx
ShotOniPhone campaign by Vancy macwan.pptxShotOniPhone campaign by Vancy macwan.pptx
ShotOniPhone campaign by Vancy macwan.pptx
macwanvancy
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Data Analytics and AI Strategy Toolkit, Playbook and Templates
Data Analytics and AI Strategy Toolkit, Playbook and TemplatesData Analytics and AI Strategy Toolkit, Playbook and Templates
Data Analytics and AI Strategy Toolkit, Playbook and Templates
 
Why is Structural Engineering Critical in Disaster Preparedness and Resilienc...
Why is Structural Engineering Critical in Disaster Preparedness and Resilienc...Why is Structural Engineering Critical in Disaster Preparedness and Resilienc...
Why is Structural Engineering Critical in Disaster Preparedness and Resilienc...
 
Top Digital Marketing Strategy in 2024.pdf
Top Digital Marketing Strategy in 2024.pdfTop Digital Marketing Strategy in 2024.pdf
Top Digital Marketing Strategy in 2024.pdf
 
You Get Me! Leveraging Communication Styles in Virtual Trainingpptx
You Get Me! Leveraging Communication Styles in Virtual TrainingpptxYou Get Me! Leveraging Communication Styles in Virtual Trainingpptx
You Get Me! Leveraging Communication Styles in Virtual Trainingpptx
 
Virtual Production Tool Set and Technologies Redefining Cinema.pdf
Virtual Production Tool Set and Technologies Redefining Cinema.pdfVirtual Production Tool Set and Technologies Redefining Cinema.pdf
Virtual Production Tool Set and Technologies Redefining Cinema.pdf
 
Retail Store Scavenger Hunt powerpoint slides
Retail Store Scavenger Hunt powerpoint slidesRetail Store Scavenger Hunt powerpoint slides
Retail Store Scavenger Hunt powerpoint slides
 
Accounts.pdfjsjshwnsksowowkwmwmsmmsmsksk
Accounts.pdfjsjshwnsksowowkwmwmsmmsmskskAccounts.pdfjsjshwnsksowowkwmwmsmmsmsksk
Accounts.pdfjsjshwnsksowowkwmwmsmmsmsksk
 
Gym business MODEL .pdf .
Gym business MODEL .pdf                 .Gym business MODEL .pdf                 .
Gym business MODEL .pdf .
 
New Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
New Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...New Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
New Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
 
Corporate Governance for South African Mining Companies
Corporate Governance for South African Mining CompaniesCorporate Governance for South African Mining Companies
Corporate Governance for South African Mining Companies
 
A Complete Guide of Dubai Freelance Visa and Permit in 2024
A Complete Guide of Dubai Freelance Visa and Permit in 2024A Complete Guide of Dubai Freelance Visa and Permit in 2024
A Complete Guide of Dubai Freelance Visa and Permit in 2024
 
Growth Buyouts - The Dawn of the GBO (Slow Ventures)
Growth Buyouts - The  Dawn of the GBO (Slow Ventures)Growth Buyouts - The  Dawn of the GBO (Slow Ventures)
Growth Buyouts - The Dawn of the GBO (Slow Ventures)
 
The Power of Digital Marketing in the Modern Age.pdf
The Power of Digital Marketing in the Modern Age.pdfThe Power of Digital Marketing in the Modern Age.pdf
The Power of Digital Marketing in the Modern Age.pdf
 
10 Barriers to Effective Communications.
10 Barriers to Effective Communications.10 Barriers to Effective Communications.
10 Barriers to Effective Communications.
 
TALENT ACQUISITION AND MANAGEMENT LECTURE 2
TALENT ACQUISITION AND MANAGEMENT LECTURE 2TALENT ACQUISITION AND MANAGEMENT LECTURE 2
TALENT ACQUISITION AND MANAGEMENT LECTURE 2
 
Cracking the Customer Experience Code.pptx
Cracking the Customer Experience Code.pptxCracking the Customer Experience Code.pptx
Cracking the Customer Experience Code.pptx
 
Girls Call Kharghar 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Kharghar 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Kharghar 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Kharghar 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
 
How Do Flange Adapters Work and Why Are They Essential?
How Do Flange Adapters Work and Why Are They Essential?How Do Flange Adapters Work and Why Are They Essential?
How Do Flange Adapters Work and Why Are They Essential?
 
21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf
21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf
21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf
 
ShotOniPhone campaign by Vancy macwan.pptx
ShotOniPhone campaign by Vancy macwan.pptxShotOniPhone campaign by Vancy macwan.pptx
ShotOniPhone campaign by Vancy macwan.pptx
 

MCS 358 UNIT 4 MOTIVATING.ppt

  • 1. Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-1 Ninth Edition
  • 2. Chapter Learning Goals 1. To learn to use the research on cultural dimensions as tools to understand how to motivate people in different cultural contexts 2. To become familiar with the global leader’s role and environment and what makes a successful global leader 11-2 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 3. Chapter Learning Goals 3. To discuss the research on leadership and how leadership styles and practices vary around the world 11-3 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 4. Cross-Cultural Research on Motivation Are there any differences in the societal factors that elicit and maintain behaviors leading to high employee productivity and job satisfaction? High Uncertainty Avoidance • Suggests need for job security, low uncertainty avoidance suggests motivation by risky opportunities High Power Distance • Suggests motivators in boss-subordinate relationship, low power distance suggests motivation by teamwork and peers 11-4 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 5. Cross-Cultural Research on Motivation Individualism • Suggests motivation from opportunities for individual advancement and autonomy, collectivism suggests appeals to group goals and support Masculinity • Suggests people are more comfortable with traditional division of work, femininity suggests looser boundaries, flexible roles 11-5 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 6. Meaning of Work (MOW)  Studies on the meaning of work in eight countries were carried out by George England and a group of researchers who are called the Meaning of Work (MOW) International Research Team. Their research sought to determine a person’s idea of the relative importance of work compared to that of leisure, community, religion, and family. They called this concept of work work centrality, defined as “the degree of general importance that working has in the life of an individual at any given point in time.  The results showed, for example, that the Japanese hold work to be very important in their lives; the Brits, on the other hand (in this author’s birth 6
  • 7. The Meaning of Work (MOW) Factors Most Valued About Work • A needed income • Interest and Satisfaction • Contacts with others • A way to serve society • A means of keeping occupied • Status and prestige 11-7 George England and the MOW International Research Team, 1987
  • 8. The Islamic Work Ethic  Laziness is a vice  Dedication to work is a virtue  Good work benefits one’s self and others  Justice and generosity in the workplace are necessary for society’s welfare  Life has no meaning without work  More leisure time is good for society  Human relations in organizations should be emphasized and encouraged  One should constantly work hard to meet responsibility 11-8 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 9. The Needs Hierarchy in the International Context  Managers around the world have similar needs, but derive different levels of need satisfaction from their jobs  Japanese conferring recognition with plaques, applause  Variables other than culture may be at play  e.g., China: Focus on the needs of society 11-9 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 10. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10
  • 11. The Needs Hierarchy in the International Context Self- actualization in the service of society Physiological needs Safety Belonging 11-11 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc. A Proposed Chinese Hierarchy… Individual needs are intermeshed with the needs of society Workers are accountable to their group
  • 12. Comparative Management in Focus: Motivation in Mexico Paternalistic and hierarchical traditions The country’s economic context influences motivation Fringe benefits are important 11-12 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 13. Conflicting Motivational Techniques in Western-Russian Joint Ventures 11-13 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Western Managers to Russian Employees Russian Managers to Russian Employees Be independent; have initiative Stick to the rules and procedures Learn from mistakes and move on Mistakes are not allowed and should be punished Take the long-term perspective Focus on the present Be a team member Stick to your own job and business
  • 14.  In 2015, the business and economic climate in Russia was under considerable pressure because of falling oil prices and Western sanctions following the conflict in the Ukraine. However, for foreign managers, there are considerable differences and challenges in how best to adapt their styles to motivate and lead employees as well as the company.  Research shows that little conclusive information is available to answer a manager’s direct question of exactly how to motivate in any particular culture. One reason is that motivational theories are not fully universal, but another is that the entire motivational Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14 Conflicting Motivational Techniques in Western-Russian Joint Ventures
  • 15. For example, Western firms entering markets in Eastern Europe find highly structured work systems and responsibilities are more motivational than they are for Western workers. Results from a study by Michailova are shown in this exhibit, and they illustrate that Russian workers are still used to the management style that prevailed in a centrally planned economic system. This context resulted in vertically managed hierarchies, one-man authority, and anti-individualism. Employees in the study were more motivated by the authoritarianism of their Russian managers than they were by attempts at empowerment by Western Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15 Conflicting Motivational Techniques in Western-Russian Joint Ventures
  • 16. Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-16 Under the Lens: Managing in Russia Motivation and Challenges  Russians are motivated by powerful, charismatic leaders  Russian employees expect foreign managers to be more competent than local managers  Motivation can be achieved by gradually creating an empowered organization  Security of employment is important
  • 17. Environmental Variables Affecting Management Functions 3-17 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 18. The Role of Culture in Job Motivation 11-18 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 19. The Role of Culture in Job Motivation An employee’s needs are determined largely by the cultural context of values and attitudes—along with the national variables—in which he or she lives and works. Those needs then determine the meaning of work for that employee. The manager’s understanding of what work means in that employee’s life can then lead to the design of a culturally appropriate job context and reward system to guide individual and group employee job behavior to meet mutual goals. Incentives and rewards are an integral part of motivation in a corporation. Recognizing and understanding different 19
  • 20. Reward Systems United States Focus on financial, social status, job content, career, and professional Japan Focus on seniority, bonuses, and permanent workers; competition discouraged China Focus on social benefits, shift to pay- for- performance and equity- based rewards 11-20 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 21. The Global Leader’s Role and Environment Intellectual capital: global business and organizational savvy Psychological capital: openness to differences, capacity to change Social capital: the ability to build trusting relationships 11-21 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 22.  Global leaders must develop a flexible model of leadership that can be applied anywhere.  Global business savvy is the ability to recognize global market opportunities for a company and having a vision for doing business worldwide  This savvy can be developed through travel, teamwork, training, and transfers. Developing global leaders is particularly important because of the influence they have. The leader’s interactions strongly affect the motivation and behavior of employees, and ultimately, the entire climate of the organization Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 22
  • 23. Maximizing Leadership Effectiveness Leaders on international assignments often find themselves juggling multiple and potentially conflicting roles e.g. 1. Representative of the parent firm 2. Manager of the local firm 3. Resident of the local community 4. Citizen of the host country 5. Member of a profession 6. Family member As such, the leader’s role comprises the interaction of both the content and context of leadership. Content comprises the attributes of the leader and the decisions made. Context comprises the variables related to a particular situation.
  • 24. Cross-Cultural Research in Leadership p.g 407-411  Effective leadership varies across cultures  People have accepted images of what a leader should be. 11-24 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 25.  Research supports the notion of cultural contingency in leadership. That is, what is expected of leaders, what influence they have, and what kind of status they are given vary from nation to nation. This slide shows a sample of the information presented in Exhibit 11-8 and is based on research by the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) research program. The scores presented for each country are based on a scale from 1 (the opinion that those leadership behaviors would not be regarded favorably) to 7 (that those behaviors would substantially facilitate effective leadership). Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 25 Culturally Contingent Beliefs Regarding Effective Leadership Style: the GLOBE project
  • 26. The GLOBE culture-leadership dimensions  The Charismatic leader is someone who is visionary, an inspiration to subordinates, and performance-oriented  A team-oriented leader is someone who exhibits diplomatic, integrative, and collaborative behaviors toward the team.  The self-protective dimension describes a leader who is self-centered, conflictual, and status conscious.  The participative leader is one who delegates decision making and encourages subordinates to take responsibility.  Humane leaders are those who are compassionate to their employees.  An autonomous leader is, as expected, an 26
  • 27. Culturally Contingent Beliefs Regarding Effective Leadership Style Country Charism a Team Self- Protecti e Partici- pative Humane Autono- mous Brazil 6.01 6.17 3.50 6.06 4.84 2.27 China 5.57 5.57 3.80 5.05 5.18 4.07 Denmark 6.01 5.70 2.82 5.80 4.23 3.79 India 5.85 5.72 3.78 4.99 5.26 3.85 Mexico 5.66 5.75 3.86 4.64 4.71 3.86 United States 6.12 5.80 3.16 5.93 5.21 3.75 Nigeria 5.77 5.65 3.90 5.19 5.48 3.62 11-27
  • 28. Leadership Status and Influence differences Across Cultures The Dutch are skeptical about the value of leadership Arabs worship their leaders—as long as they are in power Malaysians expect their leaders to be humble, modest, and dignified The French expect leaders to be “cultivated” //Top business schools such as HEC Paris, INSEAD etc groom corporate leaders 11-28 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 29. The Universal Facilitators of Leadership Effectiveness Trustworthiness Visionary Inspirational and motivating Communicative 11-31 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 30. Universal Impediments to Leadership Effectiveness Being a loner and asocial Non- cooperative Dictatorial 11-30 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 31. Culturally Contingent Endorsement of Leader Attributes Individualistic Status- Conscious Risk-Taking 11-31 Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 32. Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-32 Leader in a Global Context  Leadership is not just manager subordinate relationship, running the whole company, division or unit  Vital to be able to adapt one’s leadership style to the local context  “National and cultural differences can both bedevil and enliven business.”  Listen hard and “How are you going to go about meeting this goal?”
  • 33. Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-33  Motivation and leadership are factors in the successful implementation of desired strategy  Content and process are culture- contingent—reflecting individual’s needs, value systems, and environmental context  Concepts such as achievement or esteem may have different meanings in other countries  Studies on the meaning of work indicate considerable cross-cultural differences Conclusions
  • 34. Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-34 Conclusions  Hofstede’s power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, and masculinity explain the cultural contexts of motviation  Incentives/rewards are contingent on culture as is leadership style  The challenge is to decide what is effective leadership in different international or mixed-culture situations.  JVs are complex situations for cross-cultural leadership

Editor's Notes

  1. High uncertainty avoidance suggests need for job security, low uncertainty suggests motivation by risky opportunities High power distance suggests motivators in boss-subordinate relationship, low power distance suggests motivation by teamwork and peers
  2. Studies on the meaning of work in eight countries were carried out by George England and a group of researchers who are called the Meaning of Work (MOW) International Research Team. Their research sought to determine a person’s idea of the relative importance of work compared to that of leisure, community, religion, and family. They called this concept of work work centrality, defined as “the degree of general importance that working has in the life of an individual at any given point in time. The results showed, for example, that the Japanese hold work to be very important in their lives; the Brits, on the other hand (in this author’s birth country), seem to like their leisure time more than those in the other countries surveyed.
  3. The broader implications of what work means to people are derived from considering the total cultural context. For instance, in the Middle East religion plays a major role in all aspects of life. Muslims feel that work is a virtue and an obligation to establish equilibrium in one’s individual social life. This slide, which summarizes Exhibit 11-1 in the text, gives more insight into the Islamic work ethic among Saudi Arabian managers. These results show the four statements with which respondents most strongly agreed.
  4. Variables other than culture may be at play, One of these variables may be the country’s stage of economic development. Many companies that have started operations in other countries have experienced differences in the apparent needs of the local employees and how they expect work to be recognized. Japanese firms confer recognition in the form of plaques, attention, and applause, and Japanese workers are likely to be insulted by material incentives. Eastern cultures such as China, focus more on the needs of society rather than on the needs of individuals.
  5. When considering the cross-cultural applicability of Maslow’s theory, it is not the needs that are in question as much as the ordering of those needs in the hierarchy. Maslow’s hierarchy reflects the Western culture where Maslow conducted his study. Other hierarchies might better reflect other cultures. For instance, this hierarchy reflects the needs of the Chinese. In China, individual needs are intermeshed with the needs of society.
  6. Mexican workers expect authority will not be abused but rather will follow the family model in which everyone works together in a dignified manner according to their designated roles. Any event that breaks this harmony or seems to confront authority, will likely be covered up. For example, a supervisor may hide defective work. Maslow’s higher-order needs (self-actualization, achievement, status) are not high on many Mexican’s lists of needs because of a context of continuing economic problems and a relatively low standard of living. Additionally, economic reforms and the peso devaluation make money a key motivational factor. Fringe benefits also are important. Benefits that help to manage family-related issues are positive motivators for people to at least show up at work. Thus, companies often provide on-site health care facilities for workers and their families, nurseries, free meals, and even small loans in crisis situations. Company buses may be provided to minimize absenteeism and tardiness.
  7. In 2015, the business and economic climate in Russia is under considerable pressure because of falling oil prices and Western sanctions following the conflict in the Ukraine However, for foreign managers, there are considerable differences and challenges in how best to adapt their styles to motivate and lead employees as well as the company. Research shows that little conclusive information is available to answer a manager’s direct question of exactly how to motivate in any particular culture. One reason is that motivational theories are not fully universal, but another is that the entire motivational context must be taken into account. For example, Western firms entering markets in Eastern Europe find highly structured work systems and responsibilities are more motivational than they are for Western workers. Results from a study by Michailova are shown in this exhibit, and they illustrate that Russian workers are still used to the management style that prevailed in a centrally planned economic system. This context resulted in vertically managed hierarchies, one-man authority, and anti-individualism. Employees in the study were more motivated by the authoritarianism of their Russian managers than they were by attempts at empowerment by Western managers.
  8. Foreign leaders are likely to experience a lack of trust by Russians toward them, creating a barrier to communication and therefore to motivation and leadership; they will need to take time to develop relationships and build trust with employees and others in their business and personal interactions while there.
  9. Culture is the shared values, understandings, assumptions and goals that are learned from earlier generations, imposed by present members of a society and passed on to succeeding generations. It often results in shared attitudes, codes of conduct, and expectations that subconsciously guide and control certain norms of behavior. As shown in this figure, national and socio-cultural variables provide the context for cultural variables, which in turn determine attitudes toward work, time, materialism, individualism, and change. Attitudes affect behavior and, thus, individual’s motivation and expectations regarding work and workplace relations.
  10. An employee’s needs are determined largely by the cultural context of values and attitudes—along with the national variables—in which he or she lives and works. Those needs then determine the meaning of work for that employee. The manager’s understanding of what work means in that employee’s life can then lead to the design of a culturally appropriate job context and reward system to guide individual and group employee job behavior to meet mutual goals. Incentives and rewards are an integral part of motivation in a corporation. Recognizing and understanding different motivational patterns across cultures leads to the design of appropriate reward systems.
  11. Five categories: Financial, social status, job content, career, and professional Japan: Focus on seniority, bonuses, and permanent workers; competition discouraged China: Focus on social benefits, shift to pay-for-performance and equity-based rewards
  12. Global leaders must develop a flexible model of leadership that can be applied anywhere. Unsurprisingly, then, research by Morrison, Gregersen, and Black concluded that effective leaders have global business and organizational savvy. Global business savvy is the ability to recognize global market opportunities for a company and having a vision for doing business worldwide. They suggest this savvy can be developed through travel, teamwork, training, and transfers. Developing global leaders is particularly important because of the influence they have. The leader’s interactions strongly affect the motivation and behavior of employees, and ultimately, the entire climate of the organization. Leaders on international assignments often find themselves juggling multiple and potentially conflicting roles—e.g., as representative of the parent firm, manager of the local firm, resident of the local community, citizen of a given country, member of a profession, and member of a family. As such, the leader’s role comprises the interaction of both the content and context of leadership. Content comprises the attributes of the leader and the decisions made. Context comprises the variables related to a particular situation.
  13. It is important to understand how the variable of societal culture fits into leadership theory. Although the functions of leadership are similar across cultures and leadership is a universal phenomenon, research indicates that what makes effective leadership varies across cultures. Indeed, people in different cultures have norms regarding what they expect from leaders. For example, in Germany leaders are granted a great deal of formality by everyone. Alternatively, foreigners are often surprised at the informal off-the-job lifestyles of US executives.
  14. Research supports the notion of cultural contingency in leadership. That is, what is expected of leaders, what influence they have, and what kind of status they are given vary from nation to nation. This slide shows a sample of the information presented in Exhibit 11-8 and is based on research by the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) research program. The scores presented for each country are based on a scale from 1 (the opinion that those leadership behaviors would not be regarded favorably) to 7 (that those behaviors would substantially facilitate effective leadership). A team-oriented leader is someone who exhibits diplomatic, integrative, and collaborative behaviors toward the team. The self-protective dimension describes a leader who is self-centered, conflictual, and status conscious. The participative leader is one who delegates decision making and encourages subordinates to take responsibility. Humane leaders are those who are compassionate to their employees. The GLOBE project also considered charisma and autonomy. These are not pictured in this slide. Autonomy scores tended to be very similar to participative scores. The highest score for each dimension among the countries pictured in this slide are shown in purple.
  15. Additional GLOBE research indicates that the status and influence of leaders vary a great deal across countries or regions according to the prevailing cultural forces. For example, Americans, Arabs, Asians, the English, Eastern Europeans, the French, Germans, Latin Americans, and Russians tend to glorify leaders. Those in the Netherlands, Scandinavia, and Germanic Switzerland have very different views. This slide shows a sample of comments about status and influence provided by managers to the GLOBE project.
  16. Subsequently, the GLOBE project found that certain variables are universally effective, some are universal impediments, and some are generally culturally contingent. These variables are presented in this and the next two slides.