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CONFERENCE
                                                                                                                 EDITION   2012
                                                                                                                           Information and Communications
     W
             ith some six billion mobile subscriptions now in use worldwide, about three-quarters of
             humanity has access to a mobile phone. Mobiles are arguably the most ubiquitous modern                        for Development
             technology—in some developing countries, more people have access to a mobile phone than
     to clean water, a bank account, or even electricity. And mobile communications now offer major
     opportunities to advance human development—from providing basic access to education or health
     information to making cash payments and stimulating citizen involvement in democratic processes.




                                                                                                                           Maximizing
     Information and Communications for Development 2012: Maximizing Mobile analyzes the growth and
     evolution of mobile telephony, including the rise of data-based services delivered to handheld
     devices through “apps” (applications) and other ways. Summarizing current thinking and seeking
     to inform the debate on the use of mobile phones to improve livelihoods, the report looks, in par-




                                                                                                                           Mobile
     ticular, at key ecosystem-based applications in agriculture, health, financial services, employment,
     and government, with chapters devoted to each, and explores the consequences of the emerging
     “app economy” for development.

     The global conversation is no longer about the phone itself, but about how it is used and the content
     and applications that it opens up. These apps and “mash-ups” of services, driven by high-speed
     networks, social networking, online crowdsourcing, and innovation, are helping mobile phones
     transform lives in developed and developing countries alike. They not only benefit individual users,
     they also boost the economy as a whole through cascade effects stimulating growth, entrepreneur-
     ship, and productivity.

     Mobile communications promise to do more than just give the developing world a voice—they
     unlock the genie in the phone, empowering people to make their own choices and decisions.




     T
          his report pulls together perspectives from many different stakeholders into a cohesive and com-
          pelling document on mobile applications for development. It will indeed be a valuable contribu-
          tion to practitioners, funders, and others who are trying to understand this exciting space.

     —Heather Thorne, Vice President, Information Solutions, Grameen Foundation




Korean Trust Fund
2012
Information and Communications
for Development




Conference Edition
2012
Information and Communications
for Development




Maximizing Mobile
Conference Edition
The text of this conference edition is a work in progress for the forthcoming book, Information and Communica-
tions for Development 2012: Maximizing Mobile; DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8991-1; website: http://www
.worldbank.org/ict/IC4D2012.

© 2012 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
1818 H Street NW, Washington DC 20433
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resulting from such infringement rests solely with you.
    The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this work do not necessarily reflect the views of The
World Bank, its Board of Executive Directors, or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guaran-
tee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information
shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgment on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status
of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
    Nothing herein shall constitute or be considered to be a limitation upon or waiver of the privileges and immuni-
ties of The World Bank, all of which are specifically reserved.

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Attribution—Please cite the work as follows: Information and Communications for Development 2012: Maximizing
Mobile; DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8991-1; website: http://www.worldbank.org/ict/IC4D2012. License: Creative
Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0

Translations—If you create a translation of this work, please add the following disclaimer along with the attribution:
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All queries on rights and licenses should be addressed to the Office of the Publisher, The World Bank, 1818 H Street
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Cover photographs: Top and bottom: G. M. B. Akash / Panos; center: Mr. Pierre C. Sibiry Traore, ICRISAT, AgCom-
mons, a program executed by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR); right: The
Commonwealth of Learning

Cover design: Naylor Design
Table of Contents




Foreword                                                                         xi
Preface                                                                        xiii
Acknowledgments                                                                 xv
Abbreviations                                                                  xvii


PART I
          Executive Summary                                                      3
          Tim Kelly and Michael Minges
          Main messages                                                          3
          Why are mobile phones now considered indispensable?                    4
          A mobile green revolution                                              5
          Keep using the tablets—how mobile devices are changing health care     5
          Mobile money                                                           6
          Get a phone, get a job, start a business                               6
          Using phones to bring governments and citizens closer                  6
          Onward and upward to mobile broadband                                  7
          Appendixes                                                             7

 Infographic: Maximizing Mobile for Development                                  8
Chapter 1 Overview                                                              11
          Michael Minges
          How mobile phones are used                                            13
          Data traffic                                                          18
          The changing mobile ecosystem                                         19
          Mobile-enabled social and economic trends                             22
          Structure of the report                                               27
          Notes                                                                 27
          References                                                            28


                                                                                      v
Chapter 2 Mobilizing the Agricultural Value Chain                     31
                           Naomi J. Halewood and Priya Surya
                           Making information mobile                                  31
                           Improved access to agricultural information                33
                           Improving data visibility for value-chain efficiency       37
                           Enhancing access to markets                                39
                           Policy considerations                                      41
                           Conclusions                                                41
                           Notes                                                      42
                           References                                                 42


                Chapter 3 mHealth                                                     45
                           Nicolas Friederici, Carol Hullin, and Masatake Yamamichi
                           Why mHealth? Opportunities and challenges                  45
                           The potential of mHealth                                   51
                           The mHealth ecosystem                                      52
                           Business models for mHealth                                52
                           Principles for implementing mHealth applications           53
                           Conclusions                                                58
                           Notes                                                      58
                           References                                                 58


                Chapter 4 Mobile Money for Financial Inclusion                        61
                           Kevin Donovan
                           Mobile money: an ecosystem approach                        61
                           The financial inclusion imperative                         62
                           What is the impact of mobile money?                        63
                           Growing mobile money: challenges
                               and success stories                                    65
                           Emerging issues in mobile money                            66
                           Conclusions                                                71
                           Notes                                                      72
                           References                                                 72


                Chapter 5 Mobile Entrepreneurship and Employment                      75
                           Maja Andjelkovic and Saori Imaizumi
                           Open innovation and mobile entrepreneurship                76
                           Mobile incubators                                          79
                           Mobile microwork                                           81
                           Mobiles and recruitment                                    82
                           Conclusions and considerations for policy-makers           83
                           Notes                                                      85
                           References                                                 86




vi   Contents
Chapter 6 Making Government Mobile                                                         87
               Siddhartha Raja and Samia Melhem with Matthew Cruse, Joshua
               Goldstein, Katherine Maher, Michael Minges, and Priya Surya
               A typology of mGovernment                                                    87
               Drivers for mGovernment                                                      89
               Challenges for governments                                                   94
               Enabling the technology transformation                                       94
               Emerging best practices for going mobile                                     95
               Conclusions                                                                  99
               Notes                                                                       100
               References                                                                  100


Chapter 7 Policies for Mobile Broadband                                                    103
               Victor Mulas
               The mobile broadband opportunity and developing countries                   103
               Policy recommendations for facilitating mobile broadband diffusion          104
               Conclusions                                                                 110
               Notes                                                                       110
               References                                                                  111


PART II
               Key Trends in the Development of the Mobile Sector                          115
               Michael Minges
               Access                                                                      115
               Mobile broadband                                                            120
               Devices                                                                     121
               Mobile industry                                                             124
               A mobile analytical tool                                                    126
               Notes                                                                       133
               References                                                                  134


               Data Notes                                                                  135
               Kaoru Kimura and Michael Minges
               Definitions and data sources                                                138
               Mobile at-a-glance country tables                                           141
               Key mobile indicators for other economies, 2010                             217

Contributors                                                                               219


BOXES
1.1    Mobile phones and applications                                                       14
1.2    How to make a million from Angry Birds                                               19




                                                                                Contents     vii
1.3     Smartphones and tablets for development                                          24
                  2.1     How Reuters Market Light generates hyperlocalized information                    35
                  2.2     A pregnant pause for Sri Lanka’s cows                                            36
                  2.3     Tracking specialty coffee                                                        38
                  2.4     DrumNet, the value chain on your mobile phone                                    39
                  3.1     Kenya: A breeding ground for mHealth applications                                48
                  3.2     Ethiopia: SMS helps in monitoring UNICEF’s food supply chain                     49
                  3.3     India: Health Management and Research Institute—104 Mobile                       56
                  4.1     One device, many channels                                                        62
                  4.2     Using mobile money                                                               64
                  4.3     Business models for mobile money                                                 67
                  4.4     Interoperability and innovation in mobile money                                  70
                  5.1     AkiraChix                                                                        78
                  5.2     infoDev’s mLabs and mHubs                                                        80
                  5.3     Mobile microwork: JANA                                                           82
                  5.4     Turning ideas into applications: “Mobile To Work” challenge                      83
                  5.5     Business processes for job seekers and employers: Souktel’s JobMatch             84
                  6.1     The mobile telephone as a tool for citizen voice and empowerment                 90
                  6.2     Kerala’s mobile government program                                               93
                  6.3     Evolving toward coordination: the case of the Republic of Korea                  94
                  6.4     Open data and mobile access in Kenya                                             97
                  6.5     Challenges to trust and credibility                                              99
                  7.1     Using reverse auctions to match spectrum allocations with
                          coverage obligations in Chile                                                    107


                  Part II
                  A.1     Mobile use in rural China                                                        118


                  FIGURES
                  1.1     The developing world: young and mobile                                           12
                  1.2     Talking and paying: mobile voice use and price for selected countries, 2010      14
                  1.3     Mobile phone usage around the world, 2011                                        16
                  1.4     Worldwide SMS and Twitter traffic                                                17
                  1.5     Data, data everywhere                                                            20
                  1.6     Apples and Berries: iPhone sales and Blackberry subscriptions                    20
                  1.7     Changing market share of mobile handset sales by operating system                21
                  1.3.1   Annotated screenshot of Bangladesh's Amadeyr Tablet                              24
                  1.8     Mapping calls for protest on Facebook to actual “Arab Spring”
                          demonstrations, 2011                                                             26
                  1.9     Mobile phone versus internet access household availability                       27
                  3.1.1   MedAfrica app                                                                    48
                  3.2.1   RapidSMS in Ethiopia                                                             49
                  3.1     Relative popularity of consumer health applications in Apple’s App Store, 2011   51




viii   Contents
3.2     Number of countries with at least one mHealth deployment,
        by World Bank region                                                                52
3.3     mHealth ecosystem                                                                   53
4.1     Different types of mobile financial services                                        62
4.2     Global mobile money deployments                                                     63
4.3.1   Mobile money demand curves                                                          67
4.3     The most and least expensive remittance corridors                                   69
5.1     Rewards and risks from entrepreneur participation in social networks                79
5.2     infoDev’s network of mLabs                                                          80
6.1.1   Screenshot of the original Ushahidi mash-up                                         90
6.4.1   Screenshot from Open Data Kenya website, showing
        poverty and pupils per teacher                                                       97
7.1     Broadband subscriptions in selected countries per platform (mobile vs. fixed)       104
7.2     Broadband as an ecosystem where supply and demand factors
        interact with each other                                                            104
7.1.1   Mobile broadband subscriptions per operator in Chile                                107
7.3     Mobile data traffic by 2016, CISCO forecast                                         108
7.4     Mobile applications as a driver of mobile broadband demand                          110


Part II
A.1     Worldwide fixed and mobile telephone subscriptions                                  116
A.2     Mobile cellular subscriptions per 100 people, by income group                       116
A.3     Mobile household penetration, Senegal and other selected countries, 2009            117
A.1.1   Mobile usage in rural areas of three Chinese provinces, 2011                        118
A.4     Population, mobile subscriptions, and poverty headcount
        in low- and middle-income economies                                                 119
A.5     Affordability and coverage in developing economies                                  119
A.6     Mobile broadband                                                                    120
A.7     Broadband subscriptions in the Philippines and South Africa                         121
A.8     Global sales of mobile and computing devices                                        123
A.9     Smartphone penetration as a share of population, 2011                               124
A.10    Global telecommunication services market                                            124
A.11    Mobile value chain                                                                  125
A.12    Mobile analytical tool: indicators and categories                                   127
A.13    Mobile analytical tool scores, 2005 and 2010, by income and region group            131
A.14    Mobile analytical tool and GNI per capita, 2010                                     131
A.15    Mobile analytical tool: China and Sri Lanka compared                                132
A.16    Mobile analytical tool components summarized                                        133


TABLES
Part I
1.1.1   Mobile devices and their capabilities                                                15
1.1     Top mobile applications, June 2011                                                   18
1.2     Mobile and the Millennium Development Goals                                          23



                                                                                 Contents         ix
2.1   Mobile-enabled solutions for food and agriculture                             32
               2.2   Impact of ICT on farmers, traders, and consumers                              34
               3.1   Major categories of mHealth services and applications                         46
               3.2   Selected examples of mHealth projects and lessons learned                     54
               6.1   Three types of mGovernment                                                    88
               6.2   Policies and programs to promote mGovernment                                  95


               Part II
               A.1   Mobile data speeds and volumes, Q3, 2011                                      122
               A.2   Private participation in mobile networks, 1990–2010                           126
               A.3   Worked example of the mobile analytical tool, Morocco                         128
               A.4   Mobile analytical tool components for 100 selected economies, 2005 and 2010   128




x   Contents
Foreword




Mobile phones, a rarity in many developing countries at the    is available in the Little Data Book on Information and
turn of the century, now seem to be everywhere. Between        Communication Technology 2012, published alongside this
2000 and 2012, the number of mobile phones in use world-       report.
wide grew from fewer than 1 billion to around 6 billion. The      It is our hope that this new report will provide some
mobile revolution is transforming livelihoods, helping to      emerging good-practice principles for policy-makers, regu-
create new businesses, and changing the way we communi-        lators, and investors in this complex and constantly chang-
cate. The mobile phone network is already the biggest          ing sector. The World Bank Group already supports a wide
“machine” the world has ever seen, and now that machine is     range of investment lending programs with an ICT compo-
being used to deliver development opportunities on a scale     nent. According to the report of the Independent Evaluation
never before imagined. During this second decade of the        Group, Capturing Technology for Development (2011),
new millennium, maximizing the potential of mobile             around three-quarters of all investment lending projects
phones is a challenge that will engage governments, the        from the World Bank Group have an ICT component; in
private sector, and the development community alike.           addition, more than $4 billion has been invested directly in
   Information and Communications for Development              the ICT sector between 2003 and 2010.
2012: Maximizing Mobile is the third report in the World          This report marks a shift from the World Bank Group’s
Bank Group’s series on Information and Communication           traditional focus on ICT connectivity to a new focus on
Technologies (ICTs) for Development, originally                applications and on the ways ICTs, especially mobile
launched in 2006. This edition focuses on mobile applica-      phones, are being used to transform different sectors of the
tions and their use in promoting development, especially       global economy. This change of focus reflects how the
in agriculture, health, financial services, and government.    value created by the industry is shifting from networks and
Cross-cutting chapters present an overview of emerging         hardware to software and services. The World Bank Group
trends in mobile applications, the ways they are affecting     expects that the theme of transformation will increasingly
employment and entrepreneurship opportunities, and the         guide its investment lending, and this report is aligned with
policy challenges presented by the ongoing shift from          that new direction. Ultimately, the mission of the World
narrowband to broadband mobile networks. The report            Bank is to work for a world free of poverty—a goal that is
features at-a-glance tables for 152 economies showing the      likely to be achieved more efficiently when ICT investment
latest available data and indicators for the mobile sector     is integrated effectively alongside investment in sectors
(year-end 2011, where possible). The report also intro-        such as agriculture, health, and government.
duces an analytical tool for examining the relevant
performance indicators for each country’s mobile sector,       Marianne Fay
so policy-makers can assess their capacities relative to       Chief Economist, Sustainable Development Network
other countries. A more complete range of ICT indicators       The World Bank


                                                                                                                          xi
Preface




The World Bank’s new strategy for engagement in the Infor-       phones are upgraded to smartphones and tablets. The full
mation and Communication Technologies (ICTs) sector,             range of innovative mobile applications described in this
which comes into force in 2012, is built around three strate-    report is not yet available in all countries and to all
gic themes: Innovate—ICT for innovation and ICT-based            subscribers, but they soon will be. And the expectation is
services industries; Connect—affordable access to voice, high-   that developing countries will invent and adapt their own
speed internet, information and media; and Transform—ICT         mobile applications, suited to local circumstances and
applications to transform services for enhanced development      needs. For that reason more research is needed on how
outcomes.                                                        mobile applications are used in base of the pyramid
    This new flagship report on Information and Communi-         households.
cations for Development builds on these three themes. In            This report, like its predecessors, was researched and
particular, the report shows how innovation in the manu-         written jointly by the ICT Sector Unit and by infoDev, a
facture of mobile handsets—giving them more memory,              global partnership program of the World Bank Group. It
faster processing power, and easier-to-use touchscreen           has been reviewed by a broad range of experts working in
interfaces—married with higher performance and more              the field, both within and outside the Bank, whose contri-
affordable broadband networks and services produces trans-       butions are gratefully acknowledged. Funding is provided
formation throughout economies and societies. Increas-           by the World Bank as well as infoDev’s donors, notably the
ingly, that transformation is coming from developing             Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Government of
countries, which are “more mobile” than developed coun-          Finland, the Korean Trust Fund for ICT4D, and UKaid.
tries in the sense that they are following a “mobile first”      The World Bank Group is committed to continuing its
development trajectory. Many mobile innovations (includ-         analytical and lending operations to support progress and
ing multi-SIM card phones, low-cost recharges, and mobile        the sharing of best practices and knowledge, as well as
payments) increasingly originate in poorer countries and         expanding its investments in private ICT companies to
spread from there.                                               further growth in the sector, competitiveness, and the
    Since the last Information and Communications for            availability of better-quality, affordable ICT services to all
Development report was published, almost 2 billion new           the world’s inhabitants.
mobile phone subscriptions have been added worldwide,
                                                                 Juan Navas-Sabater
and the majority of these are in the developing world.
                                                                 Acting Sector Manager, ICT Sector Unit
This rapid growth does not show the whole picture,
                                                                 The World Bank
however. Alongside the process of enlarging the network
is an equally important process of improving the quality         Valerie D’Costa
and depth of the network as narrowband networks are              Program Manager, infoDev
upgraded to broadband and as basic phones and feature-           The World Bank


                                                                                                                            xiii
Acknowledgments




This report was prepared by a team from the ICT Sector           The principal authors of Part II were Michael Minges
Unit (TWICT), infoDev, and the Development Economics         and Kaoru Kimura, and the editorial team for the statistical
Data Group (DECDG) of the World Bank Group. The edito-       tables comprised Neil Fantom, Buyant Erdene Khaltarkhuu,
rial team was led by Tim Kelly and comprised Nicolas         Kaoru Kimura, Soong Sup Lee, Michael Minges, and
Friederici, Michael Minges, and Masatake Yamamichi. Their    William Prince.
work was overseen by a peer-review team, led by Marianne         Inputs, comments, guidance, and support at various
Fay, that included Jose Luis Irigoyen, Valerie D’Costa,      stages of the report’s preparation were received from the
Philippe Dongier, Phillippa Biggs (ITU), and Christine       following World Bank Group colleagues: Maria Amelina,
Zhenwei Qiang.                                               Edward Anderson, Elizabeth J. Ashbourne, Seth Ayers, Alan
    The principal authors of the chapters in Part I of the   Carroll, Vikas Choudhary, Toni Eliasz, Tina George, Joshua
report are:                                                  Goldstein, Aparajita Goyal, Siou Chew Kuek, Katherine
                                                             Maher, Wonki Min, Fernando Montenegro Torres, Arata
• Tim Kelly and Michael Minges (Executive Summary)
                                                             Onoguchi, Tiago Peixoto, Mark Pickens, Carlo Maria
• Michael Minges (Chapter 1)                                 Rossotto, Leila Search, and Randeep Sudan, as well as from
                                                             the principal authors.
• Naomi J. Halewood and Priya Surya (Chapter 2)
                                                                 External reviewers, to whom special thanks are owed,
• Nicolas Friederici, Carol Hullin, and Masatake             included Phillippa Biggs (ITU), Steve Esselaar (Intelecon),
  Yamamichi (Chapter 3)                                      Shaun Ferris (Catholic Relief Services), Vicky Hausmann
                                                             (Dalberg), Janet Hernandez (Telecommunications Manage-
• Kevin Donovan (Chapter 4)
                                                             ment Group), Jake Kendall (Gates Foundation), Vili Lehdon-
• Maja Andjelkovic and Saori Imaizumi (Chapter 5)            virta (London School of Economics), Daniel Leza
                                                             (Telecommunications Management Group), Bill Maurer
• Siddhartha Raja and Samia Melhem, with Matthew
                                                             (University of California, Irvine), Sascha Meinrath (New Amer-
  Cruse, Joshua Goldstein, Katherine Maher, Michael
                                                             ica Foundation), Marcha Neethling (Praekelt Foundation),
  Minges, and Priya Surya (Chapter 6)
                                                             Brooke Partridge (Vital Wave Consulting), Ganesh
• Victor Mulas (Chapter 7)                                   Ramanathan (Tiger Party), Michael Riggs (Food and




                                                                                                                         xv
Agriculture Organization), Stephen Rudgard (Food and Agri-     • The Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Government of
culture Organization), Brendan Smith (Vital Wave Consult-        Finland for its support for the Finland / infoDev / Nokia
ing), Scott Stefanski (Bazaar Strategies), Heather Thorne        program on Creating Sustainable Businesses in the Knowl-
(Grameen Foundation), Katrin Verclas (Mobile Active), and        edge Economy, which supported the production of the
Anthony Youngblood (New America Foundation).                     report as well as research for chapters 1, 2, 4, and 5.
   Special thanks are owed to Phillippa Biggs (ITU), who
                                                               • The Korean Trust Fund (KTF) on Information and
provided a thorough and dedicated peer review of all chap-
                                                                 Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D),
ters, as well as to Denis Largeron and Marta Priftis from
                                                                 which supported background research for chapters 2, 3,
TWICT, and to Denise Bergeron, Jose De Buerba, Aziz
                                                                 4, and 5.
Gökdemir, Stephen McGroarty, and Santiago Pombo-
Bejarano, from the World Bank Office of the Publisher for      • UKaid, which supported background research for chapter
oversight of the editorial production, design, printing, and     7 through its support for infoDev’s analytical work
dissemination of the book. The infographic in the Executive      program.
Summary was prepared by Zack Brisson and Mollie Ruskin
of Reboot (www.thereboot.org), with guidance from the             The team would also like to thank the many other indi-
editorial team.                                                viduals, firms, and organizations that have contributed
   A report of this nature would be impossible without the     through their continuing support and guidance to the work
support of our development partners. For this edition of the   of the World Bank Group over the three years since the last
report, special thanks are due to:                             report in this series was published.




xvi      Acknowledgments
Abbreviations




2G            second generation (mobile               GPS           Global Positioning System
              communications)                         GSM           Global System for Mobile
3G            third generation (mobile                              communications
              communications)                         GTUGS         Google Technology User Groups
4G            fourth generation (mobile
                                                      HSPA          High-Speed Packet Access (cellular
              communications)
                                                                    mobile standard)
apps          applications                            HTML          hypertext mark-up language
ATM           automated teller machine
                                                      ICT           information and communication
CDMA          Code Division Multiple Access                         technology
              (cellular mobile standard)              IC4D          Information and Communications
CGAP          Consultative Group to Assist the Poor                 for Development
                                                      IM            instant messaging
EDGE          Enhanced Data Rates for GSM             IMF           International Monetary Fund
              Evolution (cellular mobile              ISP           internet service provider
              standard)                               ITU           International Telecommunication
EV-DO         Evolution–Data Optimized (cellular                    Union
              mobile standard)
ebook         electronic book                         kbit/s        kilobits per second
eCommerce     electronic commerce                     LTE           Long Term Evolution (cellular mobile
eGovernment   electronic government                                 standard)
eHealth       electronic health
e-payment     electronic payment                      MB            megabyte
e-services    electronic services                     Mbit/s        Megabits per second
                                                      MDGs          Millennium Development Goals
GB            gigabyte                                mGovernment   mobile government
GDP           gross domestic product                  mHealth       mobile health
GNI           gross national income                   mLab          mobile applications laboratory


                                                                                                         xvii
NFC                  near field communications                    UNCTAD   United Nations Conference on Trade
NGO                  nongovernmental organization                          and Development
                                                                  UNDP     United Nations Development
OECD                 Organisation for Economic                             Programme
                     Co-operation and Development                 UNESCO   United Nations Educational, Scientific
PC                   personal computer                                     and Cultural Organization
PDA                  personal digital assistant                   UNICEF   United Nations Children's Fund
                                                                  USB      universal serial bus
RFID                 radio frequency identification               USSD     Unstructured Supplementary
                                                                           Service Data
SAR                  special autonomous region
SIM                  subscriber identity module                   W-CDMA   Wideband Code Division
SME                  small and medium enterprise                           Multiple Access (cellular
SMS                  short message service                                 mobile standard)
                                                                  WHO      World Health Organization
TCO                  total cost of ownership
                                                                  WiMAX    Worldwide Interoperability for
TD-SCDMA             Time Division Synchronous Code
                                                                           Microwave Access (wireless standard)
                     Division Multiple Access (cellular
                     mobile standard)

All dollar amounts are U.S. dollars unless otherwise indicated.




xviii    Abbreviations
Part I
Executive Summary




                           Tim Kelly and Michael Minges




Main messages                                                         Mobile applications not only empower individual users,
                                                                   they enrich their lifestyles and livelihoods, and boost the
                ith some 6 billion mobile subscriptions in

W               use worldwide, around three-quarters of
                the world’s inhabitants now have access to a
mobile phone. Mobiles are arguably the most ubiquitous
                                                                   economy as a whole. Indeed, mobile applications now make
                                                                   phones immensely powerful as portals to the online world. A
                                                                   new wave of “apps,” or smartphone applications, and “mash-
                                                                   ups” of services, driven by high-speed networks, social
modern technology: in some developing countries, more
                                                                   networking, online crowdsourcing, and innovation, is help-
people have access to a mobile phone than to a bank
                                                                   ing mobile phones transform the lives of people in developed
account, electricity, or even clean water. Mobile communica-
                                                                   and developing countries alike. The report finds that mobile
tions now offer major opportunities to advance human
                                                                   applications not only empower individuals but have impor-
development—from providing basic access to education or
                                                                   tant cascade effects stimulating growth, entrepreneurship,
health information to making cash payments to stimulating
                                                                   and productivity throughout the economy as a whole. Mobile
citizen involvement in democratic processes.
                                                                   communications promise to do more than just give the
    The developing world is “more mobile” than the devel-
                                                                   developing world a voice. By unlocking the genie in the
oped world. In the developed world, mobile communica-
                                                                   phone, they empower people to make their own choices and
tions have added value to legacy communication systems
                                                                   decisions.
and have supplemented and expanded existing information
                                                                      Near ubiquity brings new opportunities. This 2012
flows. However, the developing world is following a differ-
                                                                   edition of the World Bank’s Information and Communica-
ent, “mobile first” development trajectory. Many mobile
                                                                   tions for Development report analyzes the growth and evolu-
innovations—such as multi-SIM card phones, low-value
                                                                   tion of mobile telephony, and the rise of data-based services
recharges, and mobile payments—have originated in poorer
                                                                   delivered to handheld devices, including apps. The report
countries and are spreading from there. New mobile appli-
                                                                   explores the consequences for development of the emerging
cations that are designed locally and rooted in the realities of
                                                                   “app economy.” It summarizes current thinking and seeks to
the developing world will be much better suited to address-
                                                                   inform the debate on the use of mobile phones for develop-
ing development challenges than applications transplanted
                                                                   ment. This report looks at key ecosystem-based applications
from elsewhere. In particular, locally developed applications
                                                                   in agriculture, health, financial services, employment, and
can address developing-country concerns such as digital
                                                                   government, with chapters devoted to each. The story is no
literacy and affordability.


                                                                                                                              3
longer about the phone itself, but about how it is used, and     Why are mobile phones now consid-
the content and applications to which mobile phones              ered indispensable?
provide access.
                                                                 The report’s opening chapter provides an overview of the
   Engaging mobile applications for development
                                                                 key trends shaping and transforming the mobile industry as
requires an enabling “ecosystem.” Apps are software
                                                                 well as their impact on development. The chapter examines
“kernels” that sit on a mobile device (typically a smartphone
                                                                 the evolution of the mobile phone from a simple channel for
or tablet) and that can often interact with internet-based
                                                                 voice to one for exchanging text, data, audio, and video
services to, for instance, access updates. Most apps are used
                                                                 through the internet. Given technological convergence,
by individual users, but the applications that may prove
                                                                 mobile handsets can now function as a wallet, camera, tele-
most useful for development are those usually developed
                                                                 vision, alarm clock, calculator, address book, calendar, news-
within an ecosystem that involves many different players,
                                                                 paper, gyroscope, and navigational device combined. The
including software developers, content providers, network
                                                                 latest smartphones are not just invading the computer space,
operators, device manufacturers, governments, and users.
                                                                 they are reinventing it by offering so much more in both
Although the private sector is driving the market, social
                                                                 voice and nonvoice services.
intermediaries, such as nongovernmental organizations
                                                                     Developing countries are increasingly well placed to
(NGOs) play an important role in customizing applications
                                                                 exploit the benefits of mobile communications, with levels
to meet the needs of local communities. In many countries,
                                                                 of access rising around the world. Chapter 1 explores the
a ready-made community of developers has already devel-
                                                                 implications of the emergence of high-speed broadband
oped services based around short message service (SMS) or
                                                                 networks in developing countries, and how the bond
instant messaging (IM) and is now developing applications
                                                                 between mobile operators and users is loosening, as
for more sophisticated devices. Policy-makers need to create
                                                                 computer and internet companies invade the mobile space,
an environment in which players can collaborate as well as
                                                                 with a growing number of handset models now offering
compete. That will require rethinking regulations governing
                                                                 Wi-Fi capability.
specific sectors such as financial services, health, or educa-
                                                                     The chapter also examines the size and nature of the
tion. Governments also play a fundamental role in establish-
                                                                 mobile economy and the emergence of new players in the
ing necessary conditions in which mobile communications
                                                                 mobile ecosystem. The emergence of apps, or special soft-
can thrive through the allocation of wireless spectrum,
                                                                 ware on handheld devices that interacts with internet-based
enactment of vital legislation, and leadership in mobile
                                                                 data services, means that the major issue for the develop-
government, or mGovernment.
                                                                 ment community today is no longer basic access to mobile
   The mobile revolution is right at the start of its
                                                                 phones but about what can be done with phones. More than
growth curve. Devices are becoming more powerful and
                                                                 30 billion apps had been downloaded worldwide by early
cheaper. But the app economy requires economies of scale
                                                                 2012, and they make for an innovative and diverse mobile
to become viable. The report argues that now is the time
                                                                 landscape with a potentially large impact on the lives of
to evaluate what works and to move toward the commer-
                                                                 people in developed and developing countries alike. Grow-
cialization, replication, and scaling up of those mobile
                                                                 ing opportunities for small-scale software developers and
apps that drive development. Until recently, most services
                                                                 local information aggregators are allowing them to develop,
using mobiles for development were based on text
                                                                 invent, and adapt apps to suit their individual needs. Users
messaging. Now, the development of inexpensive smart-
                                                                 themselves are becoming content providers on a global scale.
phones and the spread of mobile broadband networks are
                                                                     Indeed, the latest generations of mobile telephony are
transforming the range of possible applications. Several
                                                                 sowing social and political as well as economic transforma-
challenges lie ahead, notably, the fragmentation that
                                                                 tion. Farmers in Africa are accessing pricing information
arises from multiple operating systems and platforms. It
                                                                 through text messages, mothers can receive medical reports
is already clear, however, that the key to unleashing the
                                                                 on the progression of their pregnancy by phone, migrant
power of the internet for the developing world lies in the
                                                                 workers can send remittances without banks. Elections are
palm of our hands.



4        Information and Communications for Development 2012
monitored and unpopular regimes toppled with the help of           may limit the economies of scale realizable from expand-
mobile phones. Texting and tweeting have become part of            ing from pilot programs into mass markets, potentially
modern vocabulary.                                                 hindering the spread of new and promising applications
   Mobiles are now creating unprecedented opportunities            and services.
for employment, education, and entertainment in develop-               The full scope and scale of smartphones and tablets for
ing countries. This chapter looks beyond specific examples         providing services to agricultural stakeholders have yet to
to identify the broader trends shaping and redefining our          emerge. An enabling environment that can promote the
understanding of the word “mobile.”                                development and use of applications in developing coun-
                                                                   tries must be prioritized to meet the information needs of
                                                                   the agricultural sector.
A mobile green revolution

Given the dominance of primary commodities in the
                                                                   Keep using the tablets—how mobile
economies of many developing countries, chapter 2 explores
                                                                   devices are changing health care
the all-important area of mobile applications designed to
improve incomes, productivity, and yields within the agri-         Chapter 3 examines some of the key principles and charac-
cultural sector, which accounts for about 40 percent of the        teristics of mobile for health (mHealth), and how mobiles
workforce and an even greater proportion of exports in             are helping transform and enhance the delivery of primary
many developing countries.                                         and secondary health care services in developing countries.
    To date, voice calls and SMS text messages have proven         Mobile health can save money and deliver more effective
invaluable in increasing efficiency in smallholder agriculture.    health care with relatively limited resources; increasingly, it is
They can, for example, provide real-time price information         associated with a focus on prevention of diseases and
and improve the flow of information along the entire value         promotion of healthy lifestyles.
chain, from producers to processors to wholesalers to retail-         This chapter reviews on-the-ground implementations
ers to consumers. The basic functions of the mobile phone          of medical health care apps to draw key conclusions about
will continue to remain important for reaching the widest          how mHealth can best be implemented to serve the needs
number of people, but the focus of applications development        of people in the developing world, as well as identifying
is shifting as the underlying technologies evolve.                 barriers that must be overcome. It considers some of the
    Today, increasingly specialized mobile services are fulfill-   unique features of the health care sector and the implica-
ing specific agricultural functions, while multimedia              tions for medical apps in areas such as patient privacy and
imagery is being used to overcome illiteracy and provide           confidentiality, public and private provision of care, and
complex information regarding weather and climate, pest            real-time reporting requirements in crisis or emergency
control, cultivation practices, and agricultural extension         situations.
services to potentially less tech-savvy farmers. This chapter         Modern health care systems are at a tipping point, as
also examines the emerging uses of remote and satellite tech-      consumers take on greater responsibility for managing their
nologies that are assisting in food traceability, sensory detec-   own health care choices, and mobile phones could enable a
tion, real-time reporting, and status updates from the field.      shift in the locus of decision-making away from the state and
It further reviews examples of mobile services in agriculture      health institutions to individual patients.
to draw key learning points and provide direction on how to           The most substantial challenge for mHealth, however, is
capitalize on successful examples.                                 the establishment of sustainable business models that can be
    Mobile applications for agriculture and rural develop-         replicated and scaled up. One step toward addressing this
ment have generally not followed any generic blueprint. They       challenge might be a clearer delineation of roles within the
are usually designed locally and for specific target markets,      health ecosystem between public and private health care
with localized content specific to the languages, crop types,      providers. Another significant challenge is the effective
and farming methods. Local design offers exciting opportu-         monitoring and evaluation of mobiles in health, as pilot
nities for local content and applications development but          programs continue to proliferate.



                                                                                                         Executive Summary         5
Mobile money                                                       side. Employment opportunities in the mobile industry can
                                                                   be categorized as direct jobs, indirect jobs, and jobs on the
This chapter examines the all-important topic of mobile
                                                                   demand side. The contribution of the mobile communica-
money as a general platform and critical infrastructure under-
                                                                   tion sector to employment and entrepreneurship to date is
pinning other economic sectors. Mobile money has trans-
                                                                   difficult to assess, however, because the seemingly simple
formed the Kenyan economy, where mobile-facilitated
                                                                   mobile phone can generate—and occasionally eliminate—
payments now equate to a fifth of the country’s gross domestic
                                                                   employment opportunities by creating efficiencies and
product (GDP). The impact of mobile money is widening else-
                                                                   lowering transaction and information costs.
where too, as it is adopted across commerce, health insurance,
                                                                       The recent rapid innovation in the mobile sector has
agricultural banking, and other sectors. Today, the potential of
                                                                   generated significant disruptive technological change and
mobile payment systems to “bank the unbanked”and empower
                                                                   uncertainty. This turmoil is also lowering barriers to entry,
the poor through improved access to finance and lower trans-
                                                                   however, and generating fresh opportunities for small and
action costs is generating growing excitement. Where they
                                                                   young firms and entrepreneurs to displace legacy systems,
exist, mature mobile money systems have often spun off inno-
                                                                   innovate, and grow.
vative products and services in insurance, credit, and savings.
                                                                       Chapter 5 showcases some of the mechanisms by which
    When connected on a large scale, evidence suggests that
                                                                   the mobile sector supports entrepreneurship and job
the poor are able to use mobile money to improve their
                                                                   creation. Some share similarities with traditional donor
livelihoods. Observers remain divided, however, about
                                                                   initiatives, but many are novel ideas, for which the “proof of
whether mobile money systems are fulfilling their true
                                                                   concept” has been demonstrated only recently or has yet to be
growth potential. Innovative offerings, old and new, can
                                                                   demonstrated. This chapter considers the use of specialized
succeed only if there is sufficient demand from consumers
                                                                   business incubators or mobile labs (mLabs) for supporting
and firms—a variable missing in many contexts.
                                                                   entrepreneurial activity in the mobile industry, as well as new
    The mobile money industry exists at the intersection of
                                                                   opportunities that are offered in areas such as the virtual
banking and telecommunications, embracing a diverse set of
                                                                   economy (trading goods and services that exist only online)
stakeholders, including mobile operators, financial services
                                                                   or mobile microwork (work carried out remotely on a
companies, and new entrants (such as payment card firms).
                                                                   mobile device, on micro-tasks, such as tagging images).
In some countries, mobile money systems may be subject to
                                                                       It also provides suggestions on how to support entrepre-
different regulatory practices and interoperability issues, not
                                                                   neurship and job creation in the mobile industry. In an
to mention clashes in culture between banks and mobile
                                                                   industry evolving as quickly as the mobile sector is today, it
operators, so developing the necessary cross-sectoral partner-
                                                                   is vital to tailor support to local circumstances and to evalu-
ships can prove difficult. In other countries, well-developed
                                                                   ate impact regularly.
alternative legacy systems are strong competitors to the
development of mobile money systems.
    This chapter evaluates the benefits and potential impact       Using phones to bring governments
of mobile money, especially for promoting financial inclu-         and citizens closer
sion in the developing world. It provides an overview of the
                                                                   In the public sphere, mobiles now serve as vehicles for
key factors driving the growth of mobile money services,
                                                                   improved service delivery and greater transparency and
while considering some of the barriers and obstacles hinder-
                                                                   accountability. Today, governments are beginning to embrace
ing their deployment. Finally, it identifies emerging issues
                                                                   the potential for mobile phones to put public services literally
that the industry will face over the coming years.
                                                                   into the pocket of each citizen, create interactive services, and
                                                                   promote accountable and transparent governance.
                                                                      Chapter 6 identifies a range of uses for mobiles in
Get a phone, get a job, start a
                                                                   government (mGovernment) that supplement existing
business
                                                                   public services, expand their user base, and generate spin-
The global mobile industry is today a major source of              off services. The revolutionary aspect to mGovernment lies
employment opportunities, on both the supply and demand            in making government available, anytime and anywhere, to


6        Information and Communications for Development 2012
anyone. The chapter also provides a range of examples of          • Limiting spectrum hoarding, which could distort
mGovernment from around the world as well as a range of             competitive conditions in the market
best practices and recommendations. It demonstrates how
                                                                  • Fostering the development of national backbone broad-
countries can play a constructive role in enhancing sustain-
                                                                    band networks
ability and enabling scale, while maximizing the impact of
mGovernment programs.                                             • Encouraging infrastructure and spectrum sharing
   An important conclusion is that bottom-up ad hoc                  Demand-side policies aim at boosting growth in the
approaches to mGovernment may endanger economies of               adoption of wireless broadband services by addressing barri-
scale. Top-down coordinated approaches may be preferable,         ers to adoption and fostering the development of innovative
since they can cut costs in designing, deploying, and operat-     broadband services and applications pulling users’ demand
ing apps; consolidate demand for communication services           toward mobile broadband. The chapter reviews the follow-
across government, thereby eliminating duplication; and           ing demand-side policy recommendations:
include focused actions to build capacity and skills.
                                                                  • Improving the availability and affordability of broad-
   Emerging best practices suggest that any government
                                                                    band-enabled devices
considering the opportunities inherent in mGovernment
should focus on enabling technological transformation and         • Boosting the affordability of broadband services
building the institutional capacity needed to respond to citi-    • Fostering the development of broadband services and
zens’ demands. Governments looking to adopt mobile tools            applications
to become responsive, accountable, and transparent should
                                                                     The chapter concludes that appropriate policy action
bear in mind that this process will prove successful and truly
                                                                  requires addressing both the supply- and demand-sides of the
transform the government-citizen relationship only when
                                                                  mobile broadband ecosystem. Policy-makers must evaluate
governments take into account both elements—“mobile”
                                                                  local market conditions before applying specific policies
and “government.”
                                                                  addressing bottlenecks or market failures. The most common
                                                                  breakdowns on the supply side are lack of available spectrum
Onward and upward to mobile                                       and inadequate backbone networks; on the demand side, the
broadband                                                         main constraints are lack of affordable mobile devices and
                                                                  broadband services, as well as limited local applications and
Chapter 7 distinguishes between supply-side policies (which       content. Ultimately, policy-makers must determine which
seek to promote the expansion of wireless broadband               policies to adopt, and how to implement them, based on
networks) and demand-side policies (which seek to boost           domestic circumstances and the likely effectiveness of the
adoption of wireless broadband services) in the mobile            policy for broadband diffusion in the context of each country.
broadband ecosystem.
    Supply-side policies seek to address bottlenecks and market
                                                                  Appendixes
failures that constrain network expansion and provide incen-
tives for broader wireless broadband coverage. The chapter        The Country Tables in the appendix to this report provide
reviews the following supply-side policy recommendations:         comparative data for some 152 economies with populations
                                                                  of more than 1 million and summary data for others, with
• Boosting the availability of quality spectrum to deploy
                                                                  at-a-glance tables focusing on the mobile sector. The report
  cost-effective wireless broadband networks
                                                                  is complemented by the World Bank’s annual Little Data
• Eliminating technological or service restrictions on spec-      Book on Information and Communication Technology, which
  trum                                                            presents a wider range of ICT data.
                                                                     The Statistical Appendix reviews the main trends shaping
• Focusing on expanding network coverage rather than on
                                                                  the sector and introduces a new analytical tool for tracking
  profiting from spectrum auctions
                                                                  the progress of economies at different levels of economic
• Requiring transparency in traffic management and safe-          development in widening access, improving supply, and
  guarding competition                                            stimulating demand for mobile services.


                                                                                                     Executive Summary        7
Chapter 1



                            Overview




                           Michael Minges




                 obile communication has arguably had a               Developing countries are increasingly well situated to

M                bigger impact on humankind in a shorter
                 period of time than any other invention in
human history. As noted by Jeffrey Sachs (2008), who
                                                                   exploit the benefits of mobile communications. First and
                                                                   foremost, levels of access are high and rising. The number of
                                                                   mobile subscriptions in low- and middle-income countries
directed the United Nations Millennium Project: “Mobile            increased by more than 1,500 percent between 2000 and
phones and wireless internet end isolation, and will there-        2010, from 4 to 72 per 100 inhabitants (figure 1.1a). Second,
fore prove to be the most transformative technology of             the age profile of developing nations is younger than in
economic development of our time.”                                 developed countries, an important advantage in the mobile
    The mobile phone has evolved from a simple voice device        world where new trends are first taken up by youth.1 Those
to a multimedia communications tool capable of download-           under age 15 make up 29 percent of the population in low-
ing and uploading text, data, audio, and video—from text           and middle-income economies but just 17 percent in high-
messages to social network updates to breaking news, the           income nations (figure 1.1b). Third, developing countries
latest hit song, or the latest viral video. A mobile handset can   are growing richer, so more consumers can afford to use
be used as a wallet, a compass, or a television, as well as an     mobile handsets for more than just essential voice calls.
alarm clock, calculator, address book, newspaper, and camera.      Between 2000 and 2010 incomes in low- and middle-income
    Mobiles are also contributing to social, economic, and         nations tripled (figure 1.1c). Fourth, the mobile sector has
political transformation. Farmers in Africa obtain pricing         become a significant economic force in developing
information via text messages, saving time and travel and          economies. Mobile revenues as a proportion of gross
making them better informed about where to sell their prod-        national income (GNI) rose from 0.9 percent in 2000 to
ucts, thereby raising their incomes (World Bank 2011a, 353).       1.5 percent in 2010 (figure 1.1d).
In India barbers who do not have a bank account can use               These changes are creating unprecedented opportunities
mobiles to send money to relatives in villages, saving costs       for employment, education, and empowerment in develop-
and increasing security (Adler and Uppal 2008, 25). Elec-          ing countries. Local content portals are springing up to
tions are monitored and unpopular regimes toppled with             satisfy the hunger for news and other information that
the help of mobile phones (Brisson and Krontiris 2012, 75).        previously had been difficult to access. The nature of the
Texting and tweeting have become part of the vocabulary            mobile industry itself is changing dramatically, opening new
(Glotz, Bertschi, and Locke 2005, 199).                            opportunities for developing nations in designing mobile



                                                                                                                             11
Figure 1.1 The developing world: young and mobile

                             a. Mobile subscriptions (per 100                   c. GNI per capita (current US$), low-
                        people), low-  middle-income economies                      middle-income economies

                                                                                                              $3,317
                                                          72




                                                                                $1,132

                            4




                                                                                 00




                                                                                                               10
                         00




                                                           10




                                                                               20




                                                                                                             20
                       20




                                                         20
                         b. Population ages 0–14 (% of total), 2010         d. Mobile revenue (% of GDP) low-  middle-
                                                                                         income economies

                                                                                                               1.5%
           Low-  middle-income                                 29


                                                                                 0.9%
                   High-income                    17



                        World                              27
                                                                                 00




                                                                                                                10
                                                                                20




                                                                                                              20
Sources: Adapted from World Bank 2011b and author’s own estimates.




applications and developing content, piloting products and            consumers to add content and applications to their mobile
services, and becoming innovation hubs. Trendy mobile                 phones. Mobile operators are struggling to keep pace with an
products and services may be launched in Silicon Valley or            explosion of data, while networks are converging toward
Helsinki, but mobile manufacturing usually takes place else-          Internet Protocol (IP) technologies and relying on content
where, creating huge opportunities to service, support, and           and data to substitute for declining voice revenues. An
develop applications locally. While key mobile trends are             increasingly hybrid wireless communications ecosystem will
generally adopted around the world, regions such as East              evolve over the coming years.
Asia are forging their own path for content and applications.            Although mobile communication is rapidly advancing in
New mobile innovation centers are springing up in Beijing,            most parts of the world, a significant segment of the world’s
Seoul, and Tokyo, with expertise in specific markets such as          population remains unable to use the latest mobile tech-
mobile gaming and contactless banking.                                nologies. Mobile broadband coverage is often limited to
   The emergence of mobile broadband networks, coupled                urban areas, and current smartphone prices are not afford-
with computer-like handsets, is causing rapid shifts in the           able for many. Nonetheless, developing-country users are
ecosystem of the sector. The bond between mobile operators            using what they have. Text messaging, mobile money, and
and users is loosening as computer and internet companies             simple internet access work on many low-end phones. An
invade the mobile space and handsets increasingly offer Wi-Fi         emerging ecosystem of local developers is supporting
capability. Online stores have created a new way for                  narrowband mobile communicating through scaled-down


12        Information and Communications for Development 2012
web browsers, text messaging, social networking, and pay-         the average Moroccan (figure 1.2a). Price is a major factor in
as-you-go mobile data access. For many users, especially in       calling patterns, with a clear relation between monthly
rural areas, these changes are happening where finding the        minutes of use and the price per minute. Interconnection
electricity to recharge a phone is more difficult than            fees between operators are a main determinant of price. In
purchasing prepaid airtime.                                       some countries these wholesale rates do not reflect underly-
   These developments have major implications for the state       ing costs that drive up the price of mobile calls. A second
of access to information and communication technologies           factor relates to whether the subscriptions are paid in
(ICTs) in the 21st century. Rich countries have the luxury of     advance (prepaid) or paid on the basis of a contract (post-
both wired and wireless technology, of both personal              paid). Prepaid subscriptions are much more popular in
computers (PCs) and smartphones. Developing countries             developing economies, where incomes may be less stable,
tend to rely mainly on mobile networks, and phones already        but postpaid contracts tend to generate higher usage per
vastly outnumber PCs. Applications have to be different to        subscriber (figure 1.2b).
work on small screens and virtual keyboards, while conver-           As with fixed networks, a growing proportion of traffic
gence is happening apace. The developed world is also now         from mobile devices is moving to Voice over Internet Proto-
becoming “more mobile,” with average screen size shrinking;       col (VoIP), often routed over Wi-Fi rather than the cellular
while the developing world is now becoming, “more                 network, thereby avoiding per-minute usage charges.
connected,” forging ahead with the shift from narrowband          According to CISCO, a major supplier of IP networking
to broadband networks on a mobile rather than a fixed plat-       equipment, mobile VoIP traffic is forecast to grow
form. Demography is on the side of the developing world,           42 percent between 2010 and 2015.2 Although mobile VoIP
and the economies of scale gained from serving these              accounts for a tiny share of total mobile data traffic, its
expanding markets may push the ICT industry as a whole in         value impact on mobile operators is much greater. Skype, a
the direction of a post-PC, untethered world.                     leading VoIP provider, has reported over 19 million down-
   One of the challenges facing a report of this nature is        loads of its iPhone application since its launch in 2009. In
that the industry is evolving so rapidly. What is written         addition to voice and video, Skype processed 84 million
today is often outdated tomorrow. In addition, given the          SMS text messages during the first half of 2010.3 One study
novelty of many developments and a lack of stable defini-         forecasts 288 million mobile VoIP users by 2013 (van
tions and concepts, official data are scarce or fail to address   Buskirk 2010).
important market trends. Information from secondary
sources is often contradictory, inconsistent, or self-serving.    Not just for voice anymore
Information about mobile culture is particularly scarce in        Although voice is still the main revenue generator, its growth
developing countries. Nevertheless, certain trends are visi-      has slowed (TeleGeography 2012) as data and text-based
ble, and this opening chapter explores key trends shaping         applications have grown in popularity, their use made possi-
and redefining our understanding of the word “mobile” as          ble by advances in cell phone technology (box 1.1). Mobile
an entrée to the review of different sectors in the chapters      applications are the main theme of this book. For many
that follow.                                                      people, a mobile phone is one of the most used and useful
                                                                  appliances they own. Built-in features are indispensable to
                                                                  many for checking the time, setting an alarm, taking photos,
How mobile phones are used
                                                                  performing calculations, and a variety of other daily tasks.
Voice                                                             Downloadable applications can extend functionalities.
With all the attention given to mobile broadband, smart-             A number of nonvoice applications use wireless networks
phones, and mobile applications, it is sometimes easy to forget   on a one-off basis (to download, for example); other appli-
that voice communication is still the most significant function   cations (such as incoming email notifications) are always on.
and the primary source of revenue for mobile operators.           Stand-alone features mean that users do not necessarily need
   Voice usage varies considerably both across and within         to use a mobile network. For example, downloading of
countries. For example, the average Chinese user talks on a       content or applications can be carried out from a PC and
mobile phone more than seven times longer per month than          then transferred to a mobile phone, or such tasks can be


                                                                                                              Overview       13
Figure 1.2 Talking and paying: mobile voice use and price for selected countries, 2010

           a. Monthly minutes of use and price per minute                                                             b. Minutes of use by contract type
                                                                                                  600        567
          600                                                                             $0.25

                 521                                                                              500
          500           494                                                                                                                                        433
                                449                                     $0.20             $0.20
                                                                                                  400                                             376
          400                                                                      $0.16
                                                                               $0.15     $0.15
                                        331                                                       300
          300                                   280 279
                                                                                          $0.10                                 206           202             214
                                                                191 $0.08                         200
          200                                                                                                                                           158

                                                                $0.05120 114    96        $0.05   100                      95
          100                                   $0.04                                71                 71                            68
                                                                                                                 48
                        $0.01
                                $0.01
                                        $0.01


                                                        $0.01




                $0.02
            0                                                                             $0.00     0
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                  Monthy minutes of use                               Price per minute (US$)                           Blended             Contract      Prepaid

Source: Mobile operator reports.
Note: Data refer to largest mobile operator (by subscriptions). Price per minute is calculated by dividing minutes of use by average revenue per user.




                                                Box 1.1 Mobile phones and applications


                                                The use of mobile phones has evolved dramatically over time and will continue to do so at an
                                                ever faster pace, so it is important to define some terms that are used throughout this report,
                                                while noting that these definitions are not necessarily stable. Many mobile handsets, particularly
                                                in the developing world are so-called basic phones, based on the second-generation (2G) GSM
                                                (Global System for Mobile communications) standard, first introduced in 1991. GSM offers a
                                                number of different services embedded in the standard and therefore available on all GSM-
                                                compatible devices, however basic. These include short message service (SMS) text messages
                                                of up to 160 characters, and instant messaging using the USSD (Unstructured Supplementary
                                                Service Data) protocol. Many of the older “mobile applications, particularly in the developing
                                                                                                                  ”
                                                world, are based on SMS or USSD, because they do not require additional data services or user
                                                downloads and are available on virtually any device. Strictly speaking, however, these should be
                                                considered network services rather than applications (box table 1.1.1). Internet-enabled hand-
                                                sets, or feature phones, were introduced with the launching of data services over mobile
                                                networks in the early 2000s. These phones supported transmission of picture messages and the
                                                downloading of music and often included a built-in camera. Smartphones appeared in the late
                                                2000s. They typically feature graphical interfaces and touchscreen capability, built-in Wi-Fi, and
                                                GPS (global positioning system) capability.
                                                    Smartphones with memories and internet access are also able to download applications,
                                                or “apps, pieces of software that sit on the phone’s memory and carry out specific functions,
                                                         ”

                                                                                                                                                    (continued next page)




14         Information and Communications for Development 2012
Box 1.1 (continued)



  Box Table 1.1.1 Mobile devices and their capabilities
  Device             Capabilities                                Device             Capabilities
  Basic mobile       Network services, including:                Smartphone         As Featurephone plus:
  phone              Voice telephony and voice mail                                 Video camera
                     SMS (short message service)                                    Web browser
                     USSD (unstructured supple-                                     GPS (global positioning system)
                     mentary service data)                                          3G+ internet access
                     SMS-based services, such as                                    Mobile operating “platform” (such
                     mobile money                                                   as iOS, Android, Blackberry)
                                                                                    Ability to download and manage
                     USSD services, such as instant                                 applications
                     messaging
                                                                                    VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)
                                                                                    Mobile TV (if available)
                                                                                    Removable memory card
  Featurephone As basic mobile phone plus:                       Tablet             As smartphone plus:
                     Multimedia Messaging Service                                   Front and rear-facing video
                     (MMS)                                                          cameras (for video calls)
                     Still picture camera                                           Larger screen and memory
                                                                                    capability
                     MP3 music player
                                                                                    Faster processor, enabling video
                     2.5G data access
                                                                                    playback
                                                                                    Touchscreen with virtual keyboard
                                                                                    USB (universal serial bus) port
Note: The list of capabilities is not exhaustive, and not all devices have all features.




like accessing websites or reporting the phone’s location and status. In this report, the term
“apps” is used to denote such applications that may be downloaded and used on the device,
either with or without a fee, in a stand-alone mode. The most popular apps are games.
More than 30 billion apps had been downloaded as of early 2012 (Gartner 2012; Paul 2012).
Using mobile applications for development usually requires more than simply downloading
an app to a user device, however. Specifically, the most useful mobile applications, such as
those discussed in this report, typically require an ecosystem of content providers (for
instance, reporting price data for agricultural produce, discussed in chapter 2) or agents
(such as those providing cash upload facilities for mobile financial services, discussed in
chapter 4). These kinds of “ecosystem-based mobile applications” are the main topic of
this report.
    However, technological change continues apace. Newer generations of mobile application
may be “cloud based,” in the sense that data is stored by servers on the internet rather than
locally on the device. Applications that use HTML5 (the current generation of hypertext mark-
up language), for instance, may not require any software to be downloaded. Such applications
may have the advantage that they can be used independently of the network or mobile device
that the user is currently using. For instance, a music track stored on the “cloud” might be
accessed from a user’s tablet, smartphone, or PC, and even when the user is roaming
abroad. But such a shift depends on much lower prices, without monthly caps, for mobile
data transmission.




                                                                                                                          Overview   15
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale
Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale

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Maximizing Mobile - Tirer le meilleur parti du mobile: le rapport de la banque mondiale

  • 1. CONFERENCE EDITION 2012 Information and Communications W ith some six billion mobile subscriptions now in use worldwide, about three-quarters of humanity has access to a mobile phone. Mobiles are arguably the most ubiquitous modern for Development technology—in some developing countries, more people have access to a mobile phone than to clean water, a bank account, or even electricity. And mobile communications now offer major opportunities to advance human development—from providing basic access to education or health information to making cash payments and stimulating citizen involvement in democratic processes. Maximizing Information and Communications for Development 2012: Maximizing Mobile analyzes the growth and evolution of mobile telephony, including the rise of data-based services delivered to handheld devices through “apps” (applications) and other ways. Summarizing current thinking and seeking to inform the debate on the use of mobile phones to improve livelihoods, the report looks, in par- Mobile ticular, at key ecosystem-based applications in agriculture, health, financial services, employment, and government, with chapters devoted to each, and explores the consequences of the emerging “app economy” for development. The global conversation is no longer about the phone itself, but about how it is used and the content and applications that it opens up. These apps and “mash-ups” of services, driven by high-speed networks, social networking, online crowdsourcing, and innovation, are helping mobile phones transform lives in developed and developing countries alike. They not only benefit individual users, they also boost the economy as a whole through cascade effects stimulating growth, entrepreneur- ship, and productivity. Mobile communications promise to do more than just give the developing world a voice—they unlock the genie in the phone, empowering people to make their own choices and decisions. T his report pulls together perspectives from many different stakeholders into a cohesive and com- pelling document on mobile applications for development. It will indeed be a valuable contribu- tion to practitioners, funders, and others who are trying to understand this exciting space. —Heather Thorne, Vice President, Information Solutions, Grameen Foundation Korean Trust Fund
  • 2.
  • 3. 2012 Information and Communications for Development Conference Edition
  • 4.
  • 5. 2012 Information and Communications for Development Maximizing Mobile Conference Edition
  • 6. The text of this conference edition is a work in progress for the forthcoming book, Information and Communica- tions for Development 2012: Maximizing Mobile; DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8991-1; website: http://www .worldbank.org/ict/IC4D2012. © 2012 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank 1818 H Street NW, Washington DC 20433 Telephone: 202-473-1000; Internet: www.worldbank.org Some rights reserved This work is a product of the staff of The World Bank with external contributions. Note that The World Bank does not necessarily own each component of the content included in the work. The World Bank therefore does not warrant that the use of the content contained in the work will not infringe on the rights of third parties. The risk of claims resulting from such infringement rests solely with you. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this work do not necessarily reflect the views of The World Bank, its Board of Executive Directors, or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guaran- tee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgment on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. Nothing herein shall constitute or be considered to be a limitation upon or waiver of the privileges and immuni- ties of The World Bank, all of which are specifically reserved. Rights and Permissions This work is available under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC BY 3.0) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0. Under the Creative Commons Attribution license, you are free to copy, distribute, transmit, and adapt this work, including for commercial purposes, under the following conditions: Attribution—Please cite the work as follows: Information and Communications for Development 2012: Maximizing Mobile; DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8991-1; website: http://www.worldbank.org/ict/IC4D2012. License: Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0 Translations—If you create a translation of this work, please add the following disclaimer along with the attribution: This translation was not created by The World Bank and should not be considered an official World Bank translation. The World Bank shall not be liable for any content or error in this translation. All queries on rights and licenses should be addressed to the Office of the Publisher, The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax: 202-522-2625; e-mail: pubrights@worldbank.org. Cover photographs: Top and bottom: G. M. B. Akash / Panos; center: Mr. Pierre C. Sibiry Traore, ICRISAT, AgCom- mons, a program executed by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR); right: The Commonwealth of Learning Cover design: Naylor Design
  • 7. Table of Contents Foreword xi Preface xiii Acknowledgments xv Abbreviations xvii PART I Executive Summary 3 Tim Kelly and Michael Minges Main messages 3 Why are mobile phones now considered indispensable? 4 A mobile green revolution 5 Keep using the tablets—how mobile devices are changing health care 5 Mobile money 6 Get a phone, get a job, start a business 6 Using phones to bring governments and citizens closer 6 Onward and upward to mobile broadband 7 Appendixes 7 Infographic: Maximizing Mobile for Development 8 Chapter 1 Overview 11 Michael Minges How mobile phones are used 13 Data traffic 18 The changing mobile ecosystem 19 Mobile-enabled social and economic trends 22 Structure of the report 27 Notes 27 References 28 v
  • 8. Chapter 2 Mobilizing the Agricultural Value Chain 31 Naomi J. Halewood and Priya Surya Making information mobile 31 Improved access to agricultural information 33 Improving data visibility for value-chain efficiency 37 Enhancing access to markets 39 Policy considerations 41 Conclusions 41 Notes 42 References 42 Chapter 3 mHealth 45 Nicolas Friederici, Carol Hullin, and Masatake Yamamichi Why mHealth? Opportunities and challenges 45 The potential of mHealth 51 The mHealth ecosystem 52 Business models for mHealth 52 Principles for implementing mHealth applications 53 Conclusions 58 Notes 58 References 58 Chapter 4 Mobile Money for Financial Inclusion 61 Kevin Donovan Mobile money: an ecosystem approach 61 The financial inclusion imperative 62 What is the impact of mobile money? 63 Growing mobile money: challenges and success stories 65 Emerging issues in mobile money 66 Conclusions 71 Notes 72 References 72 Chapter 5 Mobile Entrepreneurship and Employment 75 Maja Andjelkovic and Saori Imaizumi Open innovation and mobile entrepreneurship 76 Mobile incubators 79 Mobile microwork 81 Mobiles and recruitment 82 Conclusions and considerations for policy-makers 83 Notes 85 References 86 vi Contents
  • 9. Chapter 6 Making Government Mobile 87 Siddhartha Raja and Samia Melhem with Matthew Cruse, Joshua Goldstein, Katherine Maher, Michael Minges, and Priya Surya A typology of mGovernment 87 Drivers for mGovernment 89 Challenges for governments 94 Enabling the technology transformation 94 Emerging best practices for going mobile 95 Conclusions 99 Notes 100 References 100 Chapter 7 Policies for Mobile Broadband 103 Victor Mulas The mobile broadband opportunity and developing countries 103 Policy recommendations for facilitating mobile broadband diffusion 104 Conclusions 110 Notes 110 References 111 PART II Key Trends in the Development of the Mobile Sector 115 Michael Minges Access 115 Mobile broadband 120 Devices 121 Mobile industry 124 A mobile analytical tool 126 Notes 133 References 134 Data Notes 135 Kaoru Kimura and Michael Minges Definitions and data sources 138 Mobile at-a-glance country tables 141 Key mobile indicators for other economies, 2010 217 Contributors 219 BOXES 1.1 Mobile phones and applications 14 1.2 How to make a million from Angry Birds 19 Contents vii
  • 10. 1.3 Smartphones and tablets for development 24 2.1 How Reuters Market Light generates hyperlocalized information 35 2.2 A pregnant pause for Sri Lanka’s cows 36 2.3 Tracking specialty coffee 38 2.4 DrumNet, the value chain on your mobile phone 39 3.1 Kenya: A breeding ground for mHealth applications 48 3.2 Ethiopia: SMS helps in monitoring UNICEF’s food supply chain 49 3.3 India: Health Management and Research Institute—104 Mobile 56 4.1 One device, many channels 62 4.2 Using mobile money 64 4.3 Business models for mobile money 67 4.4 Interoperability and innovation in mobile money 70 5.1 AkiraChix 78 5.2 infoDev’s mLabs and mHubs 80 5.3 Mobile microwork: JANA 82 5.4 Turning ideas into applications: “Mobile To Work” challenge 83 5.5 Business processes for job seekers and employers: Souktel’s JobMatch 84 6.1 The mobile telephone as a tool for citizen voice and empowerment 90 6.2 Kerala’s mobile government program 93 6.3 Evolving toward coordination: the case of the Republic of Korea 94 6.4 Open data and mobile access in Kenya 97 6.5 Challenges to trust and credibility 99 7.1 Using reverse auctions to match spectrum allocations with coverage obligations in Chile 107 Part II A.1 Mobile use in rural China 118 FIGURES 1.1 The developing world: young and mobile 12 1.2 Talking and paying: mobile voice use and price for selected countries, 2010 14 1.3 Mobile phone usage around the world, 2011 16 1.4 Worldwide SMS and Twitter traffic 17 1.5 Data, data everywhere 20 1.6 Apples and Berries: iPhone sales and Blackberry subscriptions 20 1.7 Changing market share of mobile handset sales by operating system 21 1.3.1 Annotated screenshot of Bangladesh's Amadeyr Tablet 24 1.8 Mapping calls for protest on Facebook to actual “Arab Spring” demonstrations, 2011 26 1.9 Mobile phone versus internet access household availability 27 3.1.1 MedAfrica app 48 3.2.1 RapidSMS in Ethiopia 49 3.1 Relative popularity of consumer health applications in Apple’s App Store, 2011 51 viii Contents
  • 11. 3.2 Number of countries with at least one mHealth deployment, by World Bank region 52 3.3 mHealth ecosystem 53 4.1 Different types of mobile financial services 62 4.2 Global mobile money deployments 63 4.3.1 Mobile money demand curves 67 4.3 The most and least expensive remittance corridors 69 5.1 Rewards and risks from entrepreneur participation in social networks 79 5.2 infoDev’s network of mLabs 80 6.1.1 Screenshot of the original Ushahidi mash-up 90 6.4.1 Screenshot from Open Data Kenya website, showing poverty and pupils per teacher 97 7.1 Broadband subscriptions in selected countries per platform (mobile vs. fixed) 104 7.2 Broadband as an ecosystem where supply and demand factors interact with each other 104 7.1.1 Mobile broadband subscriptions per operator in Chile 107 7.3 Mobile data traffic by 2016, CISCO forecast 108 7.4 Mobile applications as a driver of mobile broadband demand 110 Part II A.1 Worldwide fixed and mobile telephone subscriptions 116 A.2 Mobile cellular subscriptions per 100 people, by income group 116 A.3 Mobile household penetration, Senegal and other selected countries, 2009 117 A.1.1 Mobile usage in rural areas of three Chinese provinces, 2011 118 A.4 Population, mobile subscriptions, and poverty headcount in low- and middle-income economies 119 A.5 Affordability and coverage in developing economies 119 A.6 Mobile broadband 120 A.7 Broadband subscriptions in the Philippines and South Africa 121 A.8 Global sales of mobile and computing devices 123 A.9 Smartphone penetration as a share of population, 2011 124 A.10 Global telecommunication services market 124 A.11 Mobile value chain 125 A.12 Mobile analytical tool: indicators and categories 127 A.13 Mobile analytical tool scores, 2005 and 2010, by income and region group 131 A.14 Mobile analytical tool and GNI per capita, 2010 131 A.15 Mobile analytical tool: China and Sri Lanka compared 132 A.16 Mobile analytical tool components summarized 133 TABLES Part I 1.1.1 Mobile devices and their capabilities 15 1.1 Top mobile applications, June 2011 18 1.2 Mobile and the Millennium Development Goals 23 Contents ix
  • 12. 2.1 Mobile-enabled solutions for food and agriculture 32 2.2 Impact of ICT on farmers, traders, and consumers 34 3.1 Major categories of mHealth services and applications 46 3.2 Selected examples of mHealth projects and lessons learned 54 6.1 Three types of mGovernment 88 6.2 Policies and programs to promote mGovernment 95 Part II A.1 Mobile data speeds and volumes, Q3, 2011 122 A.2 Private participation in mobile networks, 1990–2010 126 A.3 Worked example of the mobile analytical tool, Morocco 128 A.4 Mobile analytical tool components for 100 selected economies, 2005 and 2010 128 x Contents
  • 13. Foreword Mobile phones, a rarity in many developing countries at the is available in the Little Data Book on Information and turn of the century, now seem to be everywhere. Between Communication Technology 2012, published alongside this 2000 and 2012, the number of mobile phones in use world- report. wide grew from fewer than 1 billion to around 6 billion. The It is our hope that this new report will provide some mobile revolution is transforming livelihoods, helping to emerging good-practice principles for policy-makers, regu- create new businesses, and changing the way we communi- lators, and investors in this complex and constantly chang- cate. The mobile phone network is already the biggest ing sector. The World Bank Group already supports a wide “machine” the world has ever seen, and now that machine is range of investment lending programs with an ICT compo- being used to deliver development opportunities on a scale nent. According to the report of the Independent Evaluation never before imagined. During this second decade of the Group, Capturing Technology for Development (2011), new millennium, maximizing the potential of mobile around three-quarters of all investment lending projects phones is a challenge that will engage governments, the from the World Bank Group have an ICT component; in private sector, and the development community alike. addition, more than $4 billion has been invested directly in Information and Communications for Development the ICT sector between 2003 and 2010. 2012: Maximizing Mobile is the third report in the World This report marks a shift from the World Bank Group’s Bank Group’s series on Information and Communication traditional focus on ICT connectivity to a new focus on Technologies (ICTs) for Development, originally applications and on the ways ICTs, especially mobile launched in 2006. This edition focuses on mobile applica- phones, are being used to transform different sectors of the tions and their use in promoting development, especially global economy. This change of focus reflects how the in agriculture, health, financial services, and government. value created by the industry is shifting from networks and Cross-cutting chapters present an overview of emerging hardware to software and services. The World Bank Group trends in mobile applications, the ways they are affecting expects that the theme of transformation will increasingly employment and entrepreneurship opportunities, and the guide its investment lending, and this report is aligned with policy challenges presented by the ongoing shift from that new direction. Ultimately, the mission of the World narrowband to broadband mobile networks. The report Bank is to work for a world free of poverty—a goal that is features at-a-glance tables for 152 economies showing the likely to be achieved more efficiently when ICT investment latest available data and indicators for the mobile sector is integrated effectively alongside investment in sectors (year-end 2011, where possible). The report also intro- such as agriculture, health, and government. duces an analytical tool for examining the relevant performance indicators for each country’s mobile sector, Marianne Fay so policy-makers can assess their capacities relative to Chief Economist, Sustainable Development Network other countries. A more complete range of ICT indicators The World Bank xi
  • 14.
  • 15. Preface The World Bank’s new strategy for engagement in the Infor- phones are upgraded to smartphones and tablets. The full mation and Communication Technologies (ICTs) sector, range of innovative mobile applications described in this which comes into force in 2012, is built around three strate- report is not yet available in all countries and to all gic themes: Innovate—ICT for innovation and ICT-based subscribers, but they soon will be. And the expectation is services industries; Connect—affordable access to voice, high- that developing countries will invent and adapt their own speed internet, information and media; and Transform—ICT mobile applications, suited to local circumstances and applications to transform services for enhanced development needs. For that reason more research is needed on how outcomes. mobile applications are used in base of the pyramid This new flagship report on Information and Communi- households. cations for Development builds on these three themes. In This report, like its predecessors, was researched and particular, the report shows how innovation in the manu- written jointly by the ICT Sector Unit and by infoDev, a facture of mobile handsets—giving them more memory, global partnership program of the World Bank Group. It faster processing power, and easier-to-use touchscreen has been reviewed by a broad range of experts working in interfaces—married with higher performance and more the field, both within and outside the Bank, whose contri- affordable broadband networks and services produces trans- butions are gratefully acknowledged. Funding is provided formation throughout economies and societies. Increas- by the World Bank as well as infoDev’s donors, notably the ingly, that transformation is coming from developing Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Government of countries, which are “more mobile” than developed coun- Finland, the Korean Trust Fund for ICT4D, and UKaid. tries in the sense that they are following a “mobile first” The World Bank Group is committed to continuing its development trajectory. Many mobile innovations (includ- analytical and lending operations to support progress and ing multi-SIM card phones, low-cost recharges, and mobile the sharing of best practices and knowledge, as well as payments) increasingly originate in poorer countries and expanding its investments in private ICT companies to spread from there. further growth in the sector, competitiveness, and the Since the last Information and Communications for availability of better-quality, affordable ICT services to all Development report was published, almost 2 billion new the world’s inhabitants. mobile phone subscriptions have been added worldwide, Juan Navas-Sabater and the majority of these are in the developing world. Acting Sector Manager, ICT Sector Unit This rapid growth does not show the whole picture, The World Bank however. Alongside the process of enlarging the network is an equally important process of improving the quality Valerie D’Costa and depth of the network as narrowband networks are Program Manager, infoDev upgraded to broadband and as basic phones and feature- The World Bank xiii
  • 16.
  • 17. Acknowledgments This report was prepared by a team from the ICT Sector The principal authors of Part II were Michael Minges Unit (TWICT), infoDev, and the Development Economics and Kaoru Kimura, and the editorial team for the statistical Data Group (DECDG) of the World Bank Group. The edito- tables comprised Neil Fantom, Buyant Erdene Khaltarkhuu, rial team was led by Tim Kelly and comprised Nicolas Kaoru Kimura, Soong Sup Lee, Michael Minges, and Friederici, Michael Minges, and Masatake Yamamichi. Their William Prince. work was overseen by a peer-review team, led by Marianne Inputs, comments, guidance, and support at various Fay, that included Jose Luis Irigoyen, Valerie D’Costa, stages of the report’s preparation were received from the Philippe Dongier, Phillippa Biggs (ITU), and Christine following World Bank Group colleagues: Maria Amelina, Zhenwei Qiang. Edward Anderson, Elizabeth J. Ashbourne, Seth Ayers, Alan The principal authors of the chapters in Part I of the Carroll, Vikas Choudhary, Toni Eliasz, Tina George, Joshua report are: Goldstein, Aparajita Goyal, Siou Chew Kuek, Katherine Maher, Wonki Min, Fernando Montenegro Torres, Arata • Tim Kelly and Michael Minges (Executive Summary) Onoguchi, Tiago Peixoto, Mark Pickens, Carlo Maria • Michael Minges (Chapter 1) Rossotto, Leila Search, and Randeep Sudan, as well as from the principal authors. • Naomi J. Halewood and Priya Surya (Chapter 2) External reviewers, to whom special thanks are owed, • Nicolas Friederici, Carol Hullin, and Masatake included Phillippa Biggs (ITU), Steve Esselaar (Intelecon), Yamamichi (Chapter 3) Shaun Ferris (Catholic Relief Services), Vicky Hausmann (Dalberg), Janet Hernandez (Telecommunications Manage- • Kevin Donovan (Chapter 4) ment Group), Jake Kendall (Gates Foundation), Vili Lehdon- • Maja Andjelkovic and Saori Imaizumi (Chapter 5) virta (London School of Economics), Daniel Leza (Telecommunications Management Group), Bill Maurer • Siddhartha Raja and Samia Melhem, with Matthew (University of California, Irvine), Sascha Meinrath (New Amer- Cruse, Joshua Goldstein, Katherine Maher, Michael ica Foundation), Marcha Neethling (Praekelt Foundation), Minges, and Priya Surya (Chapter 6) Brooke Partridge (Vital Wave Consulting), Ganesh • Victor Mulas (Chapter 7) Ramanathan (Tiger Party), Michael Riggs (Food and xv
  • 18. Agriculture Organization), Stephen Rudgard (Food and Agri- • The Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Government of culture Organization), Brendan Smith (Vital Wave Consult- Finland for its support for the Finland / infoDev / Nokia ing), Scott Stefanski (Bazaar Strategies), Heather Thorne program on Creating Sustainable Businesses in the Knowl- (Grameen Foundation), Katrin Verclas (Mobile Active), and edge Economy, which supported the production of the Anthony Youngblood (New America Foundation). report as well as research for chapters 1, 2, 4, and 5. Special thanks are owed to Phillippa Biggs (ITU), who • The Korean Trust Fund (KTF) on Information and provided a thorough and dedicated peer review of all chap- Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D), ters, as well as to Denis Largeron and Marta Priftis from which supported background research for chapters 2, 3, TWICT, and to Denise Bergeron, Jose De Buerba, Aziz 4, and 5. Gökdemir, Stephen McGroarty, and Santiago Pombo- Bejarano, from the World Bank Office of the Publisher for • UKaid, which supported background research for chapter oversight of the editorial production, design, printing, and 7 through its support for infoDev’s analytical work dissemination of the book. The infographic in the Executive program. Summary was prepared by Zack Brisson and Mollie Ruskin of Reboot (www.thereboot.org), with guidance from the The team would also like to thank the many other indi- editorial team. viduals, firms, and organizations that have contributed A report of this nature would be impossible without the through their continuing support and guidance to the work support of our development partners. For this edition of the of the World Bank Group over the three years since the last report, special thanks are due to: report in this series was published. xvi Acknowledgments
  • 19. Abbreviations 2G second generation (mobile GPS Global Positioning System communications) GSM Global System for Mobile 3G third generation (mobile communications communications) GTUGS Google Technology User Groups 4G fourth generation (mobile HSPA High-Speed Packet Access (cellular communications) mobile standard) apps applications HTML hypertext mark-up language ATM automated teller machine ICT information and communication CDMA Code Division Multiple Access technology (cellular mobile standard) IC4D Information and Communications CGAP Consultative Group to Assist the Poor for Development IM instant messaging EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for GSM IMF International Monetary Fund Evolution (cellular mobile ISP internet service provider standard) ITU International Telecommunication EV-DO Evolution–Data Optimized (cellular Union mobile standard) ebook electronic book kbit/s kilobits per second eCommerce electronic commerce LTE Long Term Evolution (cellular mobile eGovernment electronic government standard) eHealth electronic health e-payment electronic payment MB megabyte e-services electronic services Mbit/s Megabits per second MDGs Millennium Development Goals GB gigabyte mGovernment mobile government GDP gross domestic product mHealth mobile health GNI gross national income mLab mobile applications laboratory xvii
  • 20. NFC near field communications UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade NGO nongovernmental organization and Development UNDP United Nations Development OECD Organisation for Economic Programme Co-operation and Development UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific PC personal computer and Cultural Organization PDA personal digital assistant UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund USB universal serial bus RFID radio frequency identification USSD Unstructured Supplementary Service Data SAR special autonomous region SIM subscriber identity module W-CDMA Wideband Code Division SME small and medium enterprise Multiple Access (cellular SMS short message service mobile standard) WHO World Health Organization TCO total cost of ownership WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability for TD-SCDMA Time Division Synchronous Code Microwave Access (wireless standard) Division Multiple Access (cellular mobile standard) All dollar amounts are U.S. dollars unless otherwise indicated. xviii Abbreviations
  • 22.
  • 23. Executive Summary Tim Kelly and Michael Minges Main messages Mobile applications not only empower individual users, they enrich their lifestyles and livelihoods, and boost the ith some 6 billion mobile subscriptions in W use worldwide, around three-quarters of the world’s inhabitants now have access to a mobile phone. Mobiles are arguably the most ubiquitous economy as a whole. Indeed, mobile applications now make phones immensely powerful as portals to the online world. A new wave of “apps,” or smartphone applications, and “mash- ups” of services, driven by high-speed networks, social modern technology: in some developing countries, more networking, online crowdsourcing, and innovation, is help- people have access to a mobile phone than to a bank ing mobile phones transform the lives of people in developed account, electricity, or even clean water. Mobile communica- and developing countries alike. The report finds that mobile tions now offer major opportunities to advance human applications not only empower individuals but have impor- development—from providing basic access to education or tant cascade effects stimulating growth, entrepreneurship, health information to making cash payments to stimulating and productivity throughout the economy as a whole. Mobile citizen involvement in democratic processes. communications promise to do more than just give the The developing world is “more mobile” than the devel- developing world a voice. By unlocking the genie in the oped world. In the developed world, mobile communica- phone, they empower people to make their own choices and tions have added value to legacy communication systems decisions. and have supplemented and expanded existing information Near ubiquity brings new opportunities. This 2012 flows. However, the developing world is following a differ- edition of the World Bank’s Information and Communica- ent, “mobile first” development trajectory. Many mobile tions for Development report analyzes the growth and evolu- innovations—such as multi-SIM card phones, low-value tion of mobile telephony, and the rise of data-based services recharges, and mobile payments—have originated in poorer delivered to handheld devices, including apps. The report countries and are spreading from there. New mobile appli- explores the consequences for development of the emerging cations that are designed locally and rooted in the realities of “app economy.” It summarizes current thinking and seeks to the developing world will be much better suited to address- inform the debate on the use of mobile phones for develop- ing development challenges than applications transplanted ment. This report looks at key ecosystem-based applications from elsewhere. In particular, locally developed applications in agriculture, health, financial services, employment, and can address developing-country concerns such as digital government, with chapters devoted to each. The story is no literacy and affordability. 3
  • 24. longer about the phone itself, but about how it is used, and Why are mobile phones now consid- the content and applications to which mobile phones ered indispensable? provide access. The report’s opening chapter provides an overview of the Engaging mobile applications for development key trends shaping and transforming the mobile industry as requires an enabling “ecosystem.” Apps are software well as their impact on development. The chapter examines “kernels” that sit on a mobile device (typically a smartphone the evolution of the mobile phone from a simple channel for or tablet) and that can often interact with internet-based voice to one for exchanging text, data, audio, and video services to, for instance, access updates. Most apps are used through the internet. Given technological convergence, by individual users, but the applications that may prove mobile handsets can now function as a wallet, camera, tele- most useful for development are those usually developed vision, alarm clock, calculator, address book, calendar, news- within an ecosystem that involves many different players, paper, gyroscope, and navigational device combined. The including software developers, content providers, network latest smartphones are not just invading the computer space, operators, device manufacturers, governments, and users. they are reinventing it by offering so much more in both Although the private sector is driving the market, social voice and nonvoice services. intermediaries, such as nongovernmental organizations Developing countries are increasingly well placed to (NGOs) play an important role in customizing applications exploit the benefits of mobile communications, with levels to meet the needs of local communities. In many countries, of access rising around the world. Chapter 1 explores the a ready-made community of developers has already devel- implications of the emergence of high-speed broadband oped services based around short message service (SMS) or networks in developing countries, and how the bond instant messaging (IM) and is now developing applications between mobile operators and users is loosening, as for more sophisticated devices. Policy-makers need to create computer and internet companies invade the mobile space, an environment in which players can collaborate as well as with a growing number of handset models now offering compete. That will require rethinking regulations governing Wi-Fi capability. specific sectors such as financial services, health, or educa- The chapter also examines the size and nature of the tion. Governments also play a fundamental role in establish- mobile economy and the emergence of new players in the ing necessary conditions in which mobile communications mobile ecosystem. The emergence of apps, or special soft- can thrive through the allocation of wireless spectrum, ware on handheld devices that interacts with internet-based enactment of vital legislation, and leadership in mobile data services, means that the major issue for the develop- government, or mGovernment. ment community today is no longer basic access to mobile The mobile revolution is right at the start of its phones but about what can be done with phones. More than growth curve. Devices are becoming more powerful and 30 billion apps had been downloaded worldwide by early cheaper. But the app economy requires economies of scale 2012, and they make for an innovative and diverse mobile to become viable. The report argues that now is the time landscape with a potentially large impact on the lives of to evaluate what works and to move toward the commer- people in developed and developing countries alike. Grow- cialization, replication, and scaling up of those mobile ing opportunities for small-scale software developers and apps that drive development. Until recently, most services local information aggregators are allowing them to develop, using mobiles for development were based on text invent, and adapt apps to suit their individual needs. Users messaging. Now, the development of inexpensive smart- themselves are becoming content providers on a global scale. phones and the spread of mobile broadband networks are Indeed, the latest generations of mobile telephony are transforming the range of possible applications. Several sowing social and political as well as economic transforma- challenges lie ahead, notably, the fragmentation that tion. Farmers in Africa are accessing pricing information arises from multiple operating systems and platforms. It through text messages, mothers can receive medical reports is already clear, however, that the key to unleashing the on the progression of their pregnancy by phone, migrant power of the internet for the developing world lies in the workers can send remittances without banks. Elections are palm of our hands. 4 Information and Communications for Development 2012
  • 25. monitored and unpopular regimes toppled with the help of may limit the economies of scale realizable from expand- mobile phones. Texting and tweeting have become part of ing from pilot programs into mass markets, potentially modern vocabulary. hindering the spread of new and promising applications Mobiles are now creating unprecedented opportunities and services. for employment, education, and entertainment in develop- The full scope and scale of smartphones and tablets for ing countries. This chapter looks beyond specific examples providing services to agricultural stakeholders have yet to to identify the broader trends shaping and redefining our emerge. An enabling environment that can promote the understanding of the word “mobile.” development and use of applications in developing coun- tries must be prioritized to meet the information needs of the agricultural sector. A mobile green revolution Given the dominance of primary commodities in the Keep using the tablets—how mobile economies of many developing countries, chapter 2 explores devices are changing health care the all-important area of mobile applications designed to improve incomes, productivity, and yields within the agri- Chapter 3 examines some of the key principles and charac- cultural sector, which accounts for about 40 percent of the teristics of mobile for health (mHealth), and how mobiles workforce and an even greater proportion of exports in are helping transform and enhance the delivery of primary many developing countries. and secondary health care services in developing countries. To date, voice calls and SMS text messages have proven Mobile health can save money and deliver more effective invaluable in increasing efficiency in smallholder agriculture. health care with relatively limited resources; increasingly, it is They can, for example, provide real-time price information associated with a focus on prevention of diseases and and improve the flow of information along the entire value promotion of healthy lifestyles. chain, from producers to processors to wholesalers to retail- This chapter reviews on-the-ground implementations ers to consumers. The basic functions of the mobile phone of medical health care apps to draw key conclusions about will continue to remain important for reaching the widest how mHealth can best be implemented to serve the needs number of people, but the focus of applications development of people in the developing world, as well as identifying is shifting as the underlying technologies evolve. barriers that must be overcome. It considers some of the Today, increasingly specialized mobile services are fulfill- unique features of the health care sector and the implica- ing specific agricultural functions, while multimedia tions for medical apps in areas such as patient privacy and imagery is being used to overcome illiteracy and provide confidentiality, public and private provision of care, and complex information regarding weather and climate, pest real-time reporting requirements in crisis or emergency control, cultivation practices, and agricultural extension situations. services to potentially less tech-savvy farmers. This chapter Modern health care systems are at a tipping point, as also examines the emerging uses of remote and satellite tech- consumers take on greater responsibility for managing their nologies that are assisting in food traceability, sensory detec- own health care choices, and mobile phones could enable a tion, real-time reporting, and status updates from the field. shift in the locus of decision-making away from the state and It further reviews examples of mobile services in agriculture health institutions to individual patients. to draw key learning points and provide direction on how to The most substantial challenge for mHealth, however, is capitalize on successful examples. the establishment of sustainable business models that can be Mobile applications for agriculture and rural develop- replicated and scaled up. One step toward addressing this ment have generally not followed any generic blueprint. They challenge might be a clearer delineation of roles within the are usually designed locally and for specific target markets, health ecosystem between public and private health care with localized content specific to the languages, crop types, providers. Another significant challenge is the effective and farming methods. Local design offers exciting opportu- monitoring and evaluation of mobiles in health, as pilot nities for local content and applications development but programs continue to proliferate. Executive Summary 5
  • 26. Mobile money side. Employment opportunities in the mobile industry can be categorized as direct jobs, indirect jobs, and jobs on the This chapter examines the all-important topic of mobile demand side. The contribution of the mobile communica- money as a general platform and critical infrastructure under- tion sector to employment and entrepreneurship to date is pinning other economic sectors. Mobile money has trans- difficult to assess, however, because the seemingly simple formed the Kenyan economy, where mobile-facilitated mobile phone can generate—and occasionally eliminate— payments now equate to a fifth of the country’s gross domestic employment opportunities by creating efficiencies and product (GDP). The impact of mobile money is widening else- lowering transaction and information costs. where too, as it is adopted across commerce, health insurance, The recent rapid innovation in the mobile sector has agricultural banking, and other sectors. Today, the potential of generated significant disruptive technological change and mobile payment systems to “bank the unbanked”and empower uncertainty. This turmoil is also lowering barriers to entry, the poor through improved access to finance and lower trans- however, and generating fresh opportunities for small and action costs is generating growing excitement. Where they young firms and entrepreneurs to displace legacy systems, exist, mature mobile money systems have often spun off inno- innovate, and grow. vative products and services in insurance, credit, and savings. Chapter 5 showcases some of the mechanisms by which When connected on a large scale, evidence suggests that the mobile sector supports entrepreneurship and job the poor are able to use mobile money to improve their creation. Some share similarities with traditional donor livelihoods. Observers remain divided, however, about initiatives, but many are novel ideas, for which the “proof of whether mobile money systems are fulfilling their true concept” has been demonstrated only recently or has yet to be growth potential. Innovative offerings, old and new, can demonstrated. This chapter considers the use of specialized succeed only if there is sufficient demand from consumers business incubators or mobile labs (mLabs) for supporting and firms—a variable missing in many contexts. entrepreneurial activity in the mobile industry, as well as new The mobile money industry exists at the intersection of opportunities that are offered in areas such as the virtual banking and telecommunications, embracing a diverse set of economy (trading goods and services that exist only online) stakeholders, including mobile operators, financial services or mobile microwork (work carried out remotely on a companies, and new entrants (such as payment card firms). mobile device, on micro-tasks, such as tagging images). In some countries, mobile money systems may be subject to It also provides suggestions on how to support entrepre- different regulatory practices and interoperability issues, not neurship and job creation in the mobile industry. In an to mention clashes in culture between banks and mobile industry evolving as quickly as the mobile sector is today, it operators, so developing the necessary cross-sectoral partner- is vital to tailor support to local circumstances and to evalu- ships can prove difficult. In other countries, well-developed ate impact regularly. alternative legacy systems are strong competitors to the development of mobile money systems. This chapter evaluates the benefits and potential impact Using phones to bring governments of mobile money, especially for promoting financial inclu- and citizens closer sion in the developing world. It provides an overview of the In the public sphere, mobiles now serve as vehicles for key factors driving the growth of mobile money services, improved service delivery and greater transparency and while considering some of the barriers and obstacles hinder- accountability. Today, governments are beginning to embrace ing their deployment. Finally, it identifies emerging issues the potential for mobile phones to put public services literally that the industry will face over the coming years. into the pocket of each citizen, create interactive services, and promote accountable and transparent governance. Chapter 6 identifies a range of uses for mobiles in Get a phone, get a job, start a government (mGovernment) that supplement existing business public services, expand their user base, and generate spin- The global mobile industry is today a major source of off services. The revolutionary aspect to mGovernment lies employment opportunities, on both the supply and demand in making government available, anytime and anywhere, to 6 Information and Communications for Development 2012
  • 27. anyone. The chapter also provides a range of examples of • Limiting spectrum hoarding, which could distort mGovernment from around the world as well as a range of competitive conditions in the market best practices and recommendations. It demonstrates how • Fostering the development of national backbone broad- countries can play a constructive role in enhancing sustain- band networks ability and enabling scale, while maximizing the impact of mGovernment programs. • Encouraging infrastructure and spectrum sharing An important conclusion is that bottom-up ad hoc Demand-side policies aim at boosting growth in the approaches to mGovernment may endanger economies of adoption of wireless broadband services by addressing barri- scale. Top-down coordinated approaches may be preferable, ers to adoption and fostering the development of innovative since they can cut costs in designing, deploying, and operat- broadband services and applications pulling users’ demand ing apps; consolidate demand for communication services toward mobile broadband. The chapter reviews the follow- across government, thereby eliminating duplication; and ing demand-side policy recommendations: include focused actions to build capacity and skills. • Improving the availability and affordability of broad- Emerging best practices suggest that any government band-enabled devices considering the opportunities inherent in mGovernment should focus on enabling technological transformation and • Boosting the affordability of broadband services building the institutional capacity needed to respond to citi- • Fostering the development of broadband services and zens’ demands. Governments looking to adopt mobile tools applications to become responsive, accountable, and transparent should The chapter concludes that appropriate policy action bear in mind that this process will prove successful and truly requires addressing both the supply- and demand-sides of the transform the government-citizen relationship only when mobile broadband ecosystem. Policy-makers must evaluate governments take into account both elements—“mobile” local market conditions before applying specific policies and “government.” addressing bottlenecks or market failures. The most common breakdowns on the supply side are lack of available spectrum Onward and upward to mobile and inadequate backbone networks; on the demand side, the broadband main constraints are lack of affordable mobile devices and broadband services, as well as limited local applications and Chapter 7 distinguishes between supply-side policies (which content. Ultimately, policy-makers must determine which seek to promote the expansion of wireless broadband policies to adopt, and how to implement them, based on networks) and demand-side policies (which seek to boost domestic circumstances and the likely effectiveness of the adoption of wireless broadband services) in the mobile policy for broadband diffusion in the context of each country. broadband ecosystem. Supply-side policies seek to address bottlenecks and market Appendixes failures that constrain network expansion and provide incen- tives for broader wireless broadband coverage. The chapter The Country Tables in the appendix to this report provide reviews the following supply-side policy recommendations: comparative data for some 152 economies with populations of more than 1 million and summary data for others, with • Boosting the availability of quality spectrum to deploy at-a-glance tables focusing on the mobile sector. The report cost-effective wireless broadband networks is complemented by the World Bank’s annual Little Data • Eliminating technological or service restrictions on spec- Book on Information and Communication Technology, which trum presents a wider range of ICT data. The Statistical Appendix reviews the main trends shaping • Focusing on expanding network coverage rather than on the sector and introduces a new analytical tool for tracking profiting from spectrum auctions the progress of economies at different levels of economic • Requiring transparency in traffic management and safe- development in widening access, improving supply, and guarding competition stimulating demand for mobile services. Executive Summary 7
  • 28.
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  • 30.
  • 31. Chapter 1 Overview Michael Minges obile communication has arguably had a Developing countries are increasingly well situated to M bigger impact on humankind in a shorter period of time than any other invention in human history. As noted by Jeffrey Sachs (2008), who exploit the benefits of mobile communications. First and foremost, levels of access are high and rising. The number of mobile subscriptions in low- and middle-income countries directed the United Nations Millennium Project: “Mobile increased by more than 1,500 percent between 2000 and phones and wireless internet end isolation, and will there- 2010, from 4 to 72 per 100 inhabitants (figure 1.1a). Second, fore prove to be the most transformative technology of the age profile of developing nations is younger than in economic development of our time.” developed countries, an important advantage in the mobile The mobile phone has evolved from a simple voice device world where new trends are first taken up by youth.1 Those to a multimedia communications tool capable of download- under age 15 make up 29 percent of the population in low- ing and uploading text, data, audio, and video—from text and middle-income economies but just 17 percent in high- messages to social network updates to breaking news, the income nations (figure 1.1b). Third, developing countries latest hit song, or the latest viral video. A mobile handset can are growing richer, so more consumers can afford to use be used as a wallet, a compass, or a television, as well as an mobile handsets for more than just essential voice calls. alarm clock, calculator, address book, newspaper, and camera. Between 2000 and 2010 incomes in low- and middle-income Mobiles are also contributing to social, economic, and nations tripled (figure 1.1c). Fourth, the mobile sector has political transformation. Farmers in Africa obtain pricing become a significant economic force in developing information via text messages, saving time and travel and economies. Mobile revenues as a proportion of gross making them better informed about where to sell their prod- national income (GNI) rose from 0.9 percent in 2000 to ucts, thereby raising their incomes (World Bank 2011a, 353). 1.5 percent in 2010 (figure 1.1d). In India barbers who do not have a bank account can use These changes are creating unprecedented opportunities mobiles to send money to relatives in villages, saving costs for employment, education, and empowerment in develop- and increasing security (Adler and Uppal 2008, 25). Elec- ing countries. Local content portals are springing up to tions are monitored and unpopular regimes toppled with satisfy the hunger for news and other information that the help of mobile phones (Brisson and Krontiris 2012, 75). previously had been difficult to access. The nature of the Texting and tweeting have become part of the vocabulary mobile industry itself is changing dramatically, opening new (Glotz, Bertschi, and Locke 2005, 199). opportunities for developing nations in designing mobile 11
  • 32. Figure 1.1 The developing world: young and mobile a. Mobile subscriptions (per 100 c. GNI per capita (current US$), low- people), low- middle-income economies middle-income economies $3,317 72 $1,132 4 00 10 00 10 20 20 20 20 b. Population ages 0–14 (% of total), 2010 d. Mobile revenue (% of GDP) low- middle- income economies 1.5% Low- middle-income 29 0.9% High-income 17 World 27 00 10 20 20 Sources: Adapted from World Bank 2011b and author’s own estimates. applications and developing content, piloting products and consumers to add content and applications to their mobile services, and becoming innovation hubs. Trendy mobile phones. Mobile operators are struggling to keep pace with an products and services may be launched in Silicon Valley or explosion of data, while networks are converging toward Helsinki, but mobile manufacturing usually takes place else- Internet Protocol (IP) technologies and relying on content where, creating huge opportunities to service, support, and and data to substitute for declining voice revenues. An develop applications locally. While key mobile trends are increasingly hybrid wireless communications ecosystem will generally adopted around the world, regions such as East evolve over the coming years. Asia are forging their own path for content and applications. Although mobile communication is rapidly advancing in New mobile innovation centers are springing up in Beijing, most parts of the world, a significant segment of the world’s Seoul, and Tokyo, with expertise in specific markets such as population remains unable to use the latest mobile tech- mobile gaming and contactless banking. nologies. Mobile broadband coverage is often limited to The emergence of mobile broadband networks, coupled urban areas, and current smartphone prices are not afford- with computer-like handsets, is causing rapid shifts in the able for many. Nonetheless, developing-country users are ecosystem of the sector. The bond between mobile operators using what they have. Text messaging, mobile money, and and users is loosening as computer and internet companies simple internet access work on many low-end phones. An invade the mobile space and handsets increasingly offer Wi-Fi emerging ecosystem of local developers is supporting capability. Online stores have created a new way for narrowband mobile communicating through scaled-down 12 Information and Communications for Development 2012
  • 33. web browsers, text messaging, social networking, and pay- the average Moroccan (figure 1.2a). Price is a major factor in as-you-go mobile data access. For many users, especially in calling patterns, with a clear relation between monthly rural areas, these changes are happening where finding the minutes of use and the price per minute. Interconnection electricity to recharge a phone is more difficult than fees between operators are a main determinant of price. In purchasing prepaid airtime. some countries these wholesale rates do not reflect underly- These developments have major implications for the state ing costs that drive up the price of mobile calls. A second of access to information and communication technologies factor relates to whether the subscriptions are paid in (ICTs) in the 21st century. Rich countries have the luxury of advance (prepaid) or paid on the basis of a contract (post- both wired and wireless technology, of both personal paid). Prepaid subscriptions are much more popular in computers (PCs) and smartphones. Developing countries developing economies, where incomes may be less stable, tend to rely mainly on mobile networks, and phones already but postpaid contracts tend to generate higher usage per vastly outnumber PCs. Applications have to be different to subscriber (figure 1.2b). work on small screens and virtual keyboards, while conver- As with fixed networks, a growing proportion of traffic gence is happening apace. The developed world is also now from mobile devices is moving to Voice over Internet Proto- becoming “more mobile,” with average screen size shrinking; col (VoIP), often routed over Wi-Fi rather than the cellular while the developing world is now becoming, “more network, thereby avoiding per-minute usage charges. connected,” forging ahead with the shift from narrowband According to CISCO, a major supplier of IP networking to broadband networks on a mobile rather than a fixed plat- equipment, mobile VoIP traffic is forecast to grow form. Demography is on the side of the developing world, 42 percent between 2010 and 2015.2 Although mobile VoIP and the economies of scale gained from serving these accounts for a tiny share of total mobile data traffic, its expanding markets may push the ICT industry as a whole in value impact on mobile operators is much greater. Skype, a the direction of a post-PC, untethered world. leading VoIP provider, has reported over 19 million down- One of the challenges facing a report of this nature is loads of its iPhone application since its launch in 2009. In that the industry is evolving so rapidly. What is written addition to voice and video, Skype processed 84 million today is often outdated tomorrow. In addition, given the SMS text messages during the first half of 2010.3 One study novelty of many developments and a lack of stable defini- forecasts 288 million mobile VoIP users by 2013 (van tions and concepts, official data are scarce or fail to address Buskirk 2010). important market trends. Information from secondary sources is often contradictory, inconsistent, or self-serving. Not just for voice anymore Information about mobile culture is particularly scarce in Although voice is still the main revenue generator, its growth developing countries. Nevertheless, certain trends are visi- has slowed (TeleGeography 2012) as data and text-based ble, and this opening chapter explores key trends shaping applications have grown in popularity, their use made possi- and redefining our understanding of the word “mobile” as ble by advances in cell phone technology (box 1.1). Mobile an entrée to the review of different sectors in the chapters applications are the main theme of this book. For many that follow. people, a mobile phone is one of the most used and useful appliances they own. Built-in features are indispensable to many for checking the time, setting an alarm, taking photos, How mobile phones are used performing calculations, and a variety of other daily tasks. Voice Downloadable applications can extend functionalities. With all the attention given to mobile broadband, smart- A number of nonvoice applications use wireless networks phones, and mobile applications, it is sometimes easy to forget on a one-off basis (to download, for example); other appli- that voice communication is still the most significant function cations (such as incoming email notifications) are always on. and the primary source of revenue for mobile operators. Stand-alone features mean that users do not necessarily need Voice usage varies considerably both across and within to use a mobile network. For example, downloading of countries. For example, the average Chinese user talks on a content or applications can be carried out from a PC and mobile phone more than seven times longer per month than then transferred to a mobile phone, or such tasks can be Overview 13
  • 34. Figure 1.2 Talking and paying: mobile voice use and price for selected countries, 2010 a. Monthly minutes of use and price per minute b. Minutes of use by contract type 600 567 600 $0.25 521 500 500 494 433 449 $0.20 $0.20 400 376 400 $0.16 $0.15 $0.15 331 300 300 280 279 $0.10 206 202 214 191 $0.08 200 200 158 $0.05120 114 96 $0.05 100 95 100 $0.04 71 71 68 48 $0.01 $0.01 $0.01 $0.01 $0.02 0 $0.00 0 be a n mb a A ia ng ria h za ile ut tan ca or l co co ca ia nia M razi Uz Chin ta Ca Indi es od ys fri oc oc fri Ka Ch Ba lge ma kis So khs lad ala B hA hA or Ro M M ut So Monthy minutes of use Price per minute (US$) Blended Contract Prepaid Source: Mobile operator reports. Note: Data refer to largest mobile operator (by subscriptions). Price per minute is calculated by dividing minutes of use by average revenue per user. Box 1.1 Mobile phones and applications The use of mobile phones has evolved dramatically over time and will continue to do so at an ever faster pace, so it is important to define some terms that are used throughout this report, while noting that these definitions are not necessarily stable. Many mobile handsets, particularly in the developing world are so-called basic phones, based on the second-generation (2G) GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) standard, first introduced in 1991. GSM offers a number of different services embedded in the standard and therefore available on all GSM- compatible devices, however basic. These include short message service (SMS) text messages of up to 160 characters, and instant messaging using the USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data) protocol. Many of the older “mobile applications, particularly in the developing ” world, are based on SMS or USSD, because they do not require additional data services or user downloads and are available on virtually any device. Strictly speaking, however, these should be considered network services rather than applications (box table 1.1.1). Internet-enabled hand- sets, or feature phones, were introduced with the launching of data services over mobile networks in the early 2000s. These phones supported transmission of picture messages and the downloading of music and often included a built-in camera. Smartphones appeared in the late 2000s. They typically feature graphical interfaces and touchscreen capability, built-in Wi-Fi, and GPS (global positioning system) capability. Smartphones with memories and internet access are also able to download applications, or “apps, pieces of software that sit on the phone’s memory and carry out specific functions, ” (continued next page) 14 Information and Communications for Development 2012
  • 35. Box 1.1 (continued) Box Table 1.1.1 Mobile devices and their capabilities Device Capabilities Device Capabilities Basic mobile Network services, including: Smartphone As Featurephone plus: phone Voice telephony and voice mail Video camera SMS (short message service) Web browser USSD (unstructured supple- GPS (global positioning system) mentary service data) 3G+ internet access SMS-based services, such as Mobile operating “platform” (such mobile money as iOS, Android, Blackberry) Ability to download and manage USSD services, such as instant applications messaging VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) Mobile TV (if available) Removable memory card Featurephone As basic mobile phone plus: Tablet As smartphone plus: Multimedia Messaging Service Front and rear-facing video (MMS) cameras (for video calls) Still picture camera Larger screen and memory capability MP3 music player Faster processor, enabling video 2.5G data access playback Touchscreen with virtual keyboard USB (universal serial bus) port Note: The list of capabilities is not exhaustive, and not all devices have all features. like accessing websites or reporting the phone’s location and status. In this report, the term “apps” is used to denote such applications that may be downloaded and used on the device, either with or without a fee, in a stand-alone mode. The most popular apps are games. More than 30 billion apps had been downloaded as of early 2012 (Gartner 2012; Paul 2012). Using mobile applications for development usually requires more than simply downloading an app to a user device, however. Specifically, the most useful mobile applications, such as those discussed in this report, typically require an ecosystem of content providers (for instance, reporting price data for agricultural produce, discussed in chapter 2) or agents (such as those providing cash upload facilities for mobile financial services, discussed in chapter 4). These kinds of “ecosystem-based mobile applications” are the main topic of this report. However, technological change continues apace. Newer generations of mobile application may be “cloud based,” in the sense that data is stored by servers on the internet rather than locally on the device. Applications that use HTML5 (the current generation of hypertext mark- up language), for instance, may not require any software to be downloaded. Such applications may have the advantage that they can be used independently of the network or mobile device that the user is currently using. For instance, a music track stored on the “cloud” might be accessed from a user’s tablet, smartphone, or PC, and even when the user is roaming abroad. But such a shift depends on much lower prices, without monthly caps, for mobile data transmission. Overview 15