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managing as designing	

      Prof. Jurgen Faust
how to start?	

                   Various possibilities:	


storical	

ndamental (philosophical)	

ersonal	

 arching/constructing for design discourse in management
  visa versa
historical:	


 tiated by Boland and Collopy (2004)	

ublished by Stanford Press	

 llow up conferences in Designing with a ‘Positive Lens’ an
 itive Design, Convergence Managing as Designing	


p://convergence.case.edu/
Managing as designing 2011
Managing as designing 2011
Fundamentally	

                        discourse:	


tention was to stimulate change in management practice a
 cation (H. Simon)	

spired by the work of Frank Gehry (P.B. Lewis Building)
Aspects of discourse	

                   Managing as Designing	


oth disciplines are problem solving	

 anagement is a design discipline	

ut problem solving is different in both fields
problem solving in managemen
 r paradigms in management history:	

 ternalistic/political paradigm	

 countability/authority paradigm	

orkflow paradigm	

ecision paradigm	



r and McDaniel, 1986, The decision-Making Paradigm of Organizational Design, in Managem
ce, V. 32, No. 5
paternalistic/political paradigm
bal leaders allocating tribal resources, blood ties and polit
giances	

igin of management, but still in place, SME, family driven
erprises, entire countries are managed in such ways	



r and McDaniel, 1986, The decision-Making Paradigm of Organizational Design, in Managem
ce, V. 32, No. 5
ccountability/authority paradigm
e base of Roman Empire, central to classical organizations
tral to Max Weber’s thinking about bureaucracies	

hen designing organizations, it is important to specify who
ountable for fulfilling which responsibilities and to allocate
ources so that they can fulfill these responsibilities	



r and McDaniel, 1986, The decision-Making Paradigm of Organizational Design, in Managem
ce, V. 32, No. 5
workflow paradigm	

he workflow paradigm is triggered by the industrial
olution, where organizational structures and processes are
 gned around the flow of work	





r and McDaniel, 1986, The decision-Making Paradigm of Organizational Design, in Managem
ce, V. 32, No. 5
Decision paradigm	

ecisions are driven by making rational choices among
 rnatives using tools like: economic analysis, risk manageme
 tiple criteria decision making, simulation and the time valu
money.	

 erefore the focus is on analysis instead of creating
 rnatives to existing solutions.	

decision attitude assumes that the alternatives are already
 d
designing	

                                    is different...	


esigners are not primarily concerned in making decisions	

esigners are concerned to find the possible best solution	





d and Collopy, 2004, in Managing as Designing, Stanford press
esigners are always in the midst of something	

 rown into a situation (Geworfenheit from Heidegger)	

 thout the opportunity of acting and function as a detache
 erver	




Weick, ,Rethinking Organizational Design’, in Managing as Designing, ed. Boland and Collopy
ord press, 2004, 36
designing limitations 	

  tremely difficult decisions	

mbiguous and conflicting information	

 ifting goals	

me pressure	

 namic conditions	

  mplex operational team structures	

oor communication	

 ery course of action carries significant risk	


Weick, ,Rethinking Organizational Design’, in Managing as Designing, ed. Boland and Collopy
thrownness	

                     is a useful vocabulary for design	


 cepts a different set of background assumptions	

mited amount of options, unreflective submission, occasio
 rruptions, unquestioned answers, readymade categories f
 ression and interpretation and disjunction between
 erstanding and explanation	

esign is only incremental	


Weick, ,Rethinking Organizational Design’, in Managing as Designing, ed. Boland and Collopy
designing	

               ...gains meaning from thrownness	

 uation can’t be determined	

esign enlarges the set of options	

 duce blind spots	

cilitate brief reflection	

 duce the disruptiveness of interruptions	

ncourage trial and error with safety	

 fine primitive categories	

 hten the coupling between existence and interpretation
Good design	

                            is reflection in action	


a good process of design, this conversation with the situation
ective. In answer to the situation’s back-talk, the designer
ects-in-action on the construction of the problem, the strategi
 ction, or the model of the phenomena, which have been imp
 s moves.’	


d Schoen, The reflective Practitioner, How Professional think in Action, Perseus Books, 19
design thinking	

                               in Organizations	


 based on interaction design (Buchanon, 2004)	

ow people relate to other people	

ow products mediate these relationships	




d Buchanon, Management and Design: Interaction Pathways in Organizational Life, in Mana
signing, ed. R. Boland and F. Collopy, Stanford Press, 2004, p. 54-64
interaction design process	

ous steps:	

sion	

rategic planning	

 eparing and planning a strategic brief for interaction desig
 nerating ideas for design and selecting valuable solutions	

anning and prototyping for the ultimate design	



d Buchanon, Management and Design: Interaction Pathways in Organizational Life, in Mana
signing, ed. R. Boland and F. Collopy, Stanford Press, 2004, p. 54-64
difference	

                 between management and design	

esigners visualize in order to make complexity accessible f
 team	

 llaborative and participatory designing	

 pid and frequent prototyping	

 er research and user testing	

sk based scenario building	

 general --- designing looks for horizontal distribution of
ponsibilities
design thinking	

    in implicit in management and organizational theory	


hanon sees as well the domination of the analytical tools
20th century dominating management:	


entific management	

anagement of human relations	

anagement through structural analysis	


n, M, Models of Management: Work, authority, and organization in a comparative perspect
Managing as designing	

                     the key issue	


 analytical tools have dominated in management and ther
ear lack of synthetic skills in new programs of human-
tered action. That is a clear underdeveloped area of
nagement as designing.
change	

                         in system understanding	


he change in system understanding: we are no longer 	

using on material systems, on systems of things, 	

 are focusing on human systems, the integration of
 rmation, physical artifacts, and interactions in environmen
 g, working, playing and learning. 	


anon, 2001, Design Research and the New Learning, in Design Issues 200117, No. 4, 3-23
the order of design	

                    by R. Buchanon	


order: design of symbols and signs	

order: things and artifacts	

order: design of experiences and interactions	

order: systems and environments
decision paradigm	



Deciding	




              choice-intelligence-design etc.
managing as designing	

                  process	





Designing
designing
thank you	

f. Jurgen Faust	





of lecture to be found at slideshare.

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Managing as designing 2011

  • 1. managing as designing Prof. Jurgen Faust
  • 2. how to start? Various possibilities: storical ndamental (philosophical) ersonal arching/constructing for design discourse in management visa versa
  • 3. historical: tiated by Boland and Collopy (2004) ublished by Stanford Press llow up conferences in Designing with a ‘Positive Lens’ an itive Design, Convergence Managing as Designing p://convergence.case.edu/
  • 6. Fundamentally discourse: tention was to stimulate change in management practice a cation (H. Simon) spired by the work of Frank Gehry (P.B. Lewis Building)
  • 7. Aspects of discourse Managing as Designing oth disciplines are problem solving anagement is a design discipline ut problem solving is different in both fields
  • 8. problem solving in managemen r paradigms in management history: ternalistic/political paradigm countability/authority paradigm orkflow paradigm ecision paradigm r and McDaniel, 1986, The decision-Making Paradigm of Organizational Design, in Managem ce, V. 32, No. 5
  • 9. paternalistic/political paradigm bal leaders allocating tribal resources, blood ties and polit giances igin of management, but still in place, SME, family driven erprises, entire countries are managed in such ways r and McDaniel, 1986, The decision-Making Paradigm of Organizational Design, in Managem ce, V. 32, No. 5
  • 10. ccountability/authority paradigm e base of Roman Empire, central to classical organizations tral to Max Weber’s thinking about bureaucracies hen designing organizations, it is important to specify who ountable for fulfilling which responsibilities and to allocate ources so that they can fulfill these responsibilities r and McDaniel, 1986, The decision-Making Paradigm of Organizational Design, in Managem ce, V. 32, No. 5
  • 11. workflow paradigm he workflow paradigm is triggered by the industrial olution, where organizational structures and processes are gned around the flow of work r and McDaniel, 1986, The decision-Making Paradigm of Organizational Design, in Managem ce, V. 32, No. 5
  • 12. Decision paradigm ecisions are driven by making rational choices among rnatives using tools like: economic analysis, risk manageme tiple criteria decision making, simulation and the time valu money. erefore the focus is on analysis instead of creating rnatives to existing solutions. decision attitude assumes that the alternatives are already d
  • 13. designing is different... esigners are not primarily concerned in making decisions esigners are concerned to find the possible best solution d and Collopy, 2004, in Managing as Designing, Stanford press
  • 14. esigners are always in the midst of something rown into a situation (Geworfenheit from Heidegger) thout the opportunity of acting and function as a detache erver Weick, ,Rethinking Organizational Design’, in Managing as Designing, ed. Boland and Collopy ord press, 2004, 36
  • 15. designing limitations tremely difficult decisions mbiguous and conflicting information ifting goals me pressure namic conditions mplex operational team structures oor communication ery course of action carries significant risk Weick, ,Rethinking Organizational Design’, in Managing as Designing, ed. Boland and Collopy
  • 16. thrownness is a useful vocabulary for design cepts a different set of background assumptions mited amount of options, unreflective submission, occasio rruptions, unquestioned answers, readymade categories f ression and interpretation and disjunction between erstanding and explanation esign is only incremental Weick, ,Rethinking Organizational Design’, in Managing as Designing, ed. Boland and Collopy
  • 17. designing ...gains meaning from thrownness uation can’t be determined esign enlarges the set of options duce blind spots cilitate brief reflection duce the disruptiveness of interruptions ncourage trial and error with safety fine primitive categories hten the coupling between existence and interpretation
  • 18. Good design is reflection in action a good process of design, this conversation with the situation ective. In answer to the situation’s back-talk, the designer ects-in-action on the construction of the problem, the strategi ction, or the model of the phenomena, which have been imp s moves.’ d Schoen, The reflective Practitioner, How Professional think in Action, Perseus Books, 19
  • 19. design thinking in Organizations based on interaction design (Buchanon, 2004) ow people relate to other people ow products mediate these relationships d Buchanon, Management and Design: Interaction Pathways in Organizational Life, in Mana signing, ed. R. Boland and F. Collopy, Stanford Press, 2004, p. 54-64
  • 20. interaction design process ous steps: sion rategic planning eparing and planning a strategic brief for interaction desig nerating ideas for design and selecting valuable solutions anning and prototyping for the ultimate design d Buchanon, Management and Design: Interaction Pathways in Organizational Life, in Mana signing, ed. R. Boland and F. Collopy, Stanford Press, 2004, p. 54-64
  • 21. difference between management and design esigners visualize in order to make complexity accessible f team llaborative and participatory designing pid and frequent prototyping er research and user testing sk based scenario building general --- designing looks for horizontal distribution of ponsibilities
  • 22. design thinking in implicit in management and organizational theory hanon sees as well the domination of the analytical tools 20th century dominating management: entific management anagement of human relations anagement through structural analysis n, M, Models of Management: Work, authority, and organization in a comparative perspect
  • 23. Managing as designing the key issue analytical tools have dominated in management and ther ear lack of synthetic skills in new programs of human- tered action. That is a clear underdeveloped area of nagement as designing.
  • 24. change in system understanding he change in system understanding: we are no longer using on material systems, on systems of things, are focusing on human systems, the integration of rmation, physical artifacts, and interactions in environmen g, working, playing and learning. anon, 2001, Design Research and the New Learning, in Design Issues 200117, No. 4, 3-23
  • 25. the order of design by R. Buchanon order: design of symbols and signs order: things and artifacts order: design of experiences and interactions order: systems and environments
  • 26. decision paradigm Deciding choice-intelligence-design etc.
  • 27. managing as designing process Designing
  • 29. thank you f. Jurgen Faust of lecture to be found at slideshare.