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1
Sayed Sadaf Ali Shah
MCS- MPHILL(CS)
1
Fundamentals of Computers
Output Devices
2
 Display screens were uncommon till 1960’s
 Now, computers can communicate information
to you in several ways
 Reading, Seeing, watching and listening
 Modern display and sound systems
 computers are easier to use
 data is easier to manage, and
 information is easier to access
 Monitors and Sound Systems
Outline
3
 Two most commonly used types of computer
monitors.
 How a CRT monitor displays images?
 Two types of flat-panel monitors and explain
their differences.
 Various characteristics for comparing
monitors.
 How data projectors are used?
 How a computer outputs sound?
Monitors
4
 Most common output device
 Connects to the video card or controller
 Two types
 Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
 Flat-panel
 Categorized by color output
 Monochrome
 One color with black background
 Grayscale
 Varying degrees of gray
 Color
 Display 4 to 16 million colors
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
5
 Most common type of monitor
How CRT creates an image
6
 Electron gun shoots
streams of electrons
towards the screen.
 Magnetic yoke guides
the streams of
electrons across and
down the screen.
 Phosphor dots on the
back of the screen
glow when the electron
beams hit them.
Parts of CRT Monitor
7
How CRT monitor works
8
CRT Color
9
 Phosphor dots arranged in triads
 Red, green, and blue dots
 Three colors blend to make colors
 Varying the intensity creates new colors
 Exercise
 Custom color with MS Paint
CRT Disadvantages
10
 Very large
 Very heavy
 Use a lot of electricity
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
11
 Commonly found on laptops
 Desktop versions exist
 Solve the problems of CRT
 Fluorescent lights provide illumination
Types of LCD
12
 Passive Matrix LCD
 Active Matrix LCD
Passive Matrix LCD
13
 Pixels arranged in a grid
 Pixels are activated indirectly
 Row and column are activated
 Disadvantages
 Narrow viewing angle
 Don’t refresh pixels quickly
 Submarining
 Animation can be blurry
 Now uses dual scan LCD technology
Active Matrix LCD
14
 Each pixel is activated directly by a
transistor
 use Thin-Film Transistor (“TFT”)
technology,
o Pixels have 4 transistors
 One each for red, green, blue and
opaqueness
 Transistors arranged in a thin film
 Animation is crisp and clean
Drawbacks of LCD
15
 Image can be difficult to see in bright light
 Smaller viewing angle
 Must sit directly in front of screen
 More expensive than CRT
 Can be more fragile than CRT
Various Flat Panel Displays
16
Plasma Display Panel (PDP)
17
 Utilizes small cells containing electrically
charged ionized gases called fluorescent
lamps
 Advantages
 Better picture quality
 Wider viewing angles
 Less visible motion blur
 Disadvantages
 Screen burn-in
 Uses more electricity than LCDs
Light Emitting Diodes (LED)
18
 uses light-emitting diodes as a video display
 produce images with greater dynamic contrast;
 can be extremely slim, some screens less than
half an inch (0.92 cm) thick;[6]
 produce less environmental pollution on
disposal;
 are more expensive;
 have typically 20 to 30% lower power
consumption
Other Types of Monitors
19
 Paper-white displays
 High contrast between fore and background
 Electro-luminescent displays (ELD)
 Similar to LCD
 phosphorescent film held between two sheets of
glass.
 A grid of wires sends current through the film to
create an image
Comparing Monitors
20
 Monitors impacts user effectiveness
 Monitors should have
 Crisp text
 Clear graphics
 Adjustable controls
 Clear edges
 Comparison specifications
 Size
 Resolution
 Refresh rate
 Dot Pitch
Size of Monitor
21
 Measured in inches
 Measured diagonally
 Actual size
 Distance from corner to corner
 Viewable size
 Useable portion of the screen
 As a rule of thumb, buy the largest monitor
you can afford.
17 Inch Monitor
Resolution
22
 Refers to sharpness of image
 Number of pixels on the screen
 Higher number creates sharper images
 Higher number creates smaller images
Various Screen Resolution
23
 Color Graphics Adapter (CGA)
 300 X 200
 Enhanced Graphic Adapter (EGA)
 640 X 350
 Video Graphic Array (VGA)
 640 x 480
Refresh Rate
24
 Number of time the screen is redrawn
 Measured in Hertz (Hz)
 Modern equipment sets this automatically
 Improper settings can cause eyestrain
 Whenever a TV camera films a computer
monitor, the monitor seems to have a line
moving up the screen.
 This is the monitor refreshing the pixels.
 The camera films faster than the eye can see,
which is why the refresh is noticeable.
Dot Pitch
25
 Distance between the same color dots
 Ranges between .15 mm (fine) and .40 mm
(coarse)
 Smaller creates a finer picture
 Should be less than .22
Video Cards
26
 Device between the CPU and monitor
 Better cards result in better output
 Removes burden of drawing from CPU
 Have their own processor and RAM
 Modern cards have up to 8GB VRAM
 Capable of rendering 3D images
 ATI’s Radeon and NVIDIA’s GeForce
Ergonomics and Monitors
27
 Eyestrain
 Fatigue of the eyes
 Steps to avoid
 Choose a good monitor
 Place the monitor 2 – 3 feet
away
 Center of screen below eye
level
 Avoid reflected light
Ergonomics and Monitors
28
Electronic Magnetic field (EMF)
29
 Generated by all electronic devices
 EMF may be detrimental to health
 Steps to avoid
 Keep the computer at arms length
 Take frequent breaks
 Use an LCD monitor
Data Projectors
30
 Replaced overhead and slide projectors
 Project image onto wall or screen
 LCD projectors
 Most common type of projector
 Small LCD screen
 Very bright light
 Require a darkened room
LCD Projectors
31
 A series of mirrors control the display
 May be used in a lighted room
Sound Systems
32
 Integral part of the computer experience
 Capable of recording and playback
Sound Cards
33
 Device between the CPU and speakers
 Converts digital sounds to analog
 Can be connected to several devices
 Modern cards support Dolby Surround Sound
Headphones and Headsets
34
 Replacement for speakers and microphones
 Offer privacy
 Does not annoy other people
 Outside noise is not a factor
 Headsets have speakers and a microphone

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Lecture_6.pptx English speaking easyb to

  • 1. 1 Sayed Sadaf Ali Shah MCS- MPHILL(CS) 1 Fundamentals of Computers
  • 2. Output Devices 2  Display screens were uncommon till 1960’s  Now, computers can communicate information to you in several ways  Reading, Seeing, watching and listening  Modern display and sound systems  computers are easier to use  data is easier to manage, and  information is easier to access  Monitors and Sound Systems
  • 3. Outline 3  Two most commonly used types of computer monitors.  How a CRT monitor displays images?  Two types of flat-panel monitors and explain their differences.  Various characteristics for comparing monitors.  How data projectors are used?  How a computer outputs sound?
  • 4. Monitors 4  Most common output device  Connects to the video card or controller  Two types  Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)  Flat-panel  Categorized by color output  Monochrome  One color with black background  Grayscale  Varying degrees of gray  Color  Display 4 to 16 million colors
  • 5. Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) 5  Most common type of monitor
  • 6. How CRT creates an image 6  Electron gun shoots streams of electrons towards the screen.  Magnetic yoke guides the streams of electrons across and down the screen.  Phosphor dots on the back of the screen glow when the electron beams hit them.
  • 7. Parts of CRT Monitor 7
  • 8. How CRT monitor works 8
  • 9. CRT Color 9  Phosphor dots arranged in triads  Red, green, and blue dots  Three colors blend to make colors  Varying the intensity creates new colors  Exercise  Custom color with MS Paint
  • 10. CRT Disadvantages 10  Very large  Very heavy  Use a lot of electricity
  • 11. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) 11  Commonly found on laptops  Desktop versions exist  Solve the problems of CRT  Fluorescent lights provide illumination
  • 12. Types of LCD 12  Passive Matrix LCD  Active Matrix LCD
  • 13. Passive Matrix LCD 13  Pixels arranged in a grid  Pixels are activated indirectly  Row and column are activated  Disadvantages  Narrow viewing angle  Don’t refresh pixels quickly  Submarining  Animation can be blurry  Now uses dual scan LCD technology
  • 14. Active Matrix LCD 14  Each pixel is activated directly by a transistor  use Thin-Film Transistor (“TFT”) technology, o Pixels have 4 transistors  One each for red, green, blue and opaqueness  Transistors arranged in a thin film  Animation is crisp and clean
  • 15. Drawbacks of LCD 15  Image can be difficult to see in bright light  Smaller viewing angle  Must sit directly in front of screen  More expensive than CRT  Can be more fragile than CRT
  • 16. Various Flat Panel Displays 16
  • 17. Plasma Display Panel (PDP) 17  Utilizes small cells containing electrically charged ionized gases called fluorescent lamps  Advantages  Better picture quality  Wider viewing angles  Less visible motion blur  Disadvantages  Screen burn-in  Uses more electricity than LCDs
  • 18. Light Emitting Diodes (LED) 18  uses light-emitting diodes as a video display  produce images with greater dynamic contrast;  can be extremely slim, some screens less than half an inch (0.92 cm) thick;[6]  produce less environmental pollution on disposal;  are more expensive;  have typically 20 to 30% lower power consumption
  • 19. Other Types of Monitors 19  Paper-white displays  High contrast between fore and background  Electro-luminescent displays (ELD)  Similar to LCD  phosphorescent film held between two sheets of glass.  A grid of wires sends current through the film to create an image
  • 20. Comparing Monitors 20  Monitors impacts user effectiveness  Monitors should have  Crisp text  Clear graphics  Adjustable controls  Clear edges  Comparison specifications  Size  Resolution  Refresh rate  Dot Pitch
  • 21. Size of Monitor 21  Measured in inches  Measured diagonally  Actual size  Distance from corner to corner  Viewable size  Useable portion of the screen  As a rule of thumb, buy the largest monitor you can afford. 17 Inch Monitor
  • 22. Resolution 22  Refers to sharpness of image  Number of pixels on the screen  Higher number creates sharper images  Higher number creates smaller images
  • 23. Various Screen Resolution 23  Color Graphics Adapter (CGA)  300 X 200  Enhanced Graphic Adapter (EGA)  640 X 350  Video Graphic Array (VGA)  640 x 480
  • 24. Refresh Rate 24  Number of time the screen is redrawn  Measured in Hertz (Hz)  Modern equipment sets this automatically  Improper settings can cause eyestrain  Whenever a TV camera films a computer monitor, the monitor seems to have a line moving up the screen.  This is the monitor refreshing the pixels.  The camera films faster than the eye can see, which is why the refresh is noticeable.
  • 25. Dot Pitch 25  Distance between the same color dots  Ranges between .15 mm (fine) and .40 mm (coarse)  Smaller creates a finer picture  Should be less than .22
  • 26. Video Cards 26  Device between the CPU and monitor  Better cards result in better output  Removes burden of drawing from CPU  Have their own processor and RAM  Modern cards have up to 8GB VRAM  Capable of rendering 3D images  ATI’s Radeon and NVIDIA’s GeForce
  • 27. Ergonomics and Monitors 27  Eyestrain  Fatigue of the eyes  Steps to avoid  Choose a good monitor  Place the monitor 2 – 3 feet away  Center of screen below eye level  Avoid reflected light
  • 29. Electronic Magnetic field (EMF) 29  Generated by all electronic devices  EMF may be detrimental to health  Steps to avoid  Keep the computer at arms length  Take frequent breaks  Use an LCD monitor
  • 30. Data Projectors 30  Replaced overhead and slide projectors  Project image onto wall or screen  LCD projectors  Most common type of projector  Small LCD screen  Very bright light  Require a darkened room
  • 31. LCD Projectors 31  A series of mirrors control the display  May be used in a lighted room
  • 32. Sound Systems 32  Integral part of the computer experience  Capable of recording and playback
  • 33. Sound Cards 33  Device between the CPU and speakers  Converts digital sounds to analog  Can be connected to several devices  Modern cards support Dolby Surround Sound
  • 34. Headphones and Headsets 34  Replacement for speakers and microphones  Offer privacy  Does not annoy other people  Outside noise is not a factor  Headsets have speakers and a microphone